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VOL. I. 

L O N D b N: 













Mr. HEARNE's preface 


S I was lately difcourfing with E^crJence 
Ibme learned friends about our thebeft 

■TK %• n ... 1 hclpsincx- 

Jt,nglilh antiquities, they were plaining 
pleafed, among other things, to complain of "'''''''" 
the want of fome helps that might render 
the ftudy of them much more eafy than it 
appeared to them, at that time, to be : and 
they fuggefted, that it would be proper to 
put out a book to (hew the methods that are 
to be followed in this ftudy, and to explain 
the abbreviations or contraftions in old mar- 
bles, coins, and MSS. They were fo can- 
did as to recommend the tafk to me. But I 
was too confcious of my own inabilities to 
engage in an undertaking, which requires a 
very great capacity and much reading. ^ But 
though I thought it prudent to wave what I 
am by no means equal to, yet I cannot but 
make this general obfervation vv^ith refpeO, to 
infcriptions, coins, an^d MSS* that fuch as 
have a genius to the ftudy of antiquities will 
fund it much more tifeful to obfei-ve their 

a own 



jUd thaV 
even in the 
opinion of 
|he bed an* 

Mr. H E a R N E's 

own method, than to be guided altogether 
j^y the prefcriptions of others. ^ General rules 
jnay be laid down about abbreviations and 
^he different ways of writing ; but fuch rules 
will be found to fail very often, and exper 
rience and pra£tice muft be the befl helps in 
explaining the moft difficult remains of anti- 
quity, without a flavifli regard tp fet rule? 
laid down even by the beft mafters. 

§. 2 J Nor is this opmion the refult only 
of fancy. Many noted antiquaries were of 
the iame mind. Hence it is, that we have 
(o . many different explications of the very 
feme iiionuments, whether MSS. ftones or 
coins. And thofe too fuppofted with exr 
cellent learning ; fo as even all thofe expli- 
cations will inftruft and infbrm, as well as 
divert the reader. I need not mention the 
different interpretations of the Fa/ii Capito-* 
lint I nox the dilputes that have happened 
about the famous Parian Chronicle at Ox» 
ford, in one of which Mr. Selden was not a 
a iittle difcompofed, bccaufe Mr. Lydiat had 
Jhewed a more accurate fkill in chronological 
pontrpverfies than himfelfj as Jofeph Scaliger 
was likewifc niuch moved, upon the very 
feme account pf Mr. Lydiat's knowledge. 
But difputes of this nature prove of moft fer- 
vice when they are fnanaged without ran-? 
f:our. Accordingly, we have always feea, 
fhgt writer^ of paiadour have not only obtain-r 

" ?4 

I> R. E F A C IJ; hi 

ed univer(al refpeft, but have had a particular 
influfence upon their readers. Yet warm ani- 
tnadverfions ahd reflexions are certainly 
ibmetimes requifite^ efpeciall/ when thole 
of the contrary fide fhew fuch a behaviour^ 
as, perhaps, nothing iliay reclaim them but 
fharp and fevere returns. Fot this reafbit 
another kind of ufage uncharitable 
aiid unchriftian. Wife men have always 
thought fo, and they have, therefore, upoa 
occafion, afforded no better reception to fcur- 
rilous and proud writers, who have been 
fometimes reclaimed by fuch methods. But 
of all the writers that fhewed a particular art 
in explaining antiquity, Peirefkius was, cer-^ 
tainly, one of the moft happy. He was 
both a virtuous and a learned man. And as 
virtue is far preferable to learning, fb it gain- 
ed him a very diftinguifhing refpe(3:, and 
made his learned remarks the more beneficial 
to fuch as were concerned in them. He was 
known all over the learned world, and hii 
judgment was as univerfally fought, and 
when given, it ' was as much admired and 
efleemed. Camden knew of none fo happy 
in the unrlddUng coins. The fame was at- 
tefled of him with refpe£t likewife to mar- 
bles, and other remains of antiquity. Of this 
his life, excellently well written by GalTen-^ 
dus, is fufficient proof Were there no other 
injftance of his fagacity, his bare interpreta- 

a 2 tion 

IV Mr. H E'A R N E^* 

tion of the following marks upon an old 
Amethyft (mentioned In the faid life *) is- 
an undeniable argument. 

o e 

9oo ^ OO OO 

This had puzzled all that had {een It, 
But as foon as he had viewed It, he recol- 
lected with himfelf, that the marks were no- 
thing but holes for Irnall nails, which had 
formerly fattened little lamina^ that repre- 
fented (o many Greek letters, placed In a 
contrary order from that In vogue, fo as to 
be read thus: AIOCKOTPI AOT. Which 
he made very clear, when he drew lines from 
one hole to another In this manner : 

According to his opinion, therefore, this 
Diofcoridqi was the famous engraver of Au- 
guftus, and the letters being done backwards 
(after the cuftoiji of engravers when an Im- 
preflion is to be made afterwards) and the 
head of Solon being withall exhibited on the 
Amethyft, It will fhew, that Auguftus (pro- 
vided he gave orders, as It Is fuppofed he 
did, for it) ufed It as a leal, and that he was 
% particular, admirer of Solon, and the lawj 





^abliflied by him. Nor did .Peirclkms want: 
authority to countenance his conjecture. He - 
produced the following remains of an ancient - 
monument : 

Thefe marks behig ii^ an old temple dedicated 
to Jupiter, he rationally concluded, that rhey 
were originally deiigned for nails, which fixed 
fuch letters as fignified to whom the temple 
was really dedicated, a thing frequent in old 
time, that no body might be ignorant of the. 
reipeft to be paid at fuch places. Hereupon 
he readily explained the figures thus : 


He might have ftrengthened his opinion from 
other monuments, and might, withall, have 
made it plain, that the nails alfo reprefented 
a way of making the letters then much lir 
ufe. Foi: which we have even fuch forms in ^ 
old coins, particularly in the Syriack ones, 
of which I have feen (everal formerly in the 
Bodleian library. . • * * 

§. 3 . But now though experience ^gh* to**^ be" Ac^^ 
and praaice be the heft helps for the !J^^s " aZ^^' ^"<^ 
interpretation of obfcure monuments VyTrn^^ii^o^r^o^^ 
ofantiqmty, yet at the fame time a ZtTnT cot, ^i- 
particular regard ought to be had to ^^*^Jf ^"^ ^"''^^'^ 


irir Mr. H E A H N £*i 

{oti^ writers, whe have laid down rules ^ot 
unriddling fiich kind of monuments. Amoiig 
l¥hick we ought to reckon Urfatus, Mabillon 
and Montfaucon. The two latter have pub- 
lifhed mjiny cvirioujs things from MSS. and 
have been very cpnvpr^it in the moft dark 
things of that nature. And the former laid 
out nioft part of his time in explaining the 
hard paffages in old ftones and coins, as many 
others befides have done. When Urfatus is 
confulted, Smetius and Gruter muft Ilkewife 
be Confidered, there being' Ibme things in both 
that do not occur in Urfatus. Yet after all, 
it muft be noted, that a much better account 
might ftill be given of MSS. ftones and coins,' 
riiaa h;tfh yet been pviblifhed by any writers 
whatfbever, and that too even "^by fome of our 
own countrymen. We have rare monuments 
of antiquity, brought from all parts. I do 
not know of a better coUedlion of Greek 
MSS. now rcmainiE^, for the number of 
ithem, than our Baroccian one, many where-*: 
of are unpubliihed, which, neverthelefs^ 
oertainly deierve the light, and then an op-* 
portuiiity might be take© di explaining kvQ^. 
ral abbreviations and words, not taken notice^ 
of by the moil diligent Searchers ioto aojd- 
qurty* *. 

T!>eacciiciicjofthcBa- §^ 4, There is TiQ occafion to eft* 
Greek MSS. fufficientiy large ui the commcnaation of the lakj 

l^nown. A noble defiga *^ • iir-i* t r 

at Dx. iMghtim'H BfiXQC^im ^9m&}m, pecftute, wer« 


P R E F A C E* V« 

there no other proof of it, the goodnefs there*^ 
of might be eafily learned from Mr, Chil-^ 
jnead's catalogue, as alfo from div'^rs pieces 
that have been made publlck from it by fevfe- 
xal very learned inen. And here the untime^ 
ly deatTi of that great fcholar Dr, Gcrtird 
Langbaine is much to be laipented, who had, 
with very great induftry, furveyed all otir 
Oxford libraries, and had read over, with 
piuch accuracy, and a judg^nent peculiar to 
Jiimfelf, this Baroccian treafure^ and had ex- 
tra<9:ed much ^om it (as he had from othea: 
MSS«} with a ddign to print ibme noble 
work^ This work was to contain divers vo- 
lumes, and was to cpnfift of many trads and 
fragments, both Greek and Latin, and fome- 
times Englifli, either never before, or, at 
leaft very imperfe<9:ly printed, as well in la- 
cred as prophane learning, a fpecirtien of 
which defign I have now befon^'me, being 
a fragment of Jofephxis, or Caius, or rather 
JHippolyCus's book -c%< t«$ rccu irmrk atrlaf: 
which though it had been fet out before by 
-Hoefchelius, and is fince reprinted according 
to his Ed- by Le Moyne, yet what the Dr. 
hath done is much more perfedl, and far liir- 
pafleth the performances of thofe learned edi- 
tors, and for that reafon I have fubjoined it 
to this work *, as I tranfcribed it many yeai;s 
jEigo in my collections. 

• Appendix, nuin* IV^ 

vin Mr. H E a R N E's 

2SS^.7)t'h^^S::r §• 5- Had-Or. Langhalne had the 
plt^^T^^^^^^^^ affiftance of others, there is no doubt 
«aJc for the clergy. b^^f j-^at great wort, I have men- 
tioned, might have been brought to perfec- 
tion. But it is a great unhappinefs, that 
learned works in England are, generally, the 
:performances of fingle perfons, which might, 
otherwife, equal any thing done in France, 
whera, of late years, a fociety of learned 
men have fet out ifuch exquiiite works, as 
-muft needs b^ always admired, which was 
the more eafily effedled, when they had a 
moft generous prince to encourage them, who 
ipared no cofts to prombte all manner of good 
learning and knowledge. It is certain, that 
no kingdom hath ' produced more excellent 
fcboiars than our own ; though at the fame 
'time it is equally certain, that multitudes of 
them have not been able to exert themfelves, 
becaufe they ' have not received due re- 
wards. Men of abilities fhould join to- 
gether, and large ftipends Ihould be fet- 
tled upon them, that they may unani- 
moufly confpire to carry on the intereft of 
learning. It is lamentable to coniider what 
* a poor pittance fbme of the clergy have, who 
are, ptherwife, very grave and learned men. 
This breeds a contempt,* and makes the ge- 
nerality of mankind defpife and negle6l 
them. It was therefore a glorious and reii- 



gious * work of K. James I. who within thq 
fpace of one year caufed churches to be pUnt^ 
ed through all Scotland, the Highlands, and 
the borders, worth 30 /. a ]^ ear a peece, with 
a houfe and fome . gbbe land belonging to 
thena; which 30/. a year, confidering the 
cheapnefs of the country, and the modeft 
fafhion of minifters living there, was worth 
double as much, as any where within ai^ 
100. miles of London. This was an exam- 
pie to be imitated, and I cannot but wi(h, 
that a much better proviiion were made fot 
the Englifh clergy thaii we fee there is. It 
is a deplorable cafe, and what ought to b^ 
taken into the moft feirious confideratlon^ 
that men of worth and parts Ihould have no 
more than five marks, or five pounds a year. 
There ajce fome fuch places in England, For 
which reafon k happens, that God is often 
little better kno^vn there than ?mong the Ih- 
diai^s^ tlje prayers of the common people be* 
ing more like Ipells and charms thaia devo- 
tion. An obferving man + notes, that the 
fame Jblindnefs and ignorance is in divers 
parts of Wales, which many of that country 
do both know and lament. And what a zea- 

^ Sh Benjamin Rudierd his (peech in behalf of the cler* 
^9 and' of parilhes miferably deftitute of inilrtt^tion, 
through want of maintenance. Confirmed by the teftiiiio- 
nies <^Biifhop Jewel, Mailer Perkins^ and Sir H. Spelman. 
Ox. i6zSu 4to. p> 3, 

t SirB. Rudierdloc. cit. p. i* 

Vol. I, b lous 


X Mr. H earn E*s 

» , 

lous author tells us of the defeds of his own 
native country is equally remarkable. Al-- 
though our country of Lancafhire (fays * he) 
is one of the largeji Jhires in this kingdome^ yet 
it hath for the publike wor/hip of God onefy 
thirty -fx parijh churches within the large cir^ 
cuiteofit^ as our hijiories Jhewy and fome pa^ 
rijhes forty ntiles in compajfe to my knowledge^ 
whereas Jome other Jhires not much larger then 
one divifion or hundred of Lancafhire, are 
knowne and recorded to have two or three hun^ 

' dred parijh churches in them^ and thofe far re 
better furnijloed with meanes for maintenance 
of an able mintjiery then ours are: for example 
the hundred of Foiirneffe where I was borne^ 
which for fpatious compajfe of ground is not 
much lejje then Bedfdrdftiire or Rutlandfliire, 

. *;> hath onely eight faftjh churches^ and f even 
of thofe eight are impropriate^ and the livings 
in the hands of lay men , and in fome of thofe 
parijhesy which be fort j miles in compajje^ there 
is no more ordinary andfet maintenance allowed 

* In p. 16. of a fmall fcarce thing (lent me by dky learned 
and very worthy friend, Thomas Rawlinfon, Efq;) intit. j^ft 
exhortation to his dearely helo'v^d chuntrimen^ all the nati'va of 
the countie of. h2Jitz,^tY^. inhabiting, in and about th$ titit ff 
London; tending to perfwade and ftirre them up to a yearely 
contribution^ for the srt^ing of U^uresy and maintaining of 
fome godly and painfull preachers in fuch places of that- country 
4ts have mof neede^ by reafan of ignorance and Juperftition there 
Abounding: ' compofed by George Walker> F aft or of St. John the 
Evacgeliils in Watlingilreet in London. 4to, in 24, pages* » 


Jhr the tniniflery of the word and facraments^ 
iut ten pounds or twenty Jiobles yearly. 

§. 6. Now to aiexv how weU our Se.%S'^^^^^^ X' 
own countrymen have fucceeded, frlf^\he°oi^t^abo^^^ 
when feveral have engaged together ««a^y ^^ °"'", ^^ *^*'""" 

-O O , ^ O trymen, and that loo 

m one and the fame .work, I need not ^vith refpca to our own 

' hiftoi-y and antiijiutics. 

mention any thing befides the Poly- 
glot bible, which is a moft noble work,, and far 
exceeds any Polyglot bible done beyond fea. 
It was done by many very learned men, the ^ 

principal whereof was Dr. Walton, afterwards 
Bifhop of Chefter. What made it the more 
admired was, that it was carried on and finifh- 
ed with lb much expedition, in a time when 
the church of Eiigland was in a very fliffer* 
ing condition, and men of probity and true 
learning were perfecuted, and forced to ab- 
icond and endure the utmofl hardfhips and 
feverities. So that lince there are fo many 
excellent Icholars in England, and fince, 
when they have joined in any work^ nothing 
hath proved too difficult for them, what an 
admirable performance muft that needs prove, 
which fhall, at any time, be undertaken, 
and carried on by a fociety of antiquaries, 
that fhall agree to a£t, as much as poffibly 
they can, for the honour of this kingdom ? 
Leland and Camden themfelves have done 
wonders* But then their works, how noble 
foever, will Ije far outdone by the writings 
of fuph a body pf men, fampus for their . 

b 2 learning 

XII Mr. H E A R N E*s 

leiafning and induftry, as fKall refolve to fet 

putj not 'only a moift complete defcription of 

Britain, but a Hiftory alfo of it, extrafted 

from the beft materials, and at the fame time 

likewife give lis, in feveral volumes, the ori- 

' ginal authors they make ufe of, provided they 

are worthy the light, and have not been ai-^ 

ready printed, 

Sm itLSZuia ha^ ' §• V Such a fociety as that 1 have 
fheir ftat^ meetings, %n<i \^^^^ fpeakinsf of, muft. ccinfift of 

write diiJertattoDS upon JO' 

Intricate fubjcfts, in the • j^gj^ ^f thc moft prcguant parts. 

fame manner as was done • r r \% f\ • 

by thc Society of Anti- ^nd thev are to difcufs the molt in- 

quaries in the time of Q^*. "^ , . -. ' 

p?. and K. James I. tricate aiid obfcure pdirits m our Eng- 
lifh* Hiftory and antiquities. They (bould 
have their ftated meetings., aiid give 
their opinions, not dnly by word of piouth,^ 
but oftentimes in Writing. This method 
'will occilfion many (hort curious difcourfes, 
that will be proper to be printed, and put 
into the hands as well of others, as of the 
young nobility and gentry, and will, mqft 
certainly, be for the honour of this nation, 
"as conducing more than any thing elfe, that 
I know of, to the illuftration of our hiftory 
and antiquities. In thq time of Q^Elizabeth 
and K. James I. there was fuch a fociety, 
iTii'de up of right* learned antiquaries!, that 
ufed tp meet together, and as they ciudertook 
great rilSttets, fo thejr performances, were an- 
fwerable to their undertakings; and had they 
went on, there is no doubt, but 'by this time 


P R E F AC E. xm 

w^ liad had a complete account publiflied of 
the inoft material things m our hiftory and 

§. 8. But it being fuggefted. that l^^^t^ ^i^ 
Ae faid fociety (commonly known tC^t^^^^- 
hy the mmc of tie Stfciety of Anti- -t^ffi^wluT^ 
^uartesj would be prejudicial to cer- **^^^ 
tain great and learned bodies, for £bat Tedion 
the members thought ft ta break it jofE Nor 
Wer« there wanting very powei^il men that 
proved enemies to them, and, among Other 
things, they were plaafed to atledge, that 
Ibme of the fociety were pej*fons, net ofiiy 
difafFefted to, but really of a quite -diflKrent 
^rfira^6n from, the churth of England. ' " 

®tlt notwithftanding the ibciety was thus 
tiiflblved, yfet great care was taken to preferve ; 

*many of th^ little differtations that had been ^ 

ibccafidnally written by divers of the mcm- 
•bers, copies of fome of which were at length 
^procured by my late reverind and very learned 
friend Dn Thomas Smith, iwho xlefignadcb 
publifli them himfelf, for the ufe and Service 
of the young nobility and gentry of r£n^land. 
"^But his time being impHoyed oa other.iiab- 
jefts, upon.his death, which happened on tbe 
eleventh of May in one thoufand fevenJiun- 
dred and ten, (as I have formerly fignified *i) 
^bout fix weeks after the date of the kft let- 

• Sec Leland'i Itin. Vol. IH. p.i 12. & Vol. V. p. 138. 


XIV Mr. H E a R N E's 

ter * 1 received from him, he left this Col^ 
leftion, among other curious papers, to me. 
As foon as I faw the collection, I could not 
but very much applaud my learned friend's 
defign, and presently began to think of print- 

. , ing it myfelf^ which, accordingly, I have at 

laft done,, being fully perluaded, that it will 
be beneficial, npt only to our young nobility 
and", gentry .(for; whom it is principally in- 
tended) but likewife to perfbrxs of greater naarr 
turity,- fmce tjiere is abundance of excelled 
learning thraughout, which will- be the mor? 
entertaining iupqn . account of the brevity 
made vdk pf by the reipeftive authors. 

•Hic names of ftrar^ of. ~ §. g . Itrisobfervabie, that feveraj 

Che authors of thcic oil- . 

eourics wantjnf. ' The ©f thc difCQUrfcS iu this GolkfttOa 

members of thc fociety /- i t t 

Hied to be ir\mit)pntd have no names prefixed- to (hem. I 

when their opinions i /- ti r i_ 

warcdeCrtd. . ; . canuot . tfeierefore tell,. at pfelent, who 

the authors of them- were. This omiffion 

*%va5 dccafioned |as I take it) not by the aijr 

'thors themfelve^* but by thofe that ought to 

have regiftered them. For when conferences 

.were hiad upon fuch and fuch topicks, the 

tnembers ufed to be fummoned^ and their 

-«i^ers weredefired either in writing or 

•cjdher\vife ;■ fo that the names of thofe that 

gave. their opinions could not be then un- 

{^nown, though, they might not be tranf- 

^tmd; to pofterity-.. Now that what I have 

*.Sef this letter at large in thc appendix ta ikh work, 
num. Vi ' 

* ' faid 


P R E FA C E". XV 

feid as to fummonlng Is true, appears frfini a 
pafiage in a MS. in the Alhmolean Mufeumi 
which, becaufe it will very much conduce to a 
Notitia of the ibciety, I Ihall here tranlcribe 
at lirge, as I find it entered in my collec- 
tions * : 

<' ^ociett of SlnttQuarie^* 

*« Co %X. Stowe. 

" Cl^e place appointeo fo; a taxifz* 
*' nwt upon t]^e cm^ion follotoinge, 

*' t^ att' iS^X, <!Parter3S I^Ottft on Frydaye 

« t^e. iU of t^ijs Nouember, iwinge ai« 
*" foulcjS tiat j at it of t^e cloolte in tl^f« 
'' ternoone, lool^ere tour oppinioun in 
" in txjjttinge oj, otljertDife i^ ejcpetteu. • 

'* Cl^e auction i^, 

" iS>t tl9t antiquitie, etimolosie, anti 
« pjibiletgejs of parifte^ in CnglanDe. 

'' p H^ DeftteD, tl^at ton giue not no* 
*' tice hereof to ant> tut fuc^e a$ ^aut 
*' t]^e Ufec fomonu* 

*' On the back-fide Mr. Stowe writes thu? 

*• with his own hand, " 
[" 630. Honorius Romanus, Bttfftii^Opt 

" Of Cantorbury, DefeiDeo ^i0 p^oijince 
'' into patiQ)e0, i^ o^tierneti clerd^ and 
'* presl^arsf, cowaunuinge t^ew tl^at 
'< ti^V Q)oulD infttufte %e people, a$ 
^ WU ht gooJ) l^fe, ais l)t Doftrvrte. 

• Vol. LXXXVII. J*. 5. 

. " 760. 

*vi Mr. he a R N E^I 

'^ 7«»v Cuthbert, ar(IH)f $a^e of C^a- 
**tUk$ and totonej^ tl^te SjulZ) lie ap^ 

ptmm ci^td^ tards ro^ \mim of 

t^ DeaD> l»]^ol]D bc^ttiS tDetre irfleD to 
" lie inrrteo ab?ol>e, & cet ] 

**€lte place apofttteo fiii a coHftcence 
upon tje quefffott foHamfttffe, (is qjr* ®ar« 
tet'0 jotofe, ttpoit an <g)ouie0 nap, Jjem^e 

«« Thurfday t|je fefOUmi Of November 1598* at 

" oiie of t&e clocfee in tlje aftec noone, ai&ere 
pour optotoutt eftljec m ftirmitge 02 otfiet* 
« tuffe f0 e]Qiate» upon m& queftiom 

fljf fl^e atttiqtiitie of atme^ m England. 
« ^t ess iitaren, t&at pou licrnge none otliei: 
toitl) pou, not gefie anfe nottce uitto anfe, 
^ fiut to fuc& n Dafte tfie Kite Iomoutt0> ' 

«* Co i39t» Bowycr. 

** In another leaf, of the fame MS. but 

" in a different hand, 

*yAnneP'-'' *'>C(je nattieis Of all tfiofe tD^fcO 
« £//2. xLi*. « tuere fomonen att tlji0 tpme, 

** Imprimis ^^ Garter. 
" Item ^i:*.Dodcridge. , 
*• lim $^C« Tate. 
. « Item C^r* Clarentius. 
** Item ^t* Cotton. 
«* //£»» ^t* Agard. 
** //«» ^r* Paton. 
«•//«» ^r* Holland. 
!' //«» ^r» Stow«i. 

'■n. t^ hem 

:P R E F A C £• XVII 

« turn ^t^ Thynm 

•• Item ©r* Doc. Doyley. 

" Item ^U Carcw. 

Item ^C* Bowyer, 

//^«i ^^4 Hennagc* 
" Item S^r* Leigh. 
** Item S^C^ James Ley* 

*' ann J left a fummong toitlj i59c* * * *«^ 

•* Carentius fOl (^r^ Erfwicke. 






^ not (ottimoneti, 

" SS9C* Spilman aittl 
•' ^r* Broughton, 
*' no? (0r* Lake. 




" />^r me Ch. Lailand.*^ 

§. lo* As in this colle£lioii there 
are many valuable remarks about 
fterlmg money, fo it is to be wiihed 
that there had been as good obferva- 
tions to be found in it, about the ufe 
of Roman coins, with refpeft to our 
own hiftory* But it is likely, that 
this was a fubjetl: paffed over by the 
Ibciety, either becaufe the fame was 
fufficiently evident from Mr. Cam- 
den's Britannia^ or elfe becaufe the 
Roman coins are rarely mentioned 
by our old Hiftorlans. It is true, [Se^^^VfounlX^ 
indeed, the ufe of the fame is very 
plain from the Britannia^ ' in which there is 
frequent mention of coins for afcertaining 

Vol. L c the 

It were to be wiflied that 
fome &nc of the ibcietv 
had given us a difcoum 
of the ufe of Romans 
coins, with relpcft to our 
own hiftory, A wrong, 
notion, that Roman coins 
arc chiefly to be valued 
becaufe of their rarity. 
Notice of a city called 
Salmonlbury. A Roman 
town formerly in Berry- 
Grove, in the Pari(h of 
WhittWaltham in Berks. 
Not ceruin that Camp'^ 
den in Glouce{ter{hir& 
was a Roman Town.. 
SELflEiii on a coin of 
K. Edgar. The coins of 
Conf^antius Callus fome 
of the mod fcarce in all 
the Roman feries. The 
cuflom of putting coin^ 

XVIII Mr. H E A R. N E's > 

the antiquity of rriany places, in the, fame 
manner as the compiler thereof had found it 
done to his hands by Mr. Leland. Aud Mr. 
Camden hath, withal, given us* the Figures 
of fuch old Roman coins, as belong chiefly 
to the Britifh hiftory, though the obvcrfe ' 
fides are far from- being exadt, as was long 
ago noted by Ortelius. But notwithftanding 
this, had either Sir Robert Cotton, or Mr. 
Camden himfelf, or any other member of 
the fociety well verfed in thefe affairs, writ- 
ten a fhort difcourfe upon this fubjeft, it 
Would have been a more. ready way to fettle 
the ufefujnefs of the Roman coins, with re- 
gard to our own hiftory, than to leave the 
perfbns concerned, to pick it out from a large 
volume. Nor is it fatisfadory to fay, in the 
fecond place, that there was no occafion for 
fuch a difcourfe, becaufe the Roman coins 
are feldom mentioned by our old hiftorians. 
For our hiftory is to be collefted from other 
writers befides our own, namely from the 
Roman authors themfelves, which cannot 
Well be underftood without confulting their 
coins, and that not only as to chronology, 
but \vith refpecl to places. For this reafon, 
particular notice is to be taken where Romaa 
coins are found in Britain. By this means 
we (hall be able to clear the Itinerary tables, 
. and to tell what the modern names are of 




the places mentioned in them ; at leaft we 
fliali eafily find out the antiquity of many 
places, it being certain that there have been 
Roman towns, or vills, or garrifons, where 
multitudes of Roman coins are difcovered, 
provided fueh coins are not found all together 
m urns, but fcattered up and down, as w^- 
find they are at many places, which, as ap- 
pears from the yery najnes themfelves, were 
moft certainly Roman^ A MS. in the Cot- 
ton library * mentions a city called Salmqrif^ 
kury. There is a, place now called Salmonf- 
bury Bank^ about a rnile from Burton on the 
Water in Gloucefterfhire, There is uot io 
much as a houfe there now, I think, but it is 
very manifeft, that there have been large 
buildings there. If Roman coln^ ihojuld be 
dilcovere4 at it, the antiquity of the place 
will be carried beyond the Saxon times. In 
my preface + to the firfl volume of Leland's 
Itinerary, I guefled that ther^ ha4 been a 
Roman town in Berry-Grove, within the 
parifli of White-Waltham near Maidenhead 
ill Berks, and 1 find my conjecture fince 
Gpnfirmed, ^oX only from old files and 
bricks, which 1 faw there jn November 
1 71 2. (at which time I difcovered the ruins 
of a building at leaft 40. yards in length 
ijorth and foutb) and are cxadly the fame 

* Under Vefpaf. B. xxiv. f S- 5- 

c ^ with 

XX Mr. H E a R N E's 

with thofe found at SJtunsfield near Woodftock 
in Oxford{hire, and in Weycock Field 
(where was a Roman fort) in the pariih of 
Laurence-Waltham in Berks, but from coins 
that have been- ploughed up there. Some qf 
which coins have been thrown away, but oii^e 
of the bigger brafs was lately (ent to me by a 
perfbn whofe fidelity in thefe affairs I can 
^ rely upon. He aflured me, that it had been 
fbnnd among the old ruins of the building:s 
orir Berry-Grove H^ll, and that feyeral befides 
had been found there. This which was 
tranfoiitted to me is fo yery obfcure, that I 
can difcovcr but only one letter upon it, 
which is ail A, and is on the obverfe fid? j 
but from the head and the diftance of the 
faid letter A, I gather, that it is a coin of 
Claudius, and, I think, it was ftruck an^ 
Cb. 43. when he came into Britain, and gof 
a complete viftory, forvvhich a triumph was 
decreed him the year after. There feems to 
have been the figure of viftory on the reverfe, 
which will agree exaftly with piy opinion.. 
I never law one upon this occafion with vic- 
tory before. A learned friend fhewed me 
lately a coin of Antoninus Pius of the bigger , 
brafs, found in a garden in the town of Camp* 
den in Gloucefterfliire. Johannes Cajioreus 
or John Beaver calls this place Campodununij 
and my friend takes it to be Roman ; but 
whereas this is the only coin that he knows 



to have been fotind there, I will fiifpend my 
opinion until I hear of better evidence. In 
the mean time I canftot but note, that even 
Saxon coins do alfo oftentimes illuftrate the 
antiquities of places, although they fhould 
prove to be of no other ufe upon account of 
their rudenefs. My excellent friend Thomas 
Rawlinfon, Efq; hath a coin of K. Edgar, 
on the reverie of which is in eelberji* 
There is a place in the parifli of White* 
Waltham before mentioned called Eelberds 
or Eyllhudds *, and it is worth inquiry whe- 
ther it might not be of not^ in the Saxoa 
times, and whether or no the coin hath not 
feme reference to it ? fo that it being evident 
from what hath been faid, that one great ufe 
of Roman coins, found in Britain, is to dif- 
cover and clear the antiquity of fuch and 
fuch places, coins, that are otherwife com- 
mon, will be, in that refpefl:, as much va^ 
lued, as thole which are juflly looked upoti 
and cfteemed as rare. For which realbn 
prticuiar notice Ihould always be /. taken 
where coins are found, and when it is known, 
jvhere they are dilcovered, they Ihould not, 
as commonly they are, be rejected bccaufe 
they are not fcarce. 1 wilh this had been 

• See \, It. of my letter, containing an account of fome 
antiquities between Windfor and Oxford, printed at tlie end 
cf the fifth vol. of Leland's Itiu. , 



always obferved by learned men. We had 
had then, m all probability, much clearer 
accounts than are yet made publick of anti- 
quities. It is for want of this obfervation, 
that thole that have written profeffedly of 
coins, have not told us where the coins they 
publifh were foimd. Both Occb and Medio^ 
"barbus indeed tell us in what archives many 
of their coins were lodged. But it would 
have been of much greatei: fervjce to learn- 
ing, had they told where they were foundt 
This is a defedt likewife in the great work 
of baron Spanheim. But I would not, by 
any means, be. underftood by what is here 
iaid, to condemn thofe that have no other 
view than their fcarcenefs in gathering coins. 
This view itfelf deferves very great praife ; 
beoaufe many excellent pieces may be picke4 
up, that may be of fervice to fuch as know 
how to tiirn them to their true and proper 
iile. And here I muft recommeqd to fuch 
Colledors a particular examination of that 
vaft variety of coins, that we have of Con-? 
ftantius with fel. temp, reparatio, and 
advik, that they would not defpife their^ 
becaufe of their multitude ; becauie it isi 
probable, that they may find arapngft 
them the coin of another Conftantius, 
befides F. L. Jul. Conftantius, (whole coins 
are not rare) with the very fame infcription, 
and that is of Conftantius Gallus, brother of 


PREFACE. jcxiii 

Jlilian the apoftate, and coufin-german of the 
other Conftantius. And this reconnmeiKl^- 
tion is the more feafonable, becaufe I look 
upon the coins of this Conftantius Gallus, . 
who was beheaded for his wickednefs in the 
29th year of h'is age, and the fourth after he 
had been made Caefar, to be fome of the 
fcarceft in all the Roman feries. The diffi- 
culty will be iu this vaft variety to diftin- 
guifh one from the other, lince little or no 
affiftance fbmetimes will be had from the in- 
fcriptions, efpecially if the letters fhould -not , 
prove very vifible. But the face will eafily 
difcover to which the coin belongs. Con- 
ftantius Gallus was much more beautiful 
than his coufin, and there is a ftar always 
before his face, and a globe in his hand, I 
remember, that a foreign gentleman (who 
made this ftudy his profeffion) took a journey 
to Oxford fome years ago, on purpofe to ex- 
. amine the cabinets of that univerfity for coins 
of this Conftantius Gallus, well knowing 
that the words of Savotus *, Conjlantii GaiHj 
Conjlantina^ fOalli uxoris^J Defiderii-^ Vetrdt^ 
nionisy Nepotiani^ ^ Silvani, nummi cujujvis 
materm adeo rari ftinty ut vix quidem reperi- 
antur^ are very true. This alfb muft be faid 
for common coins, that they are as ufeful in 
chronology as thofe that are fcarce, efpecially 
when found in urns. For the Romans at 

• Lclandi Cojl* vol. V. p. 280, 



XXIV Mk. H E a R N E*s 

their ordinary funeral obfequies, when the 
dead corpfe was burnt and confurned, took 
the aflies thereof, and put them Into an urn 
or earthen pot, with a piece of coin of that 
enfiperor under whom thej died, and fo bu- 
ried it in the grounds For which reafbn 
great notice ought to be taken of the coins 
found in urns, becaufe they are a certain ar- 
gument of the time when the perfons to 
. whom they belonged deceafed, as it is, with- 
.all, an argument of the antiquity of any 
place, when fuch ajiid fuch emperors coins 
are found at it, it being cuftomary with the 
.Romans under the foundation of any build- 
:ing, monument, or piece of work of note, 
to caft and lay Ibme of their emperors coins 
.inwhofe time it was made; to fignify to 
pofterity, and to preferve (for many ages 
after) the memory and fame thereof *. So 
that if there be any chronological notes on 
the coins (as there are on abundance of the 
iRoman ones) the very year, when either the 
perlbns died, or the buildings were ereiSted, 
may from thence be learned, which alozie, I 
think, a fufEdent inducement to engage 
young gentlemen and others in this ftudy. 
It is not, therefore, without reafon, that in 
feme parts of England they will give more 
by the- acre for lund that lies near any old 

♦ Burton's Antic[umes of Leicefterihirc, p. 132. 



p. R E P A C E. XXV 

Roman town, caftk, caufeway, or other re- 
markable enainency, or where other ancient 
works, either Saxon, Danifh, or Norman 
have been, in hopes of fome lucky chance, 
(coins and other confiderable antiquities being 
generally difcovered where there have been 
fuch works) than th^y will for land, how- 
ever otherwife in far better condition, that 
IS remote from any iuch places. I mention 
the Saxon, Danifli, and Norman works, be- 
caufe the fame cuftom of ftrewiiig medals or 
coins under their buildings and publick works 
was obferved even after the Roman power 
had quite dwindled. Hence it was, that 
pope Paul II. caufed great ftore of gold and 
filver medals ftamped with his effigies, to be 
laid under the foundations of his buildings 
more veteriim. 
L II. To carry this matter a lit- Themcnceofourhifto- 

* -^ . . iHins about the Roman 

tie farther, the 'filence of our own coins an argument, ^^j 
old hiftorians about the Roman corns, been handled f)y the fiod 
IS (o far from being an argument, "^' 
why the fociety fhould not write upon this 
fubjeft, that it fecms to me to .be rather a 
good reafbn, why it fliouldl^aye been hand- 
led by them. For as thofe hiftorians did not 
thoroughly underftand. the ufe of Roman 
coins, fo they judged it beft to pafs them 
over. And therefore what was left unex- 
plaiiied by them, fhpuld have beeii cleared 
ty thofe that were, in that refpeft, better 

VoL.X. <1 ^'^^^^^ 

XXVI Mr. H E a R N E's 

ikilled. Writing and illuminating were in 
very great perfedtion among the monks, and 
it is certain, that they were Ikilled in many 
branches of good learning. But then the 
pure claffic authors being generally much 
iiegledled among them, they did not take 
care to make themlelves mafters of fucK 
curious points as particularly relate to the ex- 
plication of them ; one of which points I 
take the knowledge of the Roman coins to 
be. Had they been curious this way, I ana 
apt to think we fliould have had draughts in 
their illuminated books of many of the Ro- 
man coin?. But alas ! they were fo igno- 
rant, in this affair, that they could not give 
.direilions to our princes to have the common 
coins done .with any manner of elegance. 
Not only the Saxon and Danifli, but even 
. - . the Norman coins are ftrangely miferable ; 

nay fome of the coins fbon after the Norman 

? invafion are much worfe than thofe in the 

Saxon times* Whereas »had ingenious and 

learned men applied themfelves to the ftudy 

of the Roman coins,, they would have uled 

proper^methods for preventing this rudenefs, 

.which would^ have conduced ' much to the 

credlt-of bur princes. . ' 

aUI^'a^t^i?^^ . '§• ^"^^ Mr. jSfepii Holland had a 

^tJ:^^ ''^^y goo^ opportunity of writing his 

about many phces eitlier tllOUffhtS -UDOn thlS CUrioils'' fubjeft, 
quite deftroycj, cJr* very f ■ O .- r ^ c. . ■ .* ■ * t 

much diminiibca. ad when he mcatlon^ liis cofns fo the 

" lociety. 



focIety.partkularlyatthattlmeWheH ^tafrfirJnJ 
he had occafibn to ' fignify that he had ■»' » CngiB**"* •"i/- 
a coin whereon was Camtdddunum, *. He 
might, in fuch a difeourfe, have eafily prov^*" 
ed from coins, wh^t he afferted, that there 
was ill old time a much greater number of 
dties, towns, aad villages in Britain than 
there is at prefent. Fi'om coins it is plain,- 
that in^ abundance of places were formerly 
towns where there is not now fo much as a 
(ingk houfe. It is true, he confirms his 
aflertion from good authority. And I have 
feen many MSS. which plainly prove the' 
iame ; though one of the beft I ever faw of 
that kind, is a MS. that belonged formerly 
to Mr. Lambard,. and is now \n the Bodleian. 


Library. Had Mr. Holland entered into thi$ 
Hibjefl:, he muft have written a much larger 
difeourfe than that which he hath obli<yed us 
with about th^ antiquity of cities, which, 
however, is very good, and may give a hint^ 
it is probable, to Qthers to |?e more copious, 
elpecially fince £b mauy excellent ?rid very 
ufeful difcoveries may be made in fuch a dif- 
eourfe, abx>ut places that are either quite de. 
ftroyed, or at leaft very much diminifhed 
from what they have been. In order to 
\vhich all other antiquities that are difcovered 
in any parts of Britain muft be nicely noted. 
Mr. Weeyer had good reafbn to conclude 
from an jurp, on the cover of which "was. 

* S^e thcfc difcourfes, vol. I. p. 39. 

d a cocciLLj 


cocciLLi M. [i. e. CoGciHi Mambus\ thar 
Coggefhall was derived from a Roman OiHcer 
called Cocclllus ; and, without diipute, the 
Coccill way was iikewife called from the 
fame perfon. He might, indeed, be the 
chief builder of that place,, as likewise of a 
place called in Antoninus's Itinerary ad an-^ 
SAM. Several have conje<£tured, that ai> 
ANSAM is a corruption in Antoninus. But 
they do iiot produce fa much as one MS. to 
confirm their opinion. Mr. Camden thought 
it to be nothing but a Terminus of the colony 
of Camuhdunum^ from which it isi faid in 
Antoninus to be fix niiles diftaiit, and he 
believes that there was only one fingje houie 
or inn at it, ^yith the Anja, for a fign, and 
that from this fign it was denominated. For 
this reafon he imagines, that the dative cafe is 
here changed into the accufative. But I 
humbly beg leave to diffent from this great 
man. It fpems plain to me, that it was a 
garrifon cpnfiiling of many houfes. Nor \% 
the cafe at all changed, ad ans am, or, as it 
is in Sunta's and Bertius's editions (in one 
fingle word)^ADANSAM,. being the fame in 
in all cafea, fo as loco or o^pidoy or fome fiich 
thing is to be underflood. And there are 
examples for it in antiquity. We have ad 
lapidemy (or ^-c/rane,) ad murum^ (or ^ty 
falle,) and other places of that kind in Bede, 
where we have alfo .At T])i;:ojito, (which is 


P R E ^ A C E*- XXIX 

* • • * 

the fame as ad duplex vadumj all very con- 
fiderable towns^ and not (ingle hoiifes or inns 
only, much the j[ame, to be iiire, as Anto- 
nlnus^s ad anfam» So that I take flich towns 
to have been the true Xraft/^to) or AhXayou 
of the ancients, being accommodated with 
aU things convenient for all forts of travellers j 
aiid it was at them that the fojdiers ufed to 
jfefrefli themfelves, and change their horfe^ 
and carriages ; from which cuftom, of chang^f 
ing in latter times, even frefh garments werQ 
called alfo kAAayal^ It muft, however, be 
allowed, that though this place gre\v to be 
fjminent and large at laft, yet at firft it was 
only one diverforiurn ox inn, on which there 
was the fign of the Ar/fa^ by which name, 
for that reafon, the whole ftation Itfelf was 
called afterwards; a thmg not. imcommou 
even to feveral other places, both- in ancient 
3S well as more modern times. 

§. 13. Since therefore coins mpft such as coiled coins dc. 
be allowed to be of fuch fmgular ufe ^^^y^^tXl't-^h^l^^i 
in hiftory and antiquity, and that lif Both ihfun,vc^^^^^ 
-even with relpedt to our own Britifh I;!:^ of'aS^^e:: t^ 
affairs, it is very laudable -in thofe ^^^^ gtni^r/a 
that make colleaions of coins, and "^^^^ «^ ^ery great merits. 
take care to have them applied to the bene- 
fit of the public. It is well known what 
archbifhop Laud and others have'' done, as 
well in this, as other parts of learning, for 
the univerllty of Oxford. The famous Mr. 


XXX Mr. H E a R N E's 

John Greaves tdok great pains in digefting 
the coins given by the archbiihop, who re- 
turned him his thanks in a letter * written 
by his ovi^n hand. And when the late con- 
ful Ray gave an exti*aordinary colleftioii of 
coins to the fame famous univerfity (all which 
I put into order, and made an exafl catalogue 
of them, now lying by me, as I put alio 
their names' upon each cell in which they are 
lodged, tb fay nothing of the pains I took 
about the coins that were before jin the li- 
brary, by affifting in the continuation ,of ]^lr• ' 
Afhmole's catalogue of them, aiid by infert- 
ing with. my own hand what had been given 
fine©* Mr, A(hmole*s time by feveral bene- 
fadorss, particularly by Mr. Timpthy f 
Nourfe (formerly of Univerfity College) they 
not only conferred the degree of doft.or in 
the civil law upon him, but fliewed hini 
fuch other refpefts, (he being then perfbnally 
prefent in the univerfity, on purpofe to de7 
liver the coins with his own hands) a^ 
plainly proved, that they had a true and juft 
fenfe of the worth of his prefent, and of thef 
fniffulat ufe that it would be of to true leanir 
ing. I mention conful Ray the rather, be- 
cau{e moft of the coin§ he gave are Greek 
6nes, of which there was but a fmall nun>- 


* See the appendix to this work, num. VI. t See the 
appendix, num. VII. 


PREFACE. xxxt 

ber in the univerfity library before. Nor 
hath the univerfity of Cambridge wanted 
benefaflors, who have likewife been colleftors 
of couis. But this is a point that 1 leave to 
be treated of by fbme learned hand of that 
place. I will, however, beg leave to take 
notice of one, and that is Dr. Andrew Pern, 
a perfbn of very great merits, notwithftand- 
ing he hath been traduced by fome, who 
were much inferior to him on all accounts. 
As he was a very learned man himfelf,' {o 
he was a moft generous promoter of all good 
literature, and indeed did all that poffibly he 
could for the intereft of the public. Among 
other things, he gave an excellent coUeftion. 
of old coins and medals to the univerfity, 
being well apprized that a library cannot be 
faid to be well furnifhed, unlefs its treafures 
be made up partly of fuch venerable remains 
of antiquity. But I Ihall forbear enlarging in 
my own words, fince what may be obfervecj 
of this very worthy man, is already don? tq 
my hand in a commemoration lernjon, 
printed above fixty years ago, in which ther§ 
is the following paflage * ; " For whicl> 
" reafon, give me leaye, as the prefent occar 
" fion requires, to mention the name of 
^^ that noble and free-hearted bpnefador, 

• SeHRion on the yearly commemoration of Dr» Andrew 
Pern, 1654. By J. Cleric, mafter of arts, and fellow of Per 
ter-houfe. Cam^, 16^^. 8vo. pag, 28, 

jikjiii Mil. Mf:ARNE*s 

*^ both to this whole univerfity, and eipe-* 
*^ cially to. this adjoining college (Peter -^ 
*^ houfe) Dr* Andrew Pern. His bounty' 
*^ to this college in adding a new foundation 
*' of two fellowfhips and fix fcholarfhips ; 
in building our library, and fumifhing it 
with a plentiful variety of choice books ; 
** in eftablifhing a library-keeper*s place, and 
** in many other works of great advantage ; 
** his happy and renowned endeavours for 
the honour and proiperity of the univer- 
fity in general; for the vindication and 
enlargement of their privileges ; his be- 
quefts of a yearly penfion to the public li- 
brary-keeper, and a box of ancient coins 
and medals of great value ; but efpecially 
his wife and fuccefsful pains in contriving 
and procuring that neceffary flatute of the 
18. oi ^een Eliz. to turn the third part 
" of our ancient rents iiito corn money 1 to 
*' which both the univerfities owe their coha* 
'*' fortable fubfiftence ever fince. His libera- 
lity to thofe places in the country where- 
to he had relation, making them provi- 
fion for a yearly lermon and diftributions 
to their poor. Thele and many other 
worthy deeds of his, deferve of us, that 
•* his name fhould be had in honourable re- 
•* membrance. But efpecially they ihould 
^ put us in mind of that gracious hand of 
** God, that by this and many other the 

« like 





P R E F A C >E. xxxiu 

" like inftruments of his goodnefs, hath 
" made fuch public provifion for the encou- 
" ragement of religion and learning, and 
'* hath given us in particular a fhare in it." 

S. 14. Thefe difcourfes are right- The authors of thcfcdir- 

^ ^ ■ , courfes not abl» to ac- 

Iv called curious^ there beinff a great count/or fomcparticuiars 

•^ /- 1 . * . I infifted upon by them. 

multitude of things ill them upon Ferlhs a weft country 

excellent fubjefts, and all couched in old piece of parchment, 

X. _ ,^^. ^ - I in which the word occurs. 

a rew words. The leveral authors Fear of deftruftion made 

^ , I J 1 J mftny of our anceflors 

were men 01 a deep reach, and had hide old mss. under 

(\ s* 1 .•• *ii around and in old walls. 

Itudied our antiquities with the Ut- Bntmma perhaps deilvcd 

mpft care and dihgence. And yet *'''"' °^^'^'"* 
notwithftanding all their penetration, they 
could not account for fome of the particulars* 
Mr. Agard obfervcs *, that Ferling is no * ^*«-4P« 
more than an <ixgang^ which is called Bovata, 
about XV. apres* He fubmits himfelf, how- 
ever, to the correSiion of better judgment. The 
very name feems to import that it was the 
4th part; As therefore, among the Saxons, 
jeojuShn^, x^ojiwn^, or >?eoj\^, was the fourth 
part (what we call a farthing now) of a 2>^- 
narius or a , penny j fb Jerlingus terra was 
the fourth part of a bigger quantity of land, 
and is expounded exprefly by fome to be 
32. acres,, which will make it to be about 
the fourth part of an hide, if we follow 
the opinion of thofe who make an hide,* 
to be fix izoxt acres^ which is juft an hun- 
dfed acres, according to the way of compu- 
Vol. I. e tation 

XXXIV Mr. H E a R N E*s 

tatiou made ufe of by the SaxonSj who 
reckoned fix fcorc to the hundred. But what-* 
ever the exa£^ meafure or bignefs of a ferling 
was, this feems clear enough to me, that it 
Was a weft country word, as even Mr. Agard 
himfelf hath noted ; and therefore, it may 
. be, the beft way to find out the true expofi- 
tion of it, will be to confult old rentals and 
other evidences belonging to eftates in that 
country, in which it is probable the word may 
often occur. And this reminds me of an old 
fiece of parchment that was lent me lately 
by my friend the Hon. Benedidt Leonard 
Calvert, of Chrift Church in Oxford, fefq. 
It belongs to Somerfetfhire (for that is the 
meaning of Sotes in the margin) and the 
word Ferlingus is mentioned in it, upon 
which account I ftiall here iufert a copy of 
the whole. 

sotcs. Feoda qua Unentur Ae domino Jobanne Malet 

Milite^ videlicet^ 

In Edyngtbne i . Feod. 

In CofynlofT dimid. Feod. 

in ChantofT dimid. F^bd. 

In Durhttrgb dim. Feod. 

In Godenkgb i. t>irgat, tertdi. 
In Dike una ccrucat. terra ^m Jdbannes de Ltme- 

tofT tenuity qua (ontinct VHP", partem unins 




lUm Thomas Fkhet in Harnbam dim. Fiod. & 19 ^- 

In Pad^nalre 1. virgat. terr^ 

qiiam Petrus de Grymjlede tenets 
Item Richardus Ficbet in Parva SuSone dim. Feod» Soc«$. 
Item Dominus Richardus Pikes in SuSton' dim. vir* 

gatie terra. 
Item in SuSlofT dimT virgata terra^ 

quam Johannes ASe purie quondam tenuit. 
Item in Sulim i. virgat. terra^ 

quam Johannes k Foghekr quondam tenuit. 
Item in Bereforde i . virgat. terra. 

Item Johannes A^chel i. Ferlr terra in SuSonT 
Item Thomas Ldimbright dimT virgat. terra. 

Item Galfridus de Forneaux 1 . virgat, terra. 

Item Walterus Faber i.- virgat. terra, 

quam Johannes Doye modo tenet. 
Item Reginaldus de Aqua i . virgat. terra. 

Item fValterus Payn i . virgat. terra. 

Item Richardus k Tournour i. virgat. terra. 

Willelmus de Lekefworth i , Ferlr terrOf 

Summa iiii. Feod. ^ diniT ii. virgat. 
&? dimT M. Ferlr terr. 

There is no queftion, h\xt there is a yaft num- 
ber of fuch parchmsuts in private hands^ 
there having not fuch a deftruftion been made 
of them at the beginning of the Reformation 
% there were of books and parchments tha^ 
were illuminated, and had red letters in the 
fronts Such evidences as wc arp' Ipeaking of 
being without fuch -ornaments, efcaped the 
more eafijy, ati4 it was providential ^that they 

e z did 

XXXVI Mr. H E a R N E's 

did fo ; whilft fuch as had any decorations 
were condemned to the flames as erroneous 
and fuperftitious, and altogether void of 
what we call Solidity. Red letters and figures . 
• were fufficient in rfiofe times to, entitle the 
books in which they appeared to be popiftx 
or diabolical ; and therefore it is no wonder 
that we find that there was fuch a great va- 
riety deftroyed and cuit in pieces, and that in 
many others' the figures or images, and the 
fine flouriflied or gilt letters are cut out. 
Some that were aware of this deplorable fate 
of books took care to have them hid under 
ground, or, at leaft, in old walls, where 
lying many years, feveral of them received 
much hurt, and were almoft quite obliterated 
either by damps or fome other accidents. It 
is to this caution, -as I takd it, that we are 
to attribute the hiding of an old parchment 
book that Sir Thomas Eliot mentions. 
^bOUt XXX. ftXt$ (im0, (iaith be *) it 

atout it mtitfi frottt f^vi^hnvx, as; 
men DtsseO to malte a foundation, ti^f 
founds $M ]^otD done coueted toi^ an 
ot^tv itone, iQo^erin ti^et founoe a bool&e, 
l^au^ns in it little aboue* xx leauejs {a^ 
ii^zi faitH) of bert ti^ielic ielime, toller* 
in toais fome tiding looriten* T^t W^an 

* liibUotheca Eliotx Lond. M. D. III. voc. Britania. 


P R E" F AC .E.. xrxYii 

it teas; (^eYoet) to vtitfit^ atrH d^anotfst, 
W^iti^ tuere tUti, if^tt coulDe not teaBe 
it 5aJ]^erfo.:e after tl^et ^ab todet) ie 
from one to an ot^er {tt ttfz mcane 
tDftcroC ft tuajs torne). tijc^ tit^ ncglett 
anti cait it aCOe. )loh$e aftctr a piece 
ti^etof IjapncD to come to ntt i^antjejS, 
tv^icl^e nottDtt]^^an0t»S it toaisi aU to 
nnt ant) Detacezi, % fbmt^ to maimer 
Kici^rD f&ace, tl^an c^icfe fectetart to 
tl^e Ktnseis moii totaU tnaieiiee, tD^ero0 
l^e ejccentngl^ mo^ced* 75ut becault it 
^a$ partly vent, part' ^ tefaceti ann 

on it, i^ coulDe not fi?n5e an^ one fen* 
tence perfett. li^ot \»it^(tandi?ng after 

longe beiiollittfg) ^^ Qjetned me, it feetip 
eD tl^t ti^e £aieD boEe contemned fome 
aunci'ent monument of tl)i& ^le, dn^ 
tl)at ]^e perceibeD ti^ij^ teooroe Prytania, 

to l)e pUtte fOjl Britania. Some have been 
of opinion, that tliis was a Brltifli book, full 
of curious things, and that it confirms what 
is oblerved by leveral learned men, about the 
Britains, calling themfelves Prydians, by 
turning the Greek (i into a tt, the Greeks 
calling the inhabitants of this ifle BeerdwHi. 
This is an obfervation palTed over by the 
authors of theie difcouries, who have not- 
withftanding divers good notes about Britain, 
the- original of the name whereof they how- 

xxxvm Mk. h e a R N E's 

ever diffet; abo\it. Nor indeed is theite aHjr 
cert&inty in difcourfing about fiich afiuire, 
the original of nations . beihg very intricate 
by reafbn of the want of hiftory. There i% 
one thing, which, upon this occafion, the 
antiquaries (hould have obfcrved, and that is- 
Qur malt liquor, called E^rov in Athen«us. 
fP^447. Toy S's xpi^u'ov oTvoVi (faith he *) xal jS/wixar 
Ttvh xxXbc-iv. Which being fo, it is hum-. 
bly offered to the confideration of more judi- 
cious perfons, whether our Britannia might 
not be denominated from Bpvtovj the whole 
nation being far#aous for fuch fort of drink. * 
It is true^ Atheuaeus does not mention the 
Britains among thofe that drunk malt drink; 
and the reafbn is, becaufe he had not met 
with^any writer that had celebrated them 
•upcm that account, whereas the others that 
he mentions to drink it were put down in: 
his authors* Nor will it feem a wonder,, 
that even thofe people he fpeaks of, were not 
called Britones from the faid liquor, fince it 
Was not their conflant and common drink, 
but was only ufed by them upon occafion, 
liVhereas it was always made ufe of in Britain, 
and it was looked upon a^ peculiar %q this 
ifland ; and other liquors were eftecm^d as 
foreign, and not fo agreeable to the nature 
of the country. And I have fome reafbn t<^ 
riiink, that thofe few other people that drimk 
it abroad, did it only in imitation of th(5 
• PntainS| 

PREFACE , xxxrx 

BritaUis, thovf^ we have no records remaui- 
ihg upon which to groiind this opinion. 

§. 1 5- It is a generally received no- f,;,^j:i^/^tkl:rgrc^ 
tio4i, that Mlfred the Great was the ^^^o <^»««- V% "^^ 

firft that divided this king-dom into times than now in aoting 

, • • /> 1 '^* bounds of places. 

ihires. But then It is Itrange, that The saxons imitatca th«/ 

/lit i' • 1 1 Romans in the divifioa 

the lame mould not be mentioned by of the country, k. ^i- 

« /T« « %« r 1 ' f^^ revived what had 

Aflenus Menevenlis, a coaeval writer, been done, for which «»- 

. . • ii*yiil*-i*/* ^Q« ^^ ^^ ^^^ being 

who -drew up and puoliihea his lire, author of a fubdiviCon, 

1 • 1 1 ^1 r • ^ J ^l_ the drvifion into fliires if 

which hath been printed more than commaniy aioyjcd w 
tmce. There is nothing about this "*' 
very material affair in the MSS. made ufe off 
by the publiftiers. It is therefore, likely, 
that he was the author of a fubdivifion only. 
Perhaps he might have the bounds of the 
counties diftinftly entered in ibme particular 
book, fuch a book as Domefday. We have 
"had fuch accounts taken fince. Even Wil- 
liam the Conqueror's Domefday book is no- 
thing elfe but what was done in imitation of 
an older one made by order of king Alfred, 
•whofe book was called the Roll of Winton^ 
^id was kept at Winchefter, which is the 
•f eafon, as I take it, that fome tell ^ us, that 
WiHiam the Conqueror's (which, I believe, 
ioofe in K. -Alfred's) was alfo kept at Win- 
chefter in a houfe named Domus Dei. And 
we fetiow> that in after times the bounds of 
ctmnties were many times examined, and 


♦ Stowe's Anpalsy p; 1 18. 

• entered 

XI. Mr. H E a R N E*s 

entered in books on purpofe to tranfmlr the 
knowledge thereof the better to pofterity. 
The bounds of Huntingdon and Cambridge' 
(hires are very diftindlly accounted for in the 
ftrange old defaced MS. about Peterborough 
and Ramfey abbies, that I lately printed at 
the end of Tho^nas Sprott's Chronicle. I 
wi{h I could meet with as diftincl and exa£t 
accounts of other counties in old MSS. Such 
entries were the more requifite in thofe timesj^^ 
when they were not expert enough to make 
maps, and to take draughts in the manner as 
is done now. Yet I think that, notwith- 
ftanding the want of this (kill, they were 
more exact, even then, than now in obferv- 
ing' the bounds of coynties ; in order to which 
the prefedls, or earls of the counties, had 
their perambulations much in the fame man- 
ner as was pradbifed with refpefl: to pari(hes> 
though not fo frequently : and at fuch times 
they did not neglect even the quillets that lay 
in other counties, though not part of them : 
juft as alfo the parifliioners did ijot omit to 
lurvey alfo in their perambulations fuch quil- 
lets as lay within, and were encompafled by, 
pariflies different from their own. And that 
which made them the more ftrift in thofe 
times about the bounds as well of counties as 
of parifhes, was the rigour of the laws, which 
not only enjoined them to take fuch care, but 
likewifq gave thenx great encouragement 

again ft 


againft fuch as prefumed to €acr6aeh ; in ib 
much as there are pecioniarjr. mulfe in the 
Saxon injun^aions, whenever it was found 
that a freeman had broke either another's 
door or hedge. And this was as early as the. 
time of king iEthclbirht, among whofe laws 
the ^extus Roffenfis (that.moft famous monu- 
ment of antiquity) mentions this : *ijf ypxttm 
ttoji bjiec je jcocji vi /cill. gebcw. : Six fhillings^ 
we fee, is the penalty, and that was a great 
fum in thoie times. But then a penality was 
inflidled not only for breaking either a dodr 
or hedge, but even for going over a hedge^ 
and that was alfb pecuniary, as were alfb 
other punilhmcnts in thofe daysw Hence the 
fame Textus Roffenfis: Dij: jcjuman ^roji gejan- . 
je^ IV jcill. ijebete. It muft, indeed, be con-- 
felled, that thefe hedges meant here were* 
mudbi different from our common ones, being, 
a Ibrt of mounds or fortifications, fuch as 
could not be paiTed without confiderable da- 
mage and violence to the owners, ^nd ufed 
to be made about their Hates. But then 
whatever they were, the}' plainly Ihew the. 
exafbaefs of thofe times, and how ready the 
fuperiors were to punifh any tran^effions . 
that arofe from invaiion */ and there is no 
queftiQn, but the bounds of provinces and 
pirilhes were alio to be underflood in thofe 
injueudtioiis that relat^ to territories. So 
that I ihquid think, that «^ven the CQi\xa!o\^fi>Y^ 
Vot. L f Ip 


SLii Mr. H E a R N E^ 

fo much ipoke of in the Saxon laws, are 
alio to be referred to this head. Since there* 
fore there was {o much caution tifed about 
fecurity of right to particular places, me* 
thinks it is abfurd to fuppofe> that there was 
no fiich divifion as into ihires before the time 
of K« -^fred. Nay, what plainly determines 
agaiaf): any fuch fuppofition, is the very men- 
tion of fbme counties or ihires even in Aflfe- 
rius Meneveniis, and that in fuch a manner 
too as to make the diviiion before -Alfred's 
Reign,. The word Sbire too occurj^ in the 
laws of king Ina. So that I am inclined to 
think, that as the Romans, when here,; had 
divided the country into particular provinces, 
fo the Saxons afterwards imitated them, and 
confirmed what they had done, making, 
however, ibme alterations, though not a 
great many. And yet after all, I will allow, 
that king JElfred revived all that had been 
done, and brought every thing to greater 
perfedion than had been done before; for 
which reaibn^ as well as for his being the 
author of a Tubdivifion, he hath been com- 
monly taken to be the firfl that divided this 
country into Shires* 

L'th^fitibSn'tt^f §• ^6. Nor will it feem abfurd to 
the univerfity f Oxford, aj^y that Alfred ihould be looked 

though he only rcftored »^ ' 

it. Stone buiidijigs raifcd UDOU bv thc generality of mankind- 

in Oxford by thc care of ^ t ' ;« n i v • i t i i • i 

king Alfred. K. Edward as the firft th^t divided -the kingdom* 

Ihe Gonfeflor*s chapel at . /•i -i 

.jwip. Thc Mynftcr of mto ihircs, only becaufe he contriveo 

• • • a fub- 

P RE FA C E. XLiii. 

a lubdivifion, and renewed what had ARnaone or Aihaon in 
been brought about long before, if it 
be confidered, that he isalfo taken by many to 
be the firft founder of the univeirfity of Oxford, 
only becaule he reftored it after it had been 
deftroyed by the Danes, there having been 
an univerfity (and that a flouri(hing one too) 
at that place long before. Indeed this great 
king (who was endued with admirable wif- 
dom, rare memory, grave judgment, and 
iharp forefight) performed {o much for the 
benefit of this kingdom, as made moft look 
upon him as another Solomon, and to attri* 
bute all the glory that future ages afterwards 
bragged of to his cdre and conduct. The 
buildings that had been ereSed before were 
nothing in comparilbn of fuch as he railed ; 
nor were the laws about bounds of provinces 
and parilhes fo duly put in execution. He 
had inch a particular way of enforcing them^ 
as made the feveral officers that he employed 
both adore and admire him, and when they 
applied the methods he prefcribed, all things 
proved effeduaL Even the univerfity 1 have 
mentioned as it was reflored by him, ib he 
wifely ordered, that it fhould be governed 
for the honour and credit of the kingdom, 
and prohibited any to infringe the liberties 
and privileges of the fcholars under the 
feverefl penalties. And here too the bounds 
of the fcholars were taken notice of by him, 

f 2 and 

xiiv Mr. H EARN E^ 

and as they were to be confined tfeernfelves^ 
{o none were to birtder thc^ from making 
proper ufe of thofe' fjpots of groond that 
jverc defigiued for them. This- m^ide many 
caivy the fcholars bappinefe i and they were 
the move keen in fliewing their refentRients, 
by reafon of the buildings that were now 
faifei in . the ;*viniverfity, which much ex- 
iceeded. the^ deftroyed by the publicfc ^i^emyir 
He brought i^ 3rtift§ that could work in 
flx)ne, and now thereforcfomeftpije buildings 
speared in Oxford, ift lieit' of thofe that 
were before nothing but wood. fiu« thm 
thefe ftoiite. buildings though fine in thfiie 
days, yet were nothing ecji^l to whatMrft 
been done of that kind fince, as n^ay appear 
from what . renq^ains of that age. ISiof 
was there any thing very perfefit of that 
kind among us, after the Romaii* hstd: det* 
ierted ' u§,: until the Nprman iovafion* 
Edward the Confefibr- s chapel, a littfe 
way northwards. froci> Iflip church, was^ 
without doubt^ looked upoa : in the age^ in 
which it was. bulljtt as very good, fe i»>i 
jK>\veyei^^ but 15. yards, in length, amd* a 
^ttle above 7. iii breadth^ (beinff much fiiich 
another as thoie mentic^ed in the decrees of 
pope Nicholas, who ordained, that a bigger ^ 
phurch Ihquld contain iii compaik 4a. paces, 
a jdaapel, qr leifer church, 3^. paceis) and 
though it be in a fliatleced CQia^tioij nqw 

P R E; F A C E: xlv 

(being thatched^ Myd patched, and turned 
into a barn) yet we may eafily guefs* from a 
fight of It, what it was in its greateft perfcc- 
tion» and yon would hardly think (did not 
yon know the nature of thoie times) that fo 
great and good a king as Edward the Con-- 
fellbr, and fb virtuous, and pious, and beau- 
tiful a princefs as bis queen Edgitha (who in 
the year 1065- bnilfthe church of Wilton of 
ftone, 'beTng before of wood *) frequented 
this pliaice iii order to^ pay their devotions in it. 
We have not many fuch remains of antiquity, 
and f* -that re^foft I ftiall here iAfcrt a draught 
of it, juft as I had it taken lately, to which 
I am likewifQ the more inclined, b^caufe it 
is.pcobafak, that in &me few years it mzy be 
quite kvelled, and not' only the figure of it 
forgot* but the very place alfo *^hcre it ftood. 
I moft heaitily wifb, that equal care had 
been.atways taken about draughts of other 
buildings (particulatyfacred ones) that were 
of mote than ordinary note. . We might 
then have had a much better idea of the fptrit 
of our ancedor^j tfaaii it is poiTible ibr us to^ 
coUe(3^ norav, either £Dom tradition or written 
hiftory. But for many years before the Conr 
queft, they were not very capable of trans- 
mitting draughts .to pofterity, that part of 
uicfol knowledge being advanced but a little 

• Stowe's Annals^^ p. 97, 


xLvi Mr. hear N E's 

way among our countrymen in comparHbn 
of what it is now. So that it is to their 
ignorance^ in a great meaiiire, that we owe 
the want of the figures of many of their 
noted buildings ; among which we ought to 
reckon the Mynfter of AfTandune, now Afh- 
don, in Effex, which was built * of ftone 
ai>d lime by king Cnute in the year i6%6y 
for the fouls of thoife that were flain there iii 
the year ro 1 6, in a moft bloody battle be-^ 
tween K. Edmund Iron(ide ai)d htmfelf, 

in which Edmuod Ironiide was overcome 
through the . trCfichery + of Eadric Streona 
Earl of Mercia, an4 fiQt long alter flain at 
Oxford J». a knife, or^ as others || fay, a fpeair 
or fpiti b^ing thruA: into his fuii^ment by 
Eadric's own fon (ordered and commanded 
to da {q by bis father, though Ibme lay * 
th? f^th^r did it himfdf) as he was e^ng 
natwe ; for which, however^ Eadric, re^s^ 
CQivod iw^ better reward from Cnute (whom 
^e thought by Juch a pi^e Qf villapy to have 
pleaf^d) than ta be bound hand and foot, and 
9^env^ds to be thrown into the Thames and 
drowned ; though others fay § that he wa^ 
teheadedi wd th^t his head was fet upon a- 

f Leland's Coll. vol. III. p. 85. t Ibid* vol. I. pag. 

143. % lb. vol. I. p. 196. & vol. IT. p. 302. Ij Speed's 

Chron. p. 372, Ed, Lond« 1632. • LelandV GoW. 

yol. I. p. 241. 5 Sec Dugdale's Baronage, voK I^ 



pole oft the higheft gate of London, and his 
body caft without the walls of the city. 
Others + tell uf?, that K. Edtound died a 
natural death j but I look upon the former 
to be the more true accounts However this 
be, I am not ignorant, that the Mynfter at * 
Aflandune is conunonly interpreted to be no- 
thing more than a church ; but for my own 
part I am willing to think that it was fbme- 
thing befides, viz. that there was a religious 
houfe there, and a fuitable provifion made for 
filch as were to celebrate the divine offices in 
behalf of thofe that were flain. The Saxon 
annals call it by no other name than Myn- 
fter, which, I think, will confirm my no- 
tion, the meaning thereof being a monaftery, 
and not a church only. An^ on yiyyum ^gtupt 
(they are the words of the annals, imder the 
year io20.)yecfwg [rmutr} jroji w) Ajrjanbune* 
J letr t:^bjiian yscji an myn/ee/i oj: jrane ^ lime 
jroji 'ps^pt manna jrajyle ]ie jyaji oj:-f la^ne pxjMkm 
'2 pep hit? hi/ anum pjieojte j>ejr nam j«jr sri^^an^. 
To which may be added, that it appears 
Jlkewife from Leland, that there was a mo- 
naftery alfb here, he reckoning + it among, 
the monafteries built before the conquefL 
This Afhdon (the church whereof is not fa 
big as the Mynfter church was J) is three 


X Chron. Sax, fnb an. 1016. Leland's Coll. vol. II. p» iSSp, 
J54. > f ColL vol, I. p. 25, a6. J Nuttc (utferunt) modica 

7 'fi 

XX-viH M R. H E A R N E 's 

miles from Saffron Walden, and the remem- 
brance of the field of battle (in- which the 
flower * of the English nobility was loft) is 
retained to this day +, by certain fmail hills 
there remaining, whence have been digged 
* the bones of men, arnrour, and the water- 
chains of horfe-bridles. 
It h very probstfjfc, that §• 1 7* Th© mfeiition of K. iElfrerfs 
^hr^'ox"l!^''Tre procuring artifts that could build in 
wMS.t«\r;cSj^^^^ ftone, and hi$ .encouraging fuch 
ftr^^'fr^'o^iJ^^^ ^^ of edifices, brings to my mind 
pitched until 26<ii. jj^g £qj^5 and caftlcs. that were built 

by him^ in room of tbofe that had been dc- 
ftroyed by the Dancs^ which were made of 
wood, and therefore not capable of holding 
out fo well againft an enemy as thoie raifed 
by this great king, and fuch *as followed his 
example. And I am the more willing to 
touch upon this fubjeft, becaufe it is one of 
tbofe that are treated of in this colleftion. 
Now the chief end of K. iElfrcd's pains and 
charges about caftles was, partly for orna- 
ment and partly for defence. And though 
I do not yet find any hiftory for it, yet I am 
«f opinion t}\dt feme fort was raifed by him 
in Orford^ as well as in other places. For 

. .' . L • ■:• ' 

j^ etctefia, freflyftn parochian^ deUgnta, Leland's Co!l. vol. 
DI. p. 3 1 6. * In hello de JJ)'endane totus fere globus no- 

tiliintis AngL ca/us efty qui nullo in hello majus unquam <vulnus 
quamihi acceperunt. Lei, ColL vol. II. p. 594. f Speed's 

CikTOn. p* 371. . * '''"^' •' 

' - * fince 


fince that eminent place met with fuch dif- 
nfters from the Danes, and fince it is certain, 
that he was fo great a friend to it, and did 
all that lay in his power for its fecurity, me- 
thinks it cannot well be fiippofed, that he 
Ihould leave it without a. fort. That too 
which countenances the conjecture is this, 
that in the old arms of Oxford we have a 
caftle with a large^ ditch and a bridge, as may 
appear from an heraldry book in the hands 
of my very worthy friend Thomas Raw- 
linfon, Efq; w^iich arms I take to have been 
originally derived from the fol*t that was 
erefted at Oxford, before the famous caftle 
built by Robert D'Oiley the firft, a notable 
man that came into England with K. Wil- 
liam the Conqueror. But then the caftle 
built by D'Oiley was much more confiderable 
than the former, though, I believe, the 
mote was not broader or wider than it had 
been, even before the undertaking of D'Oiley. 
This Oxford caftle in old writings is often 
called by no other name than Mota^ and I 
am apt to think, that the fort, that was at 
Oxford before^ the time of D'Oiley, had no 
other name than Mota, which was very pro- 
per, fince it was defended ^vith fo very large 
a ditch- So that I believe D*Oiley did not 

r, - y 

make a new ditch^ biit 'only cleanfed the 

former, and made it tnore fit for defence of 

thb walls of the town, as w^ell as for fecurity of 

Vol. I. g the 

Mr. H E a R N E's 

the caftic, of both which he was founder, of 
rather reftorer *, as he was alfo founder of 
the great bridge^ called Grandpont +, on the 
fouth fide of Oxford. And yet in iElfred^s 
time the ditch might be as j5t, if not fitter for 
defence, than when it was renewed by 
D^Oilej. For though ^lfred*s building 
was of fta!ie, yet it was nothing equal to 
that of D'Oiley's for ftrength, the artificeirs 
he employed being not fo Ikilful as thofe 
that appeared after the Conquefl : upon which 
account there was the more need of a very 
large and deep ditch. Yet it muft be al- 
lowed, that one end of fb Urge and deep a 
ditch was fof the fake of the fcholara. Had 
it ftot been fb deep and wide, it would have 
been more ndifome, and confequently have 
been very prejudicial to the health of the 
fcholars* Being fo big, aiid continual care 
being taken to keep it clean, the water was 
very clear, arid the flream was . pretty fwift* 
For which reafbii it was properly called Fqffa 
Candida^ and we are informed that the water 
drove feveral mills; among which mills, 
however, mufl not be reckoned the water- 
mill where | Merton College great qua- 
drangle is now, which was not drove by the 

* Leland's Itin. vol. IT. p. 14. f Mon. Angl. vol. 1. 

106. b. Dugd.i Baronage, voLl. 460, J Coll. nbftra 

Mss. vol. Lxxxvm. p. 24. ■ 



water of the town ditch, but by the water 
that caxne by a fubterraneous * paflage or 
channel from, the Cherwell near St. Croffe's, 
iiow called Holyvyell Church. But then the 
contrary is to be oblerved of the mill at 
North-gate. For that. was drove by the wa- 
ter oY the town ditch, fome of^ which ran 
down Thames-ftreet, which was formerly 
a deep hollow way, and was not pitched un- 
til the year i66i^ when the following in- 
fcription was fixed in a certain wall, that 
was made at the feme time on the north fide 
of the fame ftreet j 










K. Offk had bailt wali^ at 
Oxford before the time «£ 
K. JElfrcd* Arms that 
have cables «n them an 
argumfent of fortitude. 
Other ufcs, befides orna- 
mjpnt and miUtary fcrvice, 
di^figned by the towers on 

§. 1 8. There is, moreover, another 
reafon to believe, that a fort or^ caftle 
was built at Oxford by K. ^Elfred, 
and that is this, that king OfFa had 
built + walls at Oxford (where he fheu^ttoX^Th^ 
fought with the Kentifh men) before jr 'iKmi: oAh? 
his days, which I fuppofe, M alfo ^^" '^^^ '' '^^'''^' 

• Stthterraneus aqu^e meatus a Cbar'well prope ecclejtam S, 
Crucis n/que ad CdlL Merton. Moknd, £sf is, acr, prati data 
Merion CollT^perJo, de Abingdon y Haringtotiy £-f Yejley, Sic 
in Coll. noftr. MSS. jam citat. Vol. LX XXVIII. p. 33. 

t ColL noAr. MSS. vol. LXXXVIII. p. 24. 

g 2 fbnie 

Lii Mr. H E a R N E*s 

Ibme fuch fortiticntion as might b? termed a 
cafllc, tRough built and formed In a different 
manner from the fortifications that were 
afterwards crefbed. Which being fb, can 
we imagine that K. -'^Llfred would leave Ox- 
ford in a weaker condition that it had been- 
Icft^ by the faid K- OfFa, as he certainly would. 
Lad he not made provilion for its defence 
both by walls and a caflle ? It is, therefore, 
highly probable, that K. ^"Elfjred alfo, befide?; 
a caflle, raifed walls about Oxford, and that 
the avails were made the flronger, as well as 
more beautiful, by certain towers placed at 
proper diflances from each other, in imitation 
of the old Pids w^all built by the Romans, 
in which there were fnch bulwarks. So as 
even the walls themfelves reprefented, as it 
were, lb many caftles, for which reafop the 
figures of ancient caftles in arms are ufually 
made to refemble the battlements of walls, 
as may appear from the arms of * Oldcaftle 
and Sampfon, which perfectly agree with the 
figures of the old Roman Cajlra on coins, as 
well as with fuch Roman w^alls as are now 
extant. Ajms with fuch figures are cer- 
tainly honourable, as betokening that thole, 
to whom they were firfl: given, were perlbn§ 
of very great fortitude, having fcaled and 

• MS. of Thomas Rawlinfon, Efq; before quoted, p. 



PREFACE. till 

broke through thick and ftrong walls, and 
been viftorious over a powerful enemy. Nor 
can any one deny, that wherever caftles are 
feen in arms they denote valour and ftrength; 
hi the fame manner as the pictures of St. 
George and the dragon fignify courage like- 
tvife, and are therefore feen in fbme old halls, 
particularly in the old hall of Beffels-leigh, 
or Bleffels-leigh Houfe, near Abbington in 
Berkfliire, the martial Ikill of the Beflills, 
or Bleffels, being deligned by it, as it was 
by many other monuments, preferyed, in 
Mr. Leland's time *, at that place. The 
arms therefore of the town of Pontefradt are 
very properly reprefented by the figure of a 
very ftrong and almofl: impregnable caftle, 
agreeable to the nature of that place, as we 
find in antiquity. From fuch kind of arms 
we may fometiines difcover the ftrength of 
onoxaftle above another. So Pontefradt ap- 
pears from the arms (for it is now demo- 
lifhed t) and the valuable pi(flure of it in the 


• Leland's Iti^ vol. VII. p. 6i. 

t " Pontefradt Caftle. An account hotv it nuas taken : And 
" btnu general Rainsborough luas furprijed in bis quarters at 
•* Doncafter, anno 1648. In a letter to a friend. By captain 
" Tho. Paulden, ^written upon the occajion of prince Eugene's 
** furpri/ing Monfr. Villeroy at Cremona. In the Savoy, 
" printed by Edward Jones, m d c c 1 1 1 . 410. The letter dated 
** March 31. 1702. In '27. pages. It is a very excellent, re- 
" markable paper, the author being one of thofe engaged in 
" the aitairs it treats of. He was 78. years old when he writ 

«' it 

Lfv Mr. H E a R N E's 

Afhmolean M.ufeum, to have been ftronger 
than even Totnefs, the Devizes, Exeter, 
Barhftable, Windfor, Cahie, Norwich, and 
feyeml others, though lefs ftrong than Ox- 
ford. For the v fame reafon the ^ arms of 
Chaftlet;^ or Chaftley have forts, nothing 
near lb confiderable as thoie arms that are 

denoted b\r caftles. But after all it muft be 

•* . . ' ' ' ' . "^ 

noted, that the towers on the walls of Ox* 
ford were added by K. -Alfred, not only for 
iiiiUtary fervice, but likewife for other fpe- 
cFal ufes, as they ivere aftjerwards alfo by 
D'Olley. Upon this account I meet with, in 
Irvntings relating to Oxford, a turret on the 
walls, called TAe May den Chamber y being^; 
fuppofed to have been a prifon or houfe of 
corfefltion for fcandalous women: * /? maf'-^ 
den Chambre in tiirri muri Oxon. & forfan 
prijona mutterum publicarum. That prifon 
called formerly Bockord^ and now Bocai^do^ 
is thought hy feveral, from the fignifi.cation 
of the word t? to have been anciently a li- 
brary ; but I will fufpend my own judgment, 

•* it, Afterthe.cj^llleof Pomfretwas furrerJdered;(which was 
^- afier the.k^ing wai bel>eacled) it was demoliiliedj fo that 
'» now there rcmaips nothing of that magniucent ii^rudlure, 
** but feme ruins of the great tower, where, the tradition is, 
** king Ricjiard the IJ. was murdered." So in my MSS, Coll. 
vol. XLVII. p. 33. 

* C. 11. noflr. MSS. vol, LXXXVUL-p. 12. 

t Saxon di<5v. in the word Bochont), and Mr. 
VvYcd^s IJiJi. ^ Jntiq. Univ. Gxoa. Vol. I. p. 8. 

7 as 


P R E F A C iE* 'i.y 

as to this particular, \^iitil I meet.^^ff^ :^f9e 
confirmation- I c^npptyiiowey^er, Jjjjtrfhjiftk, 
that K. ^^Llfrcd (who ordained c^mMpn /ol^i^pls 
of divers fciences i^ Oxford ^) li^ftituted a; li- 
brary at Oxford for the ufe of the cofiimpii 
fttidents; and it is not unlikely but. ^ *3^ghc 
be by the walls, and either at, or not .very 
far from the fame plage where the ,d|\(iiiity 
fchool, and a famous iibraj;y over it vW^re 
afterwards erected by feveral J^eni^jftprs, 
and not (as is commonly reckoned) .yhqUy 
by duke Humphrey, as bifhpp .Qpd^/in f 
hath well obferved, and may be.morejfully 
Xeeii in the appendix ;|; X.o .this ,wqrk. Aod 
where fuch buildings on or at the walls were 
placed, it is likely they were diftiiiguifhed 
by more than ordinary towers and pinnacles, 
as a lign that they were intended for .fome 
other ufe than the common walls. Withal 
It is likely, that in fome of the to\y(s:rs there 
were bells, hung ,there on purpofe to give 
warning when there were hpHilities ; and 
there was the greater reaion to prevent fuch 
dangers, becaufe of the great charge at Ox- 
ford that the governors had upon ^Qcpunt of 

thofe committed to their education. Nor 

■ J ■ . . ■ . . 

• " In the chronicle of Brute of England, in Bibl, JodL 

" inter Cbdd. Hatton. at the bottom of the pages of which 

" arc put many notes by a later hand."'So in ColL nofir. MSS. 

vol XLVII. p. 48. t De Prae/. P- 24?. Ed. Lat. 

't Num. Vm. IX. 



I- VI Mr, H E a R N E^s 

can any one think, that Alfred was back- 
ward in this point of difcipline, or that he 
negledted even bells, when he knew the Pa- 
gans were afraid of them, as believing that 
there was an extraordinary virtue in them. 
Nor were fuch bells placed only in fome of 
the common towers of the walls, but in fe- 
veral chapels that were alio by the walls, 
that they might be of ule to fuch as were 
obliged, by virtue of their office, to refide at 
the walls. But that which made bells the 
more terrible to the pagans was that they 
had generally, fuch names given them as 
carried awe with them, and whereas feveral 
loffes had often happened to fuch, as fpoiled 
churches and chapels, and frequently alfo to 
thoie that did injury to confecratcd bells, 
(which were formerly, as well as fince, often- 
times, though very unjuftly, claimed by the 
prevailing enemy, upon furrender of towns, 
as their own *) they were eafily induced to 
believe, that there was a very great power in 
bells, a thing which was likewife believed 
even after our whole ifland became Chriftian. 
Whence it is, that many ftories are reported 
of the fix famous bells of Olhey, whofe 
names were t Douce, Clement, Auftin, 
Hautefter (or Hautcleri) Gabriel and John. 

* See the appendix to this work, num. X. f Seethe 

appendix to this work, num. XI. 

§• 19- 

P'^IE' 35 F A G .E. ivii 

r ' • • 

•§^ I Oi... The. learned Di^. THdtnas The puuratr Jefpairs of 

• 1 • 1 • i gating k perfca lift of 

Smith,. ittmsUfe of Sir Robert Cot- *u the mtmbcrs of tiic 

I . .\ .y ' ' y^ fbc'cty of antiquaries. It 

totij^ hiath gtfeti up A Iilr of loitie 5s»«diffi<«'Uaifo topro* 

^1 - - Y ' ' /- I /• • /• *^^*^* *" '^^ diflcrtations 

or the ' mecnoets of the, lociety of ^rawn iit>bf th«m. The 

afldqU^ieS; ^O; WblCI^ others might Fnacls Tate. An ae- 

1 , 1 , T^- -• s-^ Ti >c . tount of t6lle£Hons made 

be aadeq^ .. a9 M?. JBowyer, ^r. b;y him upon fcvcrai en- 
differ Mf. WalterCope, Mr;Er<ff^ Sn^-^f MfAl"^^ 
wick^^ : Ut\ •Savel of the Middle ^' ^^^^ 
Temple^. Mr; Straiigeman, and. Mn Wife-; 
m'«i» But! <!eipair of getting a p^feft cata^ 
Jogue dftkok -eimnent and excellent men^ ' 
feyeral, of ^jJieii" najpaes having been induf- 
trioHtly cpncejs^. finee the diflblution of the 

foclety, yI:^*^^ ^P^P i* ^J^ ^P ^ ^s imppf^ 
fible to procure ^a|l the diflertations that were 
drawn Hp,b3!r,the;h* There were certainly 
a great maijj, jbefides thofe that pr» Smith 
coUefked. But then thefe. having not come to 
my hands^.X will ieaye it to the ^ poffeflbrs 
of them (wboevei\they maybe) tp,?iccount 
for them. Yet I caiinpt but here take notice, 
that one, of the mo{\: ;aflidiT0us of thpfe anti- 
quaries was Mr. Tate. For though there 
be only one difcourfe of his in 4:his collec- 
tion, yet he feems to have written many 
more. For my friend John Anftis, Efq; a 
truly learned .antiquary and. herald, hath 
lent me a 4to MS. written by Mr. Tate's 
own hand, in which there are abundance of 
colkftions relating to.niany heads* in our 
autiquities. It is true, they are only bare 
Vol. !• h colledions. 

Lvm Mr. hear N E's 

coUedious, and put iixto no methodical orderr 
However, lipice ?n uuufual induAiy appears . 
in gathering the pafTages tqgether, and fiuce. , 
they arc upon fuch curious fubje^ts^ I cannot - 
but think that, he methodized fome, if noR ^ ' 
all of them, and afterwaicds offered accurate 
difcourfes. to the fociety at their meetings r 
whatever fefe they may hfiye fuflfercd fincfei- 
But a better judgment will be made of Mx^, 
Tate*s diligence in thefe affairs from a, lift of 
the heads in Mr. Anftis's MS. Upon which ^ 
account I fliall here, anjiex it. 

I. Of the antiquity x>f Seals ^ Sec. 

II . Of what antiquity the name, g^' dux or duks , 
is in England^ and what is the ejlate tbere^ 
of? 27. Nov. 1590. The fame quejiion 'u^as 
again propoj^d 2^. 1^0. 1598. 

III. If%ft is the antiquity and expo/it iofi of the , 
loord Sferiingoioim or Sterling ? 27* No- 
vembris 1590. . 

IV. Of the antiquity. of marquijes in England^ 
the manner of their creation and fignifica^^ 
tion of their iiame. 1 1. Febr. 1590. 

V. Of earls and their antiquity here in Eiig^ 

- - • * 

yj. Of* the original of fealing here in England 
with arms or otherwife. ^3. Junii 33- 
Eliz. 1591^ 

VI L Of the antiquity of n)if counts here in Eng^ 
landf their manner of creation ^ and . other 



mHtter amceming vijcounts. 23. Junii 33. 

VIII. Of the antiquity^ dignity^ and privi^ 
leges of barons here in England ^ and Jignu 
Jicatfon of the name. 25. Novembris 34. 

£liz. 1 591* 

IX, Of the antiquity and diverfity of tenures 
> here in England. 25. die Novemb. ijpi* 

34* EliE. • 

X <y the antiquity and diverfty of knights. 

6; Mali is^t. 
XI. Of the mtiquity^ dignity^ and privileges 

offirjeants at the law. 12. Febr. 1593. 

The colle£iioas upon this head are contained 

in two pages. Then follows this titk, 
. ^he antiquity of ferjeants at arms. But 

th^re is not fb much as a word obferved 

about it, only f9ur pages are left blank to 

iDQnta^in colt^ions. 
IKll.Of the fgnijication and etymology of the 
. name of Efquier, and of the antiquity and 

privilege of them. 1 1 . Mail 1 5 94* 
Xllh The antiquity, etymology^ and privileges 

jf the gentility of England. 19, Junii 

XIV. Of the etymg^^gy, oripnaU ereSlion, 

and jurifdiSiion of county palatines in Bng-^ 

land. .27. Novenibris, 37. Eliz. 1594. 

XV* Of the etymology and antiquity of honours 

and mannors. 271 Novemb. 1594* Ajftejf 

th^ coUeftioas upon this head, follows 

h 2 this 

•I* . 

hx Mr\ h e a R n e-:*s' 

this titlcf JFh'cA is th nv^' mrtknt taurt 
for the miniftring of juftice univeffalfy 
within, the realm. 29; Mali 155I5. PoUr 
blank pages ai*e left for coUedions, but 
there, is Abt a. word written about itv ; 
XVI. "The antiquity and privileges ofJanSfmy 

within the redhn. ^ TV". 

.^VHt (y the antiquity of arks kireiniBng-^ 
land. 2. Nov. Mich. 40. Eliz,-i598/ , 

XV III. Of the etyrhology^ antupiity^ and pfi^ 
vileges of cities in England^; and pj^fjhfll 
be called a city. 9. Febh ^598. 4iV,^lii* 

XIX. ^he etymology, atrtiquityi dignfLy^^^md 
privHege^ of cajiles herc^ in E^i^d^^i!^. 
ikf/?// 1599. 4J. Eliz. -'X 

XX' Of the €tytnohg^y,a)Hiqmty\ i^^ 

leges of towns in Engknd. i 3 j kriii -TOn. 
. ±\, Eliz. 1500. * ' * ' ... V 

XXI. Of the antiquity y etymjogyi ^nS^h)i^ 
' i^ges of paHJ^s in EMgbnd, ^^^''t^:r^l^U 

•. Eliz, 1599*- ; -■ - ■ •.^'•*. .' -^ *:'•"' fVv^ 

XXII. :0/'7/&(? anttqmty, .!e;^i0hgy^ 'jMd^v^^ 
riety ^ dimenfiphs qf landm Bsg^^^.rd^',. 

XXni,;Q/' t&e antiquity, fervices, attd^^ies 
(t^pertafm^ifi a, kiiigii^s fse. ^^. Fiferv 
. 'I599' 4f< Eiiz, - ■ . ' :. ... 

XXIV. Office /tr^iquity, vtiruiy/ dnd- «^tf- 
, momes offmsra/hin En^iit^: j6: Audits 


» I « ^ , 

PR ^ ;-F A* C - £. ixi; 

yXV, Of tie^at^iqvity and laariety df:iomBs 
ceafed. y,}\xtm.itooi • 

XXVI. sfbe' antiqaity -and fele^ed variety 
^/epitaphs, 3. Novembris 1600. M. 41* 

XX-VII, (j/* the antiquify and fileSied 'Variety 
cf ^Qts uyier arm J dnd the reafon thetiaf, 
28.; Kol 43; Ellz. 1600. 

T^jfjSi^ths antvimky, ufe^ atid eerefnmies 
}^,i^ful:cm^s. in. England, x^. Febr. 

i^^^iiajr of t^^^ notf, but^new 

,'l§<^0-, Thefei^e all noble lubjeas,- Mr. Ta^e very weU verf- 

^iJ-.^rfr;vTate- . coo'fulted -tKe - beft • m^cy^^'^^^ ^°^ 

bifebin oj^ W% the more ac-;tt.*1^:Srion"ofau 
Ciifii&lr. ibotit ih&a'. As he was a J^o-^^*? »'■»«<=»' deOr^u 

gr§ati^ antiquary, vir muhi- 

ju^M'4rM4hio0^^ faith 

S^;'JSfeldea ih^ prefa?c^ to Hengllam,, aiid. 
of-ie^^iJite ikill uitde Saion language, *:|^ 
he;j&4qudiitly : cites the ancient * laws, year 
bboJ^s,* and fecw^ j - 'fettt then 'What occurs in 
this fbixM^ i>eiiig[ only collid^i^ions, as 'I ^have 
hinted, above,; I Mve/ judged it more 'proper 
to fiipprafs than tfo puMtft them, though at 
the lame time it muft be aHowqd, that they 
will be of extraordinary ufe to fuch as ihall 


XKii Mr. H E a R N E's 

Among other bQok$ of antiquity » that MnTate 
iva& well verfed in> muft not be fborgoctifn that 
Qpted pnef confimonly esLlisA JD^mrfiiay IB^ifcii 

. this he fsrvfed over aiid over, ^nd^x traded 
many things from it ; and to render it the more 
intelKgibk tor c^ers, he explained die abbre- 
viated words in it. Copiea of this fexJpUcation 
are in many hands, and I have entered one in 
my own coUe^ons *, which I' (hall fubjoin 

.in this place, as a thing ahogether ^agreeable 
to. 13^ present defign. Beiides which ^xpli* 
catiCHi, ho wrote likewiiiet anotheir thitigre* 
lating to Qomefday^ which fupplit^d tlie de- 
fers , of the former^ and that was, Exf^tio 
veriorum dijiciliorum in . lii'^ de D^tfday* 
But this is a fubje<^ that I leave to be dif*; 
courfed of by thofe, that have an oppokif * 
nity of infpefting and perufing this ^m^^ ve- 
nerable monument of anttqmty, ;whwh I 
havp often wilhed were. , printed"^ entir^y, 
there beif^g no furvey of any dther cotMjtry 
whatfoeveir ejjual to it. Tlw. apcieot Romu 
Itineraries haye been always valued^ and that 
defervedly ; yet they are trifles in comp»<r 
rifbn of thiis mofl: admirable furvey, done 
with fuch an exadnefs, and fb much dili« 
gence, as would be hardly credible, were it 
ftot certain, that the Normans were tefedvcd 

• VoL LXXXVin. p. ,S4, 


rba abbreviata m llhio 



BV Ber^aiida. 
i bo ro. Bo I* da i-i i 

C4xi!>y Carudata V 
c". eit. 


i^. kic! liasc hoc?, 
h undr e dum . 
^ hall a dapitali^. 
t. Haula donnikS* 

^"B, kabebat. 
1 1. 2000. 
j^.; lono-itttcline . 
iazT latitudo. 

Of), maneriuni . 
m. iiiodo< 
iT. lit. 
^ ^ o . q uan do Q ^o 

do. quando . 
d, quod, 
^quarentena . 


ipjxac. xViXxcina^. 


f^.fed. _ 

J c anz uT, e f d ajtibtum 

T.RE . tempore nBgi5 
Edw [Confef^.] 

C- C VL o. tantun z 

c _ dem. 

Ca/7i. tamen. 

t. villani 

u v^ vero. 

XXX tiriointa. 

1^ * ' 

•• * 

I ♦ .' 


f- « 

» ■ 

* ^ 

> * 

4 JL .fe 

« k X 

• > • ^ 

P R E IF A^'C fe. 'LxV 

to make the beft ufe of their conq^weft, and* 
to fecure every inch of ground to themfelves.* 
There are accounts of Ibme whole counties' 
printed froni this book, and they are very- 
good fpecimcns of the mtire work, and can-- 
not but make thofe that are in love with bur 
antiquities^ the more carneftly to defire alt 
of it* But, it may be, there ar^ private 
confiderations which m^y hinder an edition,' 
as indeed it too often happens, that the pub- 
lick intereft of learning fufFers by reaibn of- 
private concerns, 

§. !!• We l^arn from the fb^e- the amcients had cmaii^ 
going lift, that Mr. Tate collefted cout^^.TimtnameMti th« 

^•1 1 ^ 1^ xTft'i^ -f*"*^ ^hK th« ancient 

materials about combats. Which' prrrhi-t. Trcja and 
whenlfirftfew, lexpeaed fevei^l ^>-^'- «<?' ^i^^~^- 

particulars about tournaments. But I was ' ^ 
very much disappointed. Nor hath the col*- 
ledor, on that occafion, had rccourfe to the 
Greek and Roman authors. I have faid' 
many things about tournaments in my pre- 
face to Guilielmus Neubrigenjis^ - which I will ' 
not repeat here. I will, however, take this 
opportunity of remarking, that although the ' 
ancients had dcvifes and engines to^throw* 
darts and javelins to annoy their enemibs a' 
far off, yet they had no guns (for w)i^t 
foroe pretend tx) prove frorp Pfulgilrams \% r 
no more than' fi£BoA) but fmightit ouf^ 
man to man, with down right blows, joi»- - 
ing foot to foot and hand to hand : and 

i among 

txvi Mr. hear N E's 

among them alio, they had * fundry fortir 
of publick exercifes and games for wagers^ 
Specially thefe five : wreflling ; hurling a 
coyte, who could hurl it fartheft or higheft ; 
running or leaping ; combating with lea- 
thern bags having plummets laanging at the 
ends thereof; barriers and tournaments on 
horie-back : all which are mentioned by 
Homer» as well as by Virgil and Paufariias. 
To which the Romaiis afterwards added 
another^ which was, fighting with (hips on 
the water. This was exhibited and kept 
in a fblemn manner, efpecially in the reign 
of Auguflus Caelar, the better to preferve 
the remembrance of his noble vidtory at 
ASiium^ and the (hew thereof wa^ on the 
river Tyber. Thefe exercifes were to pro- 
mote Courage and military difcipline. This 
was the end likewife of the Tat/foxaSa^i** 
After^vards another kind of warlike exercife 
on .horfeback was added, namely the Fyr^ 
rbica +, which others termed Troy^ and it 
was iccuflomed to be openly (hewed in the 
ufual field of exercife, called Campus Mar-^ 
tins. This was no other than what our an- 
ccftors called properly Tournaments, which^ 

• See Lamb. Danaras's treatire touching dice-pky and 
pfophat)e gaming* tranilated by ^hd; Newton, Lond. 
\^%6.%^. in tbe^ laft 1«^ of the fignatureE. for it is not 
pagcjL. . . t. Pol* Virgil- de Uv. R<r. 1. H, c. 13* 

r . - « word 

wor^ fbme ♦ will have to be %>lfi^ttftlly 7r*r ' 
j amenta. There was iio ^ftfdity iii^ the 
word Troy. That people Wts \f6 ;fainouV9 \ 
that others thought it great hmiour t0 be de- * 
rived from thati." 'There ^fe likctvife an ^ 
emDlatioa among brave itieii to iequal thern* 
in their military ads. Hente The *i:|^mes off 
the brave heroes- oif' thole tiiinels have been 
made ufe of to diftinguiih men of^ courage* 
Nieiy and the vet^ form of the city of - Troy - 
was thought to have a peculiar virtue 
in it^ in fo muth, that even the common 
Shepherds pretend to keep it up in the 
common Fields. But however this be,' 
there can be no doubt, I think, that the ex- 
ereife called Trey was fo named from that 
place. Virgil + is exprefs authority : 

Huncmorem cur/us, atq; hac certamina primus 
Afcanius longam muris cum cingeret Album 
'Rettulit; (S prifcos docuit cekbr are Latinos. 


And prefently after, 
TrQJaque nunc pueri Trojantim dicitur agmen. . 

I am very fenfible,, that ibme make Troja 
and Pyrrbica to be different games, fb that, 
according to them, Pyrriica was exercifed 
on foot. But Servius ws^s of a quite different 

* Horpiiiian de origine Feftor. p. 15 a. Tig. 1592. fol.-^ 
•t JEn. 1. V. 

12 opinion. 


tKVW* Mw. H E A R N E*s 

opiitioaf aAd -he cites Suef6td\i9 to coofirm 
it> Ut ait SUeto^ Tranqm/Uss, iudu^ ifft^ 
quem^vu^9 Fyrrbtcmn appeikfit^ Trt^a vpca^ 
tur^ eujus ^riginm exfr^ffit in lib. de putro". 
rum lufibus. He could not hav6 produced a 
better authority than Suetonius^ who in his 
\VQrk d€ puerdrum lucibus (which is now Joft) 
had treated expreflly and fully about this 
fut^c^t^ and I do n<^ quefHooi but he had* 
touched upon it likewise iti his Hifti>ria ludi^ 
croj the firft book whereof is n^entionferd Ijy 
Aulus Gellius *, .and^ perh&ps^ .what Suidas 
calls + rig^l T»Y TTotf' ?AAin7rT«(^w /3i€^iV cc\_ 
was only part, of it. Suetgniu^ ieem^ d^o 
to have iaid fomething upoa the iame ful^-\ 
je<a in his work, U^t rSy ira^ '?^fAai9ii 
6gA)^x(kJfv 9^ 4y^¥(i^i^ and in that n^^i '^dfjcmf 9^ 

rwy Iv avrin vofJLifJicav 5 inlZvj of both which 

there is mention in Suidas, who, withal, 
Ipeaks of a book of his written 'againft Di* 
dyrnus about proper names, and^ the Icve* 
ral forts of cloaths, Ihoes, ax^d pther hf^bili-^ 

ments. AvTi?\iyii /^g TflS Ai^ofjic^ Trepi gVo- 

And, it may be, this lail was the ^me 
with what Servius calls J de genere vefitufn. 
But though Suldas gives us Greek titles, 

• L. IX, c. 7. t Voc: * t In viir. 

• » 


1?-:, K ;e.afi a: crt. l^-ukt 

S4etpBy|$:twnr;iii .-that kilg^ag^irjit-b^ing: • 

cuftomary. .with' him to da^ fo A^Jheu he^ 

fpe^ka of other Roman, writers^ • -Nor was:. 

it ufual with the Gr^k author^. to give X-a* 

tiil tiflp% however writ in tluit - lai>gtTage,.* 

1 ai«r a^ ta think, that in the w^ork whence 

the. jbajbitfe wfcrc; tc^^ of,' expreft/uotice^ ' 

w«| ;takea : of the habits • of the- you ih that- 

ufed to exercife in the ^roja or Pyrrhka*. 

the C2iptaia o£ whtdi> -who ruibd'tcj he tb^ ; ^ ^ 

fan reithcr of aa lorapcrour Mor feofttor, \vaa> y 

ftiled Frmce^s: jwmiiutu^ a title 'wljiih ft^": 

qucaUy 0CGU1T3 oa .Ae Imperial coiefs.' .r« ' • ; 

§. ^^* Mr J Ijate ms- • vcricd^ not, ^Mf ^ Twificiiw in tiic 
oi^)r,mr€ttirEngiilh' antiqurttQS, but,ta«ita!»«aiKt with Mr. 
ia thoie likewifc . whiiii are pureiy It^^^l^r^n^i 
Brieilhi for which xeafon he held a '^^Ml"1S^i^^^l^^^^ 
cori^fpondence with Mr. Jones, . aV ^^ISc,i:) own^^^^ 
getttlemmi oif admirable knowledge^*?''*' , 
in fhfat prfrtof l^arniiig, and was alfo a very 
emiiient lawyei», and wr^te a boofc of laws. 
It wftg to this p6rfbii that Mr. Tate comma*' 
nicated hrs thougftts, and vs4ien he had any 
quefHons* to be felved about the Britilh 
al&irs, * he ahvay^ applied to him, and he as . 
offeft receiviskl reidy and pertinent anfwers* 
The Tiioft material of thole tjueftioua arid 
anfweKf are now remainkig. Atid, ' for bet- 
ter iatysfedioft to the reader, I have pub- 
liflied them, from a tranfcript communi- 
' cated 


Mr. hear N E^ 

cated to me by my learned friend Jdm 
Bridges, Efq; at the end of Dr. Srthth's col- 
Icfllon, which concludes with Mn Camden's 
difcourfe about Barons- After thefe quef- 
tions and anfwers I have added, from my 
own colleftions, Mr. Thynnc's and Sir 
John Dodderidge's difcourfes about h^alde, 
both which I find to agrees with the Cc^ies 
that are preferved in Mr. Alhmoie's Mii. 
w^i^*we §• 23. I have nothing tnom to iaiy^^zt pre- 
fr^hlt'^ ^^^ but to forwarn the .reader to take no* 
tice, that I have all along followed the 
MSS. I have made yiit o£. So that when^i* 
ever there appears any defeft or errcur, whe- 
ther in the orthography or the ientence, Jie - 
muft remember, that the fame occtirrs alfa: 
in the MSS. it being a principle with m^ 
not to alter MSS* even where better an^^ 
more proper readings are vety plain and obi 
vious* For I have often known, that^^hat 
hath proved to be the true reading which . 
hath been rejefted. Zeta for Diata aj^ars 
In MSS: Velferus (hews tRat it is a v/ery 
good one. So we have Zabulus for J^iapolus 
in old writings ; and fuch as illuftrate the 
ecclefiaftical authors fhew, that it is no cor- 
iniption. That Parifus occurrs in all cafes 
is proved by Brian Twyne* . There ^ ,are 
many inftancses of the fame nature. Jh would 
apt, however, from hence have it believed, 


P 1^^ E F A C E. 

that I ^rxr-^or defending' corruptions^^, I am 
only for fidelity. I Would therefore retain 
Tenting the infcription qn a famous medal of 
Lewis the XlVth. though classi be the 
true word. 

Edmund- Hall Oxon. 
March 26. 1720. 


* •' ■ ^ 



• • ♦ ' v^ 


* ■» » ' 

J.' :. / 

• f 

t / 

/ » 

• « * ^ • 

* » W 


THE revival of learning which had 
made a confiderable progrefs in 
this kingdom at the death of 
king Edward the fixth, met with a very 
fevere * check from the conduft of his 
fifter and fucceflbr queen Mary. The 
intemperate zeal, which that princefs, on 
her acceffion to the throne, exerted for 
the re-eftabliflmient of popery, and her 
violent perfecution of the proteftants^ 
forced many of her moft learned fiibjedla 
to ieek for an afylum in foreign couiv 
tries ; whilft thofe few who remained at 
home, dared not any longer continue 
thek* literary purfuits, for fear df being 
either looked upon as heretics, or fiif- 
pefted of difafFedion and contriving ma- 
chitirsftioiis for the fubverfion of govern- 

Happily however the ftorm which 
thus overwhelmed the ftate of letters in 
England, and flrongly threatened its 
fpeedy deftruclion, was unexpectedly 
difperfed, and ended with the reign of 
queen Mary. No fborier had Eli;iabeth, 
who was herfelf an excellent fcholar. 

Vol. I. *a mounted 

ly 1 N r rf O 13 U C T I ON. 

mounted the throne, than flic, ftood 
forth the patronefs of learning, and re- 
moved every obftacle to the literary 
purfuits of her people. By her the {In- 
dent was conftantly encouraged and pre- 
fcrredj and men of found erudition 
afliduoully fought for, and promoted to 
the higheft offices and preferments i» 
church and ftate. 

At this aufpicious period^ a fet of gen- 
tlemen of great abilities, many of them 
ftudents in the inns of court, applied 
themfelves to the ftudy of the antiquities 
and hiftpry of this kingdom, a tafte at 
that time very prevalent, wifely forefee- 
ing that without a perfed: knowledge of 
thofe requifites, a thorough underftand^- 
ing of the laws of their natjvc country 
could not be attained. 

For the better carrying on this their 
laudable purpofe> they about the four- 
teenth year of the reign of queen Eli- 
zabeth formed themfelves into a college 
or fociety under the proteftion of that 
great patron of letters Matthew Parker, 
archbifliop of Canterbury, and laid down 
the neceflary rules for their conferences 
.and condud:. 

Their method of proceeding appears 

to have been this : At every meeting 

, two of the body being appointed propo- 

V .. . . iitors 


fitors and moderators *, gave out one f 
or more qiieftions as they thought pro-^ 
per, upon which each member was ex- 
pefted at the fubfequent meeting, either 
to deliver in, a diflertation in writing, or 
to fpeak his opinion : and in order there- 
unto a copy of each queflion was fent to 
fuch members as happened to be abfent* 
The opinions fpoken were carefully 
taken down in writing by the fecretary, 
and, together with the diflertation s deli- 
vered in, after they had been read and 
confidered, carefully depofited in their 
archives $. This ibciety daily encreaP 
ing by an acceffion of new and learned 
members, feveral of v/hom were perfbns 
of high rank and diflinguiflied abilities, 
they entertained fbme thoughts of erect- 
ing a library, and obtaining for them- 
felves a charter of incorporation, under 
the ftile of The y^cademy for the Study of 
Antiquity and Hijiory founded by ^een 
Elizabeth. A petition for that purpole, 
together with reaCbns for fuch an cfta- 
blifliment, were a<ftually delivered to the 
queen || ; but this projed:, for what rea- 

• Fauftina, E. v. 

t Sir Henry Spelman in his preface to the Law Terrak 
tells us, that two queflion^ were propofed at every meeting; 
but this mail be a mii^ajce^ for feveral of the fummonfes, 
jnention one queAion only. 
^ X Fauftina, E. v. 

I See the Petitioa aiid Realbns* poUea vol. IL p. 324. 



fibns we are not told, unhappily mifcar- 
ried. The fociety however continued 
in a flourifliing condition until the year 
1604, when, many of their chief fup* 
porters dying, particularly their fecond 
great patron archbiftiop Whitgift, and 
the jealoufy of king James the firfl: fuG- 
pe^iing their loyalty and attachment to 
his government, their meetings were diir 

About fourteen years after, fome of 
the old members, together with feveral 
of the mod eminent lawyers of that time, 
renewed the aflembly of the fociety: and 
they having formed fome rules for their 
governance, and refolved not to meddle 
either with matters of ftate or religion, 
propofed two queftions to be difcufied at 
their next meeting. But before the 
time fixed on for that purpofe, they re- 
received notice that his then majefty took 
a diflike to* the fociety, he not being in- 
formed that they had refolved to decline 
all matters of ftate, whereupon their in* 
tended meeting was ftopt and the focietj 
diflblved f. 

On this event their papers became 
difperfcd; but fortunately a confiderable 
part of them, together with feveral of 
their notes and obfervations, foon after 
falling into Mr. Camden's hands, were 
by him depofited in the Cotton library* 

f Preface to Spelxxtan on the Law Terms. 





Tranfcripts of fome few of thefe diflfer- 
tations were taken by the learned Dr. 
Thomas Smith in order for publication ; 
but he dying, they came into the hands 
of Mr. Thomas Hearne the celebrated 
antiquary, who in the year 1720 printed 
them at Oxford in one volume octavo, 
under the title of A Collection of Curious 
Difcotirfes 'written by eminent Antiquaries 
upon fever al Heads in our Englijh Anti-^ 
quities *. 

The favourable reception which that 
work met with from the public, and the 
eagerne£s wherewith all the copies were 
immediately bought up, determined 
him to put out, as foon as his leifure per- 
mitted, anew edition of thofe dilcourfes, 
with the addition of fbme others. But 
his prior engagements to the prels un- 
avoidably delayed the execution of fo 
laudable a defjgn, till death put an end 
to all his learned labours. 

The editors have now prefomed, not 
only to execute the intentions of Mr* 
Hearne, but to go further, and to throw 
together and offer to. the public at one 
view, a complete coUedion of all the 
difcourfes written, or delivered by the 
founders of the fbciety of EngUCh anti- 
quaries, £b fer at leaft as they hare been 

* Tliejr confifted only of the firfl forty-eiglit difcourfef, 
wluch are printed in the firft voliune of this work. 




able to meet witli them, as well Ibch as 
have been heretofore printed, as thofe 
remaining in manufcript, the originals of 
many of which are at prcfent preferveci 
in the Cottoniari and Harleian libraries. 

To thefe tliey have added, as being 
intimately conne<fted with the Avork, a 
curious tra6t explaining the manner of 
judicial proceedings in the court mili- 
tary touching the ufe and bearing of 
coats of arms — a defence of the jurildic- 
tion of the earls marfliars court, by Dr. 
Plot — and Mr. Cooke's treatife on the 
iinlawfulnefs and wickednefs of a Duello, 
They have alfo fubjoined to the appendix; 
a lift of the names of thofe perfons who 
\yere members of the college of anti- 
quaries at its primary inftitution, and 
authors of any difcourfes printed in this 
collection, together with fome hiftorical 
accouoit of them and their works. 

To this undertaking the editors have 
been encouraged and perfuaded by many 
of their learned friends, on whojfe ^vicQ 
and opinions they have the firmeft reli'- 
ance, and they flatter themfelvcs with 
the hopes tljst their prefent endeavours, 
and the method they have, purfued, will 
prov^ acceptable to the public, to whojfe 
candour and favour this work is lub- 





MR. Hearne's Preface 
The Antiquity of the Laws of this Iflaod, 

by W. Hake will. Page r 

Of the Antiquity of the Laws of England 8 

Of Sterling Money, by Sir Thomas Lake ip 

Of Sterling Money i% 

Of Sterling Money, by Francis Thynn 13 

Of Sterling Money, by Mr. James Ley 15 

Of what Antiquity Shires were in England, by Mr. 

Agard 19 

Of what Antiquity Shires were in England « by Mr. 

Thynn 21 

Of the Time when England was firft divided into 

Shires, and the Reafon of fuch Divifion, by Mr. 

Talbot 27 

Of the fame, by Mr. firawghton a8 

Of the Time when England was firft divided into 

^hires^ by Mr. James Ley 29 

Of the Antiquity of Terms for the Adminiftration 

of Juftice in England, by J. Holland 2^ 

Of the Antiquity and Etymology of Terms and 

Times for Adminlftradon of Juftice in England, 

by Fr. Thynn 33 

* Mr. Heame in the Table of Contents to his edition of the CoUe€tioa 
•f Curious Difcouries, after the refpe£titre names of their authors, hath 
oecafionaiiy ini^rte4 fome anecdotes relative to them or their works ; theie 
anecdotes, the editors of this edition have omitted in this place for avoid- 
ing confufion, and introduced thera in the (hort hiftorical account of the 
lives of tliofe writers, which tliej havca4<W Imm^iat^ly after tljie Ap^eai* 
4U .to the ieoond volume. 

Vot,I. •!,• . Of 


bf the Antiquity of Cities in England, by Jofeph 

Holland Page 3 8 

Dimenfions of the Land of England, by Jofeph 

Holland 39 

Of the Dimenfions of the Land of England, by Sir 

John Dodderidge 40 

Of the fame, by Mr, Agard 43 

Of the Antiquity, Office, and Privilege of Heralds 

in England, by Mn Leigh 50 

Of the (ame, by Mr. Camden 52 

Of the fame, by Mr. Whitlock 55* 

Of the fame 57 

Of the Antiquity and Ufe of Heralds in England, 

by Jofeph Holland 59 

Of the Authority, Office, and Privileges of Heralds 

in England, by Mr. Agard 61 

Of the Antiquity and Privileges of the Houfes 
. or Inns of Court and of Chancery, by Mr. 

Agard 64 

Of the Antiquity of the Houfes of Law, by Mr. -^ 

Thynn * 66 

Of the Antiquity, Ufe, and Privilege of Places for 

Students, and Profeflbrs of the Common Law, 

by Jofeph Holland 77 

Of the Antiquity, Ufe, and Privilege of Places for 

Students and Profeflbrs of the Common Laws of 

England, by Mr. Whitlock 78 

Of Knights made by Abbots, by Sir Francis Leigh 83 
Of the fame, by Mr. Tate 84 

Of the Diverfity of Names in this Ifland, by Mr. 

Camden 90 

Of the fame, by Jofeph Holland 93 

Of the fame, by Mr. Agard 95 

Of the fame, by Mr. Old worth 98 

Of the Etymology, Antiquity, and Privilege of 

Cafties, by Sir Robert Cotton 109 

Of the Antiquity> Etymology, and Privilege of 

Town^ by Sir Robert CottoQ xo; 

' Of 



Of DimenlioQ of Land, by Sir Robert Cotton Page 1 07 
Of the Antiquity of Motts and Words with Arnofs 

of Noblemen and Gentlemen of England, by 

Sir Robert Cotton no 
Of the Antiquity o^ Arms in England, by Mr* 

James Ley 112 

Forefta, by James Lee 116 
Of the Antiquity of the OfBceof Ae Chancellor ia 

England, by Mr. Ley 119 

Of Epitaphs, by Mr. Ley \%\ s^' 

Of Motts, byMnLey 123 
Of the Etymology and Original of Barons, by 

Mr. Camden 224 
Mr. Tate*s Queftions about the Ancient Britons ^ • 126 

Mr. Jones his Anfwers to Mr. Tate's Queftions x 28 
Of the Duty and OfEce of an Herald at Arms^ by 

Francis Thynn, Lancafter Herald 139 
Of the Office and Duty of Heralds in England, 

by Sir John Doddridge 163 
Of the Antiquity of Armes in England, by Mr* 

Tate 168 

Uerc end the Difcourfes whicb were printed by Mr. 
Heame in the former Edition, 


r\T the Antiquity of Arms in England, by 

Anonymous Page 169 

Of the facie, by Mr. Michael Heneage 172 

Of the feme, by Mr. Agard 173 

Of Ae fame^ by Dr. Doylf 175 

Of the Antiguity of the Name of Duke In Eng- 
bad, by Anonymous 177 



Of the ftme, by Jofeph Holland Page 179 

OftbefaiQe, by Aoonymous 181 

Of the fame, by Mr; Doyle 183 

Gf the fame, by Mr. Agard 184 
Of the Etymology^ Antiquity, and Privileges of 

Caftles in England, by Mr. Agard 186 

Of the fame, by Anonymous 191 
Of the Antiquity, Etyig^ogy, and PriTileges of 

Towns, by Jofeph Holland 192 

Of Parifhes, by the fame 194 
Of the Antiquity, Variety, and Etymology of 
meafuriog Land in Cornwayl, by Anony* 

mons 195 
Of the Antiquity, Etimology, and Variety of 

Dimenfions of Land in England 197 
Of the Antiquity of Ceremonies ufed at Funerals^ 

by Sir Wm. Deihick, Garter 199 
Of the fame, by Anonymous 205 
Of the fame, by Mr. Holland 208 
Of the fame, by Mr. Ley 209 
Of the fame, by Mr. Arthur Agard 212 
Of the fame, by Mr. Tate 215 
Of the Variety and Antiquity of Tombs and Mo- 
numents, by Anonymous 222 
Of the fame 224 
Of Epitaphes, by Mr. Caflndeo 22S 
Of the fame, by Anonymous 233 
Of the fame, by Anonymous 238 
Of the fame, by Mr. Agard 246 
Of the fame, by Mr. Thynn 251 
Of the fame, by Sir Wm. Dethick, Garter 256 
Of the fame, by Mr. Holland 258 
Of the Antiquity, Variety, and Reafon of Motts 
with Arms of Noblemen and Gentlemen in- 
England, by Mr. J^gurd 260 
Gf the fame, by Jofeph Holland 264 
Of the fame, by Mr. Camden 266 
Of the fame ^6S 




Of the fame, by Sir Wm. Dethick, Garter 

Of the fame, by Sir Francis Leigh 

Of the fame, by Abraham Hartwell 

Of the Antiquity, Power, Order, State, Manner, 

Perfons, and Proceedings of the High Court of 

Parliament inT'England 
Of the fame, by Anonymous 
Of the fame, by Mr. Agard 
Of the fame, by Mr. Tate 
Of the fame, by Mr. Camden 
Of the fame, by Jofeph Holland 
Of the fame by Anonymous 
Of Epiuphs, by Mr. Camden 

Page 273 








O F 


The Antiquity of the Laws of this Ifland. 

By W. Hake WILL. 

THE antiquity of laws may be confidered, either 
in refpedl of the ancient grounds, from whence 
they have been derived, or from the long time, 
during which they have been ufed within the fame Aate or 
kingdom, of which the queftion is put. Iti both which 
refpeAs, although perhaps the lawes of this iOand may juftly 
be compared with any other in the Chriflian world; as firft 
in regard of their long continuance within this land, but 
cfpecially for that they agree with the written law of God, 
the law of primary reafon, and the old laws of Greece (of 
all lawes humane the moft ancient) in very many points^ 
and thofe alfo, wherein they diHer from the laws of other 
catiOQs ; yet becauie the meaning of the queitioa in hand 
Vol. I. A doch 

s ^i Antiquity of the 

doth (as I conceive it) more properly bind mc to fay my 
opinion- touching their cpntlauancc viUviQ ^his Ifl^nd^ bend- 
ing myfelf only thereunto, I will purpofely omit that other 
point of their derivation^ And herein I will labour rather 
to find out the iimple and pl^n truth, than feek to main- 
tain any opinion heretofore conceived touching their very 
great antiquity ; howfoever perhaps it may pretend more 
honor^ to oor pa^orx. Forte&ue» Ch^ncellour of Epglaod, 
in the dayes of H. 6. in his treatife in praife of the laws of 
England, touching this matter hath thefe words : Regnum 
jfnglia primo per Britannos inhahitatum efl, delude per Ro- 
tnanos regulatutn^ iterumque per Britannos^ ac deinde per 
Sa^fqn^ pqffiffum^ gni mmm eju^ ex BritauHtA im Jh^liA 
mutaverunt : ex tunc per Dacos idem regnum parumper 
dominatum eji^ is iterum per Saxones^fedfinaliter per Nor* 
piannosy quorum propago regnum, illud Qbtinei in pra/entu 
Et in omnibus nationum harum is Regum eorum tempori* 
bus regnum illud iifdemy quibus jam regitur^ confuetudimbus 
continue regulatum eft. Foy wh8ch opinion of his, becaufe 
1 fee no other proof than ipfe dixit, though indeed the 
autbority of the writer be gre^it, am} the opinion fucbi as 
for the honor of our laws I could willingly embrace ; yet 
there being (as I conceive it) many and thofe found reafons, 
which prove the contrarJe, f may juftly fuppofe, that the 
great affeflion, which he bore to the profeflion, uhich had 
hrovgljit hun to £0 high 9 place \n the 4^99^0109 wealth, 
might move him ia bg^iiov therepf iq % <bqc« th^ his lieft 
leaning could otherwUe is^bk hw ^ psi^Ui^in. IBs 
ai;i,t,hai'ity, or perhaps the (me, ^ipuv^hMh dr^wo {emtf 
h^^ MKrit^r& alfo to poblifb thiQ (^up^ c^pinH)n> ^e whicb for 
i^j part I do na^ £s€ mf wi^y m^^todUe^ butt mq pathcf of 
opinion^ that thf hvm of lh9 BrlNubcs were ottevljr cstiiftA 
bgr thp R^m9,Q6 } their kws agam by the Sa»«nis ; and 
hA\j, ^b^9 hy ibe D^nea and Novmans mush atoered. 
Ao4 &rft touehimg xbit Rocruios, wict were ibe fit^Vi that 
CQaquefed tkt s^iena i^habkaftts oS tMs- iflami t conMti^ 
ing, that it was tbecr afb alwaryei^ to altep the kiws «rf iliola 
natioDs whkk tbfjr &b4ii«.<^ as^fVM ai ikis^d»y.msi]F^P* 

p^r iti fVaniiey Spain, GermaoT, and matiy othar Mlloft^ 
tod iJKit iQ nothing more than this they pfeced the hDfior 
and iiifety of their conqvefis, It Is vnvf likdy, thsit they 
alfo took the iikfr courfe in this idmad, which chey dki in 
\hsk other province; aod indeed more reafoa had they To 
to dd here, than perhaps ady where el£s ifi the whole Em-' 
pire, as beiiig a proviso fo fkrr remote, fti^d a )>^&pie ef ett 
by JUitttre difobedient« To thid may be sdded) that they 
trufwd ap feme of the Brittfh kings and tknay of their no* 
biexmo e^en in th« dty df Kowi^ itfelf^ which they did fof 
00 other parpofe^ than to inftru6): them in thdr laws and 
dnlitie. Befides thefe ]»*diabiiities, (which yet are t)f 
force i^QOugh againift a bare affirmsttion only of the contrary) 
there iranteth not alfo Authority, whloti ttiay pr6ve fh6 
£utie ; for erm by tfai^ beft authors and writers of the biftorf 
of tbofe times it is reported, that Vefpafian coming hither la 
perfbn,- as Seuitnant to Claudios^ after the great Victoria 
which he had obtained againft Anriragns in the North part^ 
fiir the better aflurance of his loyalty an dme to come» atid 
^ more ttbfolute fubje&ion of the Bcitains for ever after^ 
abrogated their ancient laws, and efiablifhed thofe of the 
empire in thdr jdace. Tb this may be added the fending, 
hitfaerof the gre^ Lawyer Papinian^ only tt> reform the 
laws here I appointing in. every feveral province a Roman- 
jadge to do juftice accondit^lyb Nmiher is it a finall ^rga*^ 
ment hereof, that in part of this ifland itfeify namely Iti 
Scotland^ mnch <£ the dvil law is even at this day in pi^ix^ 
tice ; the bringing of which among them can be ai&gned 
tb fio other time or perfons^ than to the old Romans, whea 
they ruled this ifland. In proof whei^oF the Scottifii 
chronicles do report, that Julius Ceefar built a judgemetit** 
hJdl in thofe parts near the city of Camelon, the ruin<3S 
whereof remain at this day, and are called fuliut ffofe, or 
3fu&a HiiM^ If then in the fpace of forty or ftfty years, 
during which tinie and no longer the Roman government 
cocdawed in tblt country^ being alfo alwayes tt^ellioils,. 
and for that otufe fo foon forfaken by them, the Romans 
dM fo dter xh» laws there, that even i6 this day mat^y of 

A 2 the 

^be Antiquity of tbi , 

the laws, which ihcy then cftabliflicd, do yet remain; it 
is more than probable, that they holdh^ this part of the 
iflatkd above 400 years, and that in reafooable good peace, 
did alfo alter the laws h^re ; efpecially confidering, how 
eafily this course, of fo great coofequence unto them, 
was to be dootinued, which by Yefpafian, as before is faid, 
was begun perhaps with much difiicultie and refiftaoce. 

The next, that fucceeded the Romans in conqueft, were 
the Saxons^ by whom fo abfolnte and viAoriousa cooqneft 
was made of this land, as the like (I believe) In any hiftoiy 
k% fcarce read of. For they did not only expeli or drive 
into corners of the land the ancientf inhabitants, planting 
themfelves in their feats, and that fiot by fmall colonies, 
but as it were by whole nations of people ; a point even in 
great conquefis rarely heard of: but they altered alfo tfae^ 
ifeligion, they razed out the oM names of cities, towns, 
rivers, and whole countries, impofing new of their own 
invention,; nay, the language itfelf they not oidy altered, 
but utterly abcjifited ; and for a perfect confummation of 
their conqneftthey did at laft alfo change the name of the 
whole ifland itfelf j than whicbj if there were no other ar- 
gument proving the fame, this methinks might very much 
perfuade^ that thofc great conquerors altered alfo the old 
laws, and eftabliflied their own ; than which as nothing 
is more of conquerors dcfircd, and more ufually put in 
praftice % fo indeed is there nothing of more honor and 
fecurity in ages to come, if once it may be throughly per- 
formed ; which how cafy it was for the Saxons to bring to 
pafs, when all the old inhabitants were either fiain, fled 
out of the land, or run into the corners thereof, any mar 
may judge ; nay, except thofe among the Saxons, which 
bore rule over the reft, would have enforced upon their 
own country-men the execution of a kw flrange unto 
them, the law of the Britaincs their vanquifht enemies, 
than which nothing is more, unlikely, it muft needs follow, 
that the laws of the old Britaines did altogether ceafein 
Englaiid amongft the Saxons ; for that amongft them there 
were no other than Saxons, by whom the old Britiih laws 


Laws of ibis Ifiarii^ 

might have been executed. Of which thetJEbTdute ceafing ' 
of the Britifli tongue here ia England, and that in fo ihort 
afpace, if there were no other argument, is proof infal-' 
Hble. But with this that hath been faid, wfen we confi* 
der the long and profperous reign, which the Saxons had 
in this iHand, the CQudnnal enmity between them and the 
Britaines, and laftly their divided' government requiring 
other laws, than thofe which were convenient for the entire 
monarchy ; methinkis; little doubt (hould be made, but 
that the Britifh laws were by them altered and their own 
brought in theii: place* To conclude this point ; there 
are divers of the laws of the Saxon Kings extant among 
us at this day in their original tongue ; there are alfo extant 
the Britifh laws collefled and confirmed by Howel Dah, or 
Howel the good, .who ruled in Wales about A. 914. Thefe 
laws bdng compared, the one with the other, do in the 
fundamental pointsf fo mainly differ, as fcaree the laws of 
two nations in the world'differ more. Neither is it of fmali 
moment to this piiipofe,; that the cuflomes of little Britaine/ 
whether iiuu^y of tt»- old Bri&ines fled, do alfo fo muck 
differ from the Sa<xon Ikw^ and yet in fo many points 
agree with thofe of rHowel Dah; fo asnotwkhftanding any 
ojnnion to the contrary, I make no doubt, but the Roman 
law, whereof without doubt much remained to the timd 
of the Saxons, but ixxuch mingled with the Brhifh, as alfo 
Ae Britifh law itfelf, were by the Saxons as utterly abolifh- 
edy as if none fuch had ever been planted. And this ab<' 
folute and almoft admirable conquefl of the Saxons, alter*' 
ing and turning all things^ upfide down in thi$ kingdom, li 
(as I conceive) the trjoe and only reafon, why lefs of thtf 
ctvtl Law ronaineth in this -kingdom than id any other of 
the Roman Provinces at this day. For iii all other nation^ 
of Europe the Roman bondage was cafl oflf^ either by revolt 
of the ancient inhabitants, who had lived long under the 
Rjoman laws, and had by time approved them, or by inva- 
fioa of fome foreign nation, though perhilps as great tnt-^ 
mics to the Roman government, as were the Saxons, yetf 
not fo Yaftrfall and defitbying, or perhaps \ii their con-^ 


qtsdte HOC To p0Mmfull or (brtuoite is thejr. F^ tflly tn 
thhi oatioo through th6 cradty of tbe conqiteDon none of 
the inhabitants wtro left to be miaglcd \ntfa them, wllo 
might hsre beon ibk to hai^e t>reftr?ed fo mucb) as. tbe 
(b^amental pomtk of the Britifli or Romsil faw8« Now u 
touching the Dmies> thoujg^ by rcofbn, that their dominion 
srithin this ifland laOsd but a very fliort fpate, they couid 
Mt fb mtich alter the ianvs of the Saxotis» at befer^ tiieir 
time the Romans and Sasccms had done tbe lavfs, which 
they found \xl thU land, at the tine of their fereral dm* 
quefts ; yet fnrely they aifo did ttuch alter the SsKon lawt, 
mid brDQghl into this itod nmny txf tbe laws of DemnarH 
ta tbeir (llaee^ ^bdcheven nt this day rcmam amoogft us^ 
Th^t fo they did^ befidea many pfdbabilkies thereof, may 
appear by the diflih^nce» which We find by ooiisparff(ta be- 
tween the >W6 of Catmtos tbe J>ane, end of tbe Sason 
Uogs before him } as aUb by tb^t^ wibicb by the cntifeBt 
tf ib tnany goodamd ancient Authors is reported of Ed- 
wai'd the Cofif<{flbr ; oteely^ dmi; b« o^Uei^ ibofe taws 
^ bis, fo ittuch cctatheoded, feunoogft others^ MC oF the 
Daiie law : whkh witboiitidonbt He wovld not hife dene^ 
being the aw 4f bis mortal tiktiiies^ antl a badge 6f thtSf 
«oaqueft| bad not the Dane kW been before bis 4«fts 
plaitfed \vk tbe renlae^ sod rdsev^ed atf> of tbe peojils. 
But that which moft ta)tetli me to. thinks that the DahSS 
made a great alterAtioa of ovl-. laws here, Is the gri^ 
agreement of our pt^kga cotnaion kws with the Itfws and 
c^ftomes of the Nomueis at this day ; who» thcmgh they 
were called by a difleinm or M9t« gjeneoralnnine of P/hrmott^ 
or Northmen^ and not by tbe m<M* parti^nlar name t^ 
Danes, as were tbofe widch ooftqUered England ; yet did 
tb«y» as all the writers of their hiltory affirtiii idlii^ out of 
one and the iame country^ «nd were as nanch i)ttMMi as 
they. They alfo oaine out of Denmark to their fet^sral 
conquefts of £fl|gIaBd and Normandy, within 3. w 4. 
years, the one of the other c oaitiely, ahoot tbe year of 
Chrift 8001 where having Jived mderooe and the fioM 
law, and being herein bced ami btMgbt up^ ttayr idid ia 


\\m k^^ coaq^iftcfls «A»l>lUh the ftM ; and tjtf s if tl^ 
trm r«afoQ» •$ 1 coocdYe it» of th« groat affinitit o£ gwr 
]»W9 with tbe cuAonx^ oC Normto^y $ \m ooofiroiatipii of 
>irhicb« the stgreemeot of ear <KMnm6» law with tb^ kwSi 
of Poanuurk iq fandaiaeDtftl poiats, wberria it difl&reth 
frc4& th^ 1»W9 of aU the world olfe, m olfia a ff^ p^f(uk- - 
fiOD, namely in defcents of inheritance and tryals of rights. 
For that the inheritance in Denmark was to the eldeft, as 
in England, it may appettr bj tbe tefttihonie of Walfing* 
ham in his Tpodigma Neujlria^ wher6 he not only affirmeth 
the fame, but alledgeth alfo the reafon of the law heran in 
thefe words ; Mos erat in Xi^Uiy cum repleta effet terra 
tominihuf, ut fancita lege per Reges illius terr4ff cogerentur 
min^rei de proptnii fei&tts migrcfte. $iue gem i^cUto 
multipUcabatur nimium^ quia luxui excejjive dedita multis 
mulieribus jungebatur* Nam pater adultos Jilios (unElos d 
fi pelMaty prater unum, quern heredem fui juris relinquebafm 
And indeed tbb manner of fole inheritance Is with great 
good reafim ftill upheld rather in thefe North parts, than 
IB the BBOfe Southern. countries of the world; where by 
reafon their women are not frmtfu! as here, the inheritance 
is not divided into fo many feiall parts> as here k would 
be, if the kiw of equal partition did preTaii. Now as 
tiMoching the trial alfo of rights in Denmark agreeable to 
tbac of England by 12. men, Otaus MagntM hath thefe 
wor4Sy cb. 21. Expurgati^ in judicio duodecim kgalium' 
hmimim Per €o$ios in Ita&a degeniex vetttfta tempore obfer* 
vsbatur, ir ioJierno die in Gothkis regnis vbfervatur. 
That tbe fame form of trial and many other points alfb of 
car prefent laws, as our Tenures, wardflnps^, dower of the 
third party fines, and the like, were ufed here in England ' 
before the Conqneft by the Normans^ the proofes are very 
many^ the whfeh aKo (hall Iktle need ; eonfidering, that 
atl the writers agree, that Henry the firft HjA again reftore 
th# taws^ of Edward tbe CbBfedbr, whieb by bis father' 
the Oaoqiaepor and by his hrether before* hinr had beea 
fooMwbat atteredy and that the fiiBie dotb dfo appear b]^ 
\» fectei^ pateiw fib«M^ wbicb^ ««» by Maitkcw of f^» 


The j^ti^fy^ of the 

* • * • 

rteorded in his hiftory. So as I am of opinion, (wherein 
neverthclefs I do alwais ilibmit mee to better jadgement) 
that the Britlfh laws were altered by the Romans ; theirs 
by the Saxons ; and theirs again much altered by the 
Daties, which mingled with fomc points of the Saxon law, 
and fewer of the Norman law, is the common law now in nfe. 

Of the Antiquity of the laws of England. 

MR. Attorney General in his third report hath made a 
very learned difcourfe of the antiquity of the laws 
of England, wherein he maketh mention of Britiih laws, 
amongft the which fome were called Staiuta municipalia^ 
and the others leges judiciaria ; which is as much as to 
fay, the Jlatute lawes^ and the common laws* But of thofe 
laws at this day I think there remaineth few or none, ex- 
cept they were preferved among the Britons, that fled into 
Wales: for the Saxons having made a full conqueft, did 
alter as well the laws as the language ; and in the b^in- 
ning were a nation very rude and barbarous, as appeareth 
by their coynes, which I have ready to be fhewed.' For 
although they had the Roman coyn for a pattern, yet it 
feemeth, they regarded not any former precedent^ ; but 
only fuch as were devifed by themfelves ; and fodol think, 
they did of their laws-; but after, when they became civil, 
they ordained many very good laws, whereof Mr. Lam- 
bert, that learned antiquary, hath caufed a book to be 
printed, tranflated out of , Saxon into Latin ; but many of 
them, in my opinion, are very difficult to be underflood ; 
as among the laws of King AthelAone it is fet down, that 
if mj man fhall Idll another, he fball pay the whole value 


Lams d/ EfigianJ. 

oFhkKfey and the king's Hfeis; valued at 30000. thrimfes ; 
an arcbbifhbp is valued at 1 5000 . thrimfes ; a bi Aop or a fenator 
at 8000. thrimfes ; and fo forth for every degree; and every 
thrimfe was a coyne of the value of 3*» And there alfo is 
kt down, that King H. i . did value the life of any citizea 
of London at v^^- by his letters patents under the great 
feal; but in what order or unto whom this fhould be 
paid, it doth not there appear. 

Alfo their ordinary laws are obfcurely fet down ; for I 
have brought a peice of a charter of kin^ Cenulfus, where 
it is iaid, Ji tnalus homo iribus vicibiis in peccatis fuis depre^ 
hen/us fuerit^ ad regale victim reftituatur ad puniend. but 
what the puni(hment (hould be, it doth not appear, 

Alfo they made leafes for three lives in thofe dayes, but 
fomewhat differing in the terms from ours at this day; for 
I have a Saxon charter, whereby there is granted terram 
juatusr manentium pro diebus trium hominum^ which was 
for thr^e lives, as the u(e is at this day. The manner of 
their livery of feifin did in fome cafes differ from the ufe ii| 
our time ; ' for I have a deed, whereby lands were givei} 
unto the priory of Cuic in Devon, whereui>tp there 
are many witnefles ; but in the end there are theft 
words, if videntibus ifiis te/libus, pofiii fuper altars 
JanBi Andrea de Cuic per unum cultellum. And Mr. Stow 
hath fet down, that in the beginning of William the Conr 
queror's reign, farms and mannors were given by words 
Without writing ; only by delivery of the fword of the lord^ 
or his head peice, by a bow or an arrow, and fuch like, 

Alfo for the mannef of outlawries in thofe dayes ; if any 
man had broken the peace of the Church violently, he was 
in the jurifdiftion of the biihops to have juftice ; but if the 
party fled frbm it, flie king by the words of his own mouth 
(hall oat-law hina ; and if after he may be found, he Ihall 
be ddlvertfd uilto the King alive, or elfe his head, if he 
defend himfelf ; for he beareth the head of a WQlfe. 

lit the book of Domefday there is mention made of tris^ 
by Peers ; the words are thefe, Williebnus de t trcye advocat 
Pares /uos in teftimqnhm, quod viyentiWiU imo Mallet if 
VojL. L B viV# 


10 Of Sterling Nbmy. 

vioecomitafum tenente in Everwick, if>fe fuit fnfitus fy 
Bodefun^ i^ earn tfnuit : ^nd thus much for this time (hall 

Of Sterling Money, 

Py SIi: Thomas L a k b, 

WHENCE the name of Sterling money <am«, 
there be three cpmmpn opinions. 

1. Some have faid, that it took name of Sterling caftic 
)n Scotland, and that K. E. z. after he had entered into 
Scotland fo farr, far a memory of hi$ viftqries there^ ca^f- 
cd a coin to be made, which he called SUrling. 

2. Another opinion is^ that it was fo called, becaufc it 
had the figure of a ftarr printed on it, or elfe of the figure 
.of a bird, called a Sterling ; and fay wiihall that the bir4 
^bout the crof$ in the ancient arms of England were 

3. A third, that it taketh denomination of Efierling^ 
and was a fl:^ndard ufed by the EJlerlings trading in. this 
realm, and received ; or of Efterlings^ that were the work- 
men of it. 

The fifft hath little probability j jfbr that by fome |:ecprd$ 
it may appear, that there is mention macje pf the penny 
Perling in the timic pf K. John. 

For jthe fecotid, touching the print pf the ftajr pr of the 
birds, I never faw any fo coyned ; befides that it hath ajr 
^vaye§ been the .cuflom to imprint upon coin the iinase of 
the p^-ince. 


* •••■ 


^he third in my opinion hath a great deal more of pro- 
bability ; as firft that in all ancient writers it is called and 
Xvritten Efterling, and Hkewife the French and other 
ftrangerSy that make mention of that kind of mdney, do 
call it Efterlin. 

The denomination of the weights, and their parts is of 
the Saxon or Eaflerling tongue, as pound, (hilling, penny, 
^ik^ farthibg ; which are fb <^alled in their lahgtiage to this 

Further in the red book compofed in the time of i. R. i. 
are contained words, that do very mUch fdrtifie this opinion^ 
which are thefe j Moneta vero fertut aiEla fuijfe i nomirii 
artificiSf Jicut Jlirlihgi Anglic a nominihus opificum nomina 

Laftly, wherefoever there is mention made of it in ad* 


cient hiftories, written in the Latin tongue, or io foreign 
languages^ it is fpoken allwayes in the plural number, as 
Denarii fterlingorum ; which argueth, that either it was fd 
called of the nation EJlerlingi^ that firft ufed it ; or of 
£fterlings, that were the firft workmen that coined it. 

Now for the antiquity of it, and how long it hath beeA 
in life in England, I can fay nothing by record ; bxit by 
conjefture I take it to have been a very ancient coyne, and 
of long and known u(e ; becaufe our Englifh hiftories and 
ftlfo forreign do make mention of it, as of an old and 
known coyn ; for in the red book it is called the ancient 
Sterlings, and the flatute of weights and meafures, which 
was written in the time of Edward the firft, provideth 
the compofilion of them upon^ the Sterling pefipyi as a 
^ing certain and known. 

Bii or 

>? .<y StirUH Monf^. 


Of Sterling Money. 

IT appeareth la the book of Pomefday, that the 
ments Into the Exchequer were ia thefe feveral forts ; 
Viz Lx. lib. or any other fuch fujQ ^ poupds, ad ^o^dus 
Jive cum pondere^ or ad numerum, or ad arfuram \ or elfc 
fo many lihras blancasde viginii in ord^ ox fomany pounds 
daiariorum de viginti in ord^ or elfe candidorum niegnmnon 
de viginti in ord ; but there is no mention made of SUr- 
lingorum or adpenfim. The black book of the E^tchequer, 
which was written the ... H» 2. inentioneth that after the 
con^uefl the king was not paid out of his lands in gold or 
filver, but only in viftuals for the maintenance of his houfe, 
faving that for the wages of fopldiers and other neceflaries ; 
and out of cities and caflies, which ufed no huibandry, he 
is^as paid in money numbred; and this continued by all 
*;the time of^ William the Conqueror until! the tiinejof H. i. 
that^^pon petifion of the conunon people, the ylftuals were 
taxed, and p^ymeut made in n^oney adfcalam - and after 
that it was ordered to be made, non folum ad fcatavfii but 
adpenfam ; aqd laftly by a 3i(hop qf Salifbury the payment 
ad arfuram was devifed, which was ^r con^Jiionenn, ^ud 
fpecial milites monetarii apppipted for the doing thereof. 

Not a quo/dam con^tatus h tempore Regis Henrici licite j^ 
tuijfe cujufcimque moneta denariorum /glptiojiem offerr4^, 
dummodo argentei ejfent^ if ponderi legitimo non ohjitirent ; 
quia folum monetarios ex antiqua injiitutione non habenteSy 
unumquemque Jtbi denarium perquirebant \ qualesfunt Nor' 
thumberland it Cumberland; fic autem fufcepti denar . . . //- 
i:et ex Jirma effent ; feorfim tamen ab aliis cum quibufdam 
fignis appofitis mittebant ; reliqui vero comitatus folos ufuales 
^ inftantis moneta legit imos denar ios tarn de Jirmis quam dc 
^l^citis aferebant. At pofiquam tex illufiris (cujus laus ejl 

in r^f magnis fxcdkniiQrJ /ub moo^t^chU finA ^ 
mivfffwn regmm tmwi ^ndus is wkuA mprnt^m m^ 
Uiiff <mnu comk^tUf un^ Ugis mctuffkate iemeri 49 £^»fi^ 
rath c«mmercii foktioru cwpU cklig^u Orn^s it^^. Ufm 
iW9e(4e gejiutf qmnunkfunqut Untant, folvunf : fed UmuB 
€X€^hms9 qua de cmbufiime provmt, ja&ur^m omnu ma 


Of Sterling Money.- 

By Frahcms Thtiw. 

THERE Jiatb been diverfe op'uuons touching this 
vfoti Surlingy wbereof it took. its name. Some (a j, 
t^at it took its name of the city Qf Sterling ia Scotlaoc^, 
la^beQ Ed^vard the firft, as my meipoxy at this time fer?e^h,. 
ha4 conquered the land; bqt that cannot be ; for the towq, 
which is now caUed Stirling, had not then that n^QiC:; 
for It was then called Strivcjing, as all the ScQttifii hiftpri^ 
dp p]:oive. Others ray> that it had Its name, for that therp 
was ;a &9XX priatisd thereon, and fp ^Ued Sterling : and 
.feme (ay it W4^ called Cfterling. of this word SterJe, ibfi 
bird {q qtllcd in l^pUod, as (hall after ^pcar by the opinion 
of Bdlefpreft ; which I will h^re fett doWQ in Eagliib, 
whecejtve /haweth, jthat the iat«,e was not a peculiar cpig 
to EqgMsPd, but to ^ other nations, thai; were in the warvs 
iof the hply lao4 in the time of K. Rijpbard i. Now B^le^ 
ioreft's vor^y t];a«fl^ted ouit of Fjeoch» are thcTe^ in his 
CoffBography^ ^vber^ he tr^tetb of the holy warr : The 
fUy if J^nmt^f.wirr^ *he Ghrjfiiatp mtrchahts did t^U 
dvisU, foU vit9 th Iwtdf ^the (ddp^jfors, and at tie di^ 
parting mt cf th§ nmt fM^y .««^ pay^d to the Soldann^ 
i^ W0S t^ri v)i$i Jfif/^w* one eflerlki ; not for that 
1 he 

$k Of SterUttiMtHt):. 

Ik tar eifwrth$ money ^ hut to th end, that it flmkt^nH 
feem, that the ChryUtM had not tarried there free in his 
town without paying him tribute ; and it was found that he 
iad received 700000. of.fuch pieces. And for fo much as 
eliherfe talk of thofe EJterUnges or EfterlinSf and thinks that 
it.was Jtmply the money tf Epgland^ it is to he known, that 
this piece of money was common to all the Chriftians going 
into the Ea/l\ and there they named it fo, becaufe on' 
the onejidcy it had a Scarle, tofignifie the multitude of our 
men paffing into the holy land to occupy the fame^ as thick 
as the Starles do the vines in the time of tl^e vintage, Jnd 
there he fame, that fay, that this money hath a ftarr on the 
one fide, where we ordinarily fett the crtfs ; as who fhouU 
fay, that this multitude was governed by a ftarr fuperna- 
iurally. Jnd the Englijh men having retained the vfe 
thereof, or rather the name, have made divers believe, that 
the fame was the money of their country ; but be it as it 
will, it was the money of the Eaft, and it may be, that 
king Richard, being himfelf king of Jerufalem, gave alfo 
that coin to his fubjedis. Thus farr Belleforefl: : Whereitt 
he hath committed great errors, as I take it ; firft, in fay- 
ing it had his name of the bird Starle ; a^y* that it was 
named of the ftarr; and 3ly» that the Engliftimen challenge 
more to themfelves than due, in faying it was their proper 
coyn. For the firft matter, it could not be called of the* 
Starle ; for then it muft have been moneta Sturnerum (for 
Sturnus is Latin for the Stare or Starle) and not moneta Efier-^ 
lingorum. 2^y> It took not its name of the ftarr; for 
then it fliould have been called Moneta Stellarum, and 
not EJierlingorum ; and thirdly, it was proper, as 
I take It, to the Englifli, becaufe of the Efterlings, 
that came hither to refine the iilver, whereof it was 
made; which it (heweth we had no (kill of, before 
that they came hither, and it was called Moneta EJier- 
lingorum of thofe people, called the Efterlinges, and fo was 
much more accounted of than any other coyn, even for the^ 
.purity of the fubftance thereof; as appeareth by the words 
of Matthew fails in the time of Henry the tbirdi yihtt^ 


' 0/ Sterling Manifl 15 

)ie hath thefe words in an. Dan. 1247. Jnno ^i. H. 3^ 
foL 710. ia the imprdfion of Tigary» Eodem tempore Md^ 
neta Efierlingorum propter Jut materiam dejiderabilem de^ 
tefiabiii circumctfione coppit deteriorari, if corrumpi per illos 
fai/arios monetarum, quos tonfores appellamus. Wherp. 
oaming moneta EfterHngorum^ the money of the Efterlinget, 
be phioly (hewetb, it was the money n^ade by thofe country 
people ; and mentioning propter dejiderabilem materiam, 
wim. othp[ thin^ can he mean, than the excellency and 
purity of the filv^r, which was defired pf all men i fo that 
m this point the judgepaent pf 3eUefoireft (who for malice 
feeketh to defraud the glory of the Englifh) is not to be 
received for the reafons b^orf recited, and for many other 
things, which I could fay again(^ thefe words. True it is, 
jthat I have feen an pld jingel made in the time of Edward 
the third, (whijch fome fuppofe to be of thpfe jingekf 
which it is faid Reymund Luliey caufed to be coined ia 
the Tower) which had a great ilarr in the top of the mad 
pf the fhip for a difference from other Angels ; but yet th^ 
faqpe was never named the Sterling Jngel^ becaufe that it 
^d a i^arr thereon. 

N** VI. 

* € 


Of Sterling Money. 
By Mr. JaM£$ Let* 

THE common and recdved opinion concerning the 
antiquity and fignification of Sterling hath been, 
that king Edward the firfl: having obtained the caftle of 
Striveling (whifrh they corruptly call Sterling) did ereft a 
mint diere, and firfl: coined the money, which of the name 
of the place is faid to be called Sterling. The caufe of 
the embcacing of this conceit hath been die error of the 


old book, ealfed the En^tlh C^onk!^, and ffihence thai 
the appTobattof^ thereof by the wrkcrs o£ «he laAr grtoat 
£ngKih Chronisle. The unt^arii of thkceofare af^aileth 
nanHeftly hj coii6denB$ tbe cikne^ and friace, and orha: 
elrcUtfiAaiicesr. For ii is: imdonbtad, ibat th« Steiliag v^aa 
IttGWti^ aiid ur^d ifi Bnglafnd loi^ titfore th^ time of K% 
Ediwfrd the fifft ; for I fi^ \^ a f^oird in tticf Ex^h^qiswr 

<Sf l9ie ttffiec)^^. l^itlfei^thelLrA, imltuled; Ej^iri de iHti" 
f^ffe Regh Rkha^'di AH* lo. that a fi»e WM levjed iti Not'- 
ftrfk by the AMfot of S*. Pcitfjupift Dinttm, tWiifa WHIIftA 
^ flMnrte GMiefi, Mirh^et^ the faiiie ^illiartif dtd gfadt f6 
the Abbot p)ttdi^agimafdlubsjlerlifi^tutn in pUf^tniS^ ^ef^ 
pthtam Ehemfytiam fttaipithAot tknmatim^ &e. Like** 
4Mt KariulpfaW Ql^vil in hS» book— — tf^; 7. r^- 10^. 
"il^itf^h^, tft^ a flu^ WdfS' tevkd ^ iryiM^ 3(3. it/^> £^;^tlU 
(i(*k:1i i'tJ King Heotj? the 1*) in- which mentioaf is toade, 
that thb of che^ fkit dirf give to the 

eMulH fiftiat Ji^rUngdrum : and to hitir diat 
lAfetVtctlV the fcatdty* of filver and of aft rich meiat iff Stdt- * 
hnrf, the bafenefe of the tdtm, the t^nfittnieft of tfce 
fituation thereof for that purpofe, beittg a plactf rettiote; 
the great differeoce between Striveling and Eftirlingy the 
word Efterlingorum t^ laaport a d a Bom ination of perfons, 
and not of the place, the unlikelyhood, that the King of 
England would honor a town and kingdome, which was 
only feudal, and deprive \Ai ovfti renowned realm of that 
title and privilege, which was then, and hath ever fithence 
condnued univerfid' a<k:K)fTg hts^c^Yfiirbjefh; that he would 
coin money m a foreign realm, appointed to be currant 
within his own doititilidny. iVdaay dttfi1y:be condemned as a 
feble and fantafie. Another opinion is, that the word 

JUtlmff/rmv w derived of % feari oe rmcftkt ; of vt'Mch 

'<]fraibii> la LyftlA^Md/^. j, di te/hwtetitis : cap« htin quia 
InorUiKy w4ic>&^ words are as foUc^sveth ; SUrllngsrmrn^* 
mM mify Stc* OlP the like o(»srdit is Polydorfe Virgil ^. 
ji6v' jfngBde I0f¥kf y^^v who ^rketilry a^ fblloweth : Jnierem 

*^ eir^Rt)^il60 muikk'tx r^jM/rfftf v i&c ; \^fio& ^Ihoob do 
Bdt Jketf tpff ^eat Bxtm : jKSr the^ Armes of mj kieg bf 

'• , Englap4 

JEpglaodtjtfcffc ;thfi Conqocil was not j^r^#, ,hut mwtfets, 

. whijrh fre bkcjs .differing bptb io name and o^tjire. It *fi 

Jikewjfe. y^ry trup, that there. ,was^q,aflcioot,cpj;i,. caH^d 

Stfr/ingtu ^r: denurm.^tj^Ungus : yet.altbougb. U. cnay he, 

that feme one mauper oF fijvjer. coin might happily be 

'iftown by rhat uaroei,,pi)4 for ibat, cajafe i %^t the g^oecal 

.,nj«ne oi^SUrlingorum, >^hicb is^nb^p^ ip^qHeftip.n, /^'ndwh5(:h 

Js " proper to^ a fp€dal,J^iod.:9E alloy, ;or currant metals, 

hath another ctymolqgyjand origqal, :^ir^/jLh^i:efpri?^.»as 

KhQ realm, of Engjapd hat^ turmffie.4 tJ^J? P^ttj^rn p^jfts 

.,!^ith.tbc pjrovifion of clones and wool, fp 'hayc tbofe paf ts 

rf^JjHcd.vs with great qu'ant^y of-f urc filver, which hath 

^b^^Jownd in greaiiabuad^nce in div^'^Qf, (Germany, 

.jv^^re.the mines thereof are ; which might b^a^jiJlt caitfe 

jfbi^. iH« "briqgers over, thereof might wejlgiye tb.^ deqoa>i- 

^l)iajt4on «9Qto. the prpportian and alloy thereof;: for being 

^&s^ mGjket0 Efterfingorunt, itimporteth the addUibn to 

^ ctmosrb Xbe perfons <)r OE^ the money of the Efter- 

*'Iing^V toiEfi^ Afi^ and DJi do fignify a riiing pf-afcen^ing, 

, w^^erpby we jcali ^hat quarter, efly where the ftfnrireth: 

aad !ie^i(^ in JSiitfli^i Sakon ie to afcend and mount: and 

j^e cafl.J^ or ^ tlie'place in the houfe^ wher^ the fmoke 

. *intethi aoci in feme joiai^ors antjx^ium ^ujirw, pr ojrum 

is^Jthati^ wter^ a fixed.chimtiey or flew anciently. hath beep ; 

' ated/thewPrd ^fi^riSs ihzx. which we cajl ,eftw^rd^l aad 

*«^Js.if,./d4mi«.utiv^j. as fijndling, cba4gel^^Jg, Arising, 

and ijich'like ; and may fignify breed and generation^ jipd 

for proof thereof I refer myfelf to AJhcrtiw -Crantzius lib. 

14. Wandalia^ foL 323. 

But as for the guefs oijietla, fureiy if that had been the 
cafe ther:eof, it would rather have been called monetafiella" 
rum^ or nwneta Jt^Uata^ than EJlerHngorum ; and fp t)f 
Jiumus^ it fhould rather have been moneta ftumorum : but 
the trutfa k, that ir fjgniiieth the alloy ; for in the confti- 
lutions pf Simon Mepham Archbifhop of Canterbury, 
vhich are expounded by Lynwood, it is thus written ; Jiu* 
tuimus quod &c« by which appearetfa, that the money was 
^Ued.fiui&Qgs, and the addition Jl^rlingmm. It appear- 
Vol. I. C cth 

•0/ SferUng M6n03. 

cth alfo bya Statute in an. 25. JS. 3. w/. 13. that It is enaft* 
cd, in hae verha^ that the money of gold and filver, which 
"HOW rcmafneth, (hall not beimpairedin weight nor in alloy, 
' but as foon as a good way may be found, that the fame be 
put in ancient fta.te, as in the Sterling. It alfo ap[5earet)i, 
that the fame was brought hither by merchants Grangers : 
for the ftatuteof 27. E, 3. cqf^ 14, faith, pone (hall cawy 

* any old fterling, but only the new coin, except merchant 
ftrangers, that bring to tlic reato any money and cmpby 
part,, tf^ey may <^arry tTie reft. Alfo the Statute of artiaJi 

fuper Ciartarri an. 28. iS". i.'cap. 2p. doth prohibit, that 
none fliall gildor paufc to be gilded' tio manner of veffcl, 

* jewel, or any other thing of gold or' filrer, eS^Cept it be rf 
the yeiy beft allaiy, and Tilver of the f!ertitl^-^llay or of 
better, at the pleafure of hini to'^hom the gold belong- 

'eth; and that none gild Wfe fiher than ftcriing/ Al^^ 
the ftatute of Jzn. 33. Ed,*2,'capl'y. is that g6ldfmith$ 
ihall make all manner of vellerarid other work of Cher well 

* and lawfplly/ofthip allay of good Sterling; and fo to con- 
. elude, how unnjcely foevcr it is, that this temperature of 

metal dotli take its napiie of Jfella} yet in this th?re is con- 
fent, that as the ftars are a liglit and comfort to. thofe, 
that are in darknefs of the night, fo ' this meta} dotl^ n^i^ 
nifter relief to fuch as fall into thfe fliade of adw^ty ; 
but in this they di/Tent, that thofe fend their light io- 
difterently to all, the other Vouchfafeth his brightnefs but 


■ * 

fii jntiqtii^ <f Sbirtfin $i^Unii f$ 

^^ Vli. 

Of what Antiquity ShitfeS wer^. Infehglan^* ' 

■ . , J • I • 1 

By Mr. AcAn^i • • 
Palchae 33. EliZi i55)ii 

IT IS ieaijly to be perceiYcd by the readtfig of our old 
Englifli hiftorieS) that this land hath beea divided into 
fundry kiDgdoms, . the one inVadiog the other,, as the^ 
found ftrength and ppportunity : in which kingdoms every 
king had bis chief city or place of abode : whereof fun^ 
dry samples might be recited, which I omit| becaufe X 
will contain myfelf within the liAs of our order* 

After that being fubdued by foroe one more (Irong thadi 
the refty as I fuppofe, by King Alured ; fOr, I find by X 
regifter book of Cbertfey Abbey, . \^r}tten in King John'^ 
time, as I think, becaufe he ended his hiAcry at that tirne^ 
that the fame king wrote himfelf, Tocius Jnfuks Britannia^ 
BaJileuSy and that he divided this land into Ceniurtatas^ 

Now in the 33. chap, of the jBlack-book is contained 
thus : Hida aprimitiva i^itutione ex centum acris conftat \ 
Hundredus vera ex Hidarum aliquot centenariis^fet non de^ 
i^rminatur^ ^idam enim ex pluribuSjquidam ex paucioribut 
kidis cm/iat : hinc hundredufn in veteribusRegUfn jinglico' 
rum privilegiis Centuriatqm nominari frequenter invhnies \ 
Comitatus autem eadem lege ex hundredis cenjiunt ; hod efti 
quidam ex pluribus, quidam ex paucioriius, Jecundum qUoi 
divifa eft terra per viros MJcretos &c. 

Whereby it appeareth, that Centuriata is and was taken 
of old for an hundred ; and that fundry htindfeds make a 
fiiire. So that he dividing the land firit intd' hundreds,' 
did afterwards appoint what number of httndreds (hould 
belong to every fhire i and then appoiflfed the fame (hire 
to be called by the name of the chief town d thut circuit 


or proviDce ; as you fee they be called at this day ; except 
a few, which were called by the name of the people there 
dwelliQg, haTtng relation to the Romans, who from Rome 
callj?d Cifalpitti and Tranfalpiai^ fo from London Eflfex, 
J. e. Eft Saitons, Middlefex, Wcftitx, Cheut, Sorrcglani vd 
Suthregi Northfolk and Sudfoik; names brought in by 
the Saxons. And herein this natSdn hath imitated the 
coorfe mentioned in the Bible ; for even from the creation 
of the world and muk?pHcarion thereof every people kncv^ 
their own territories. Jofua IJkewife divided the land of 
promife iiSto Tribes. The Pfalm^ fay in the 49. And 
ihey eatt thdr lands by their names. 
* ThcrelbrcaU old aniiquity divided the world Into parts; 
is'Afia, Africa^ Euro^a\ and parts into provinces ; pro- 
vinces into regions or kingdoms ; regions into places or 
^crritqrteis ; territories into fields; fields into hundreds; 
hundreds inib hides or plough lands'; plough lands into 
fevered or common fields called eiimata; climates into 
days works of tillage ; ^days works into poles or perches, 
paces, dcgreW, • -cubits, feet, handfulls, ounces, and 
ioches ; fuch was their great diligence. And becaufe 
kings foudd by experience, that uhi nuUus ordo, ihi fempi- 
ternus £rr^r>, or, afr fome fay, horror ; to prevent that in* 
convenitsKe in government, as the Bhck-book faith in the 
32. chap, ut qxniibet jure/uo contentus, alienum non vfurpet 
impune. Kings, I fey, thought good to divide that great 
log or huge mafs of a commonwealth into particular 
governments, giving authority to fundry perfoAs in every 
government, to guide their c4ai^, thereby foliDwing the 
a4vice of Jethro, Mofes* father in-law, given to Mofes ia 
the wilderoefs. The faaie niaooer ufed Fergus king of 
Scots, who reigned th^<^ when Coiliis reigped in Britain ; 
9f >vhoni it is written, that he divided hit land into pro- 
\iaceSf apd caufcd his nobles to call lots for. the &me, and 
called, every (;quatrj by the name of his governor. ioA 
|C. H.a. im.Ui^it^fl .<^e liKf in Ending yearly his jnftkcs iti* 
ig^-att^.l^YQVigh, thj^.lsind 10 e^cute juAice io every (hire; 


tbeAHHtpiity of SbJtef in Ufiglani: it 

So as to condcide, I think that'kiag Alored was the fidft 
that GQtifed flikes to be called by their names, bocaufe he 
dinded the land into hundreds ; and OAve» ooofift urpoti 
(fivers hundreds ; and that which other natioBs call Pro*' 
vince we call Shire; and that is the r^ht name in Latin ;* 
for fo doth Witlefeyy the Monk of PeterboroDgh, call it in : 
the 37 Ifiaf of h'ls iMok, (ayiog, in provmcia Lmc^laut non 
JMt Hida terra ^ Jicut in ^liit prvutindis »• fod^ Udisfuia 
aoFUcat-Oi Urra^ ii iantum ectttintnt, quantum Hida && 


Of what Antiquity Shires were in England. 

By Mr. Thtnn. 

INHERE IS no doubt, but that this land was fevered 
into fundry parts in the time of the Britons, of the 
Romans, and of the Saxons, Of the Britons, I plainly 
confefs, I can fay little ; for the Romans fomewhat I can 
fay, but as it were beholding the fun darkened with a 
cloud i for the Saxons fomewhat more I can fay, as be: 
holding their eftate in the fun-{c?tting, which yet lendeth 
light unto us. Now that the Britons had thefe fcvcral 
parts of the Tand diftioguifhed one from another by efpe- 
<:lal names, appeareth by Caefar; for Kantium was one 
part, and the Trinobantes another ;.. and in reading of many 
other ancient writers, as Tacitus, Dion Caflius, Suetonius,' 
'Vopifcus, Eutropius, and others, I find the people inha- 
biting this land to have bad fundry names, and therefore 
fey, that every fort of thefe people had a fcveral portion of 
the realm fet out by limits, whereby they knew, how 
fthr their territories ft retched. Of thefe kind of people 
fbme'were called Selgov^j Daninoniiy Gadeni, Coritani^ 
^O^inty Regni, Silurcs, Cornavi, Vacomagi, VeniconteSp 
DfVdnil^'BlgQvig Brigantes, Ordovici, Trinobantes, Cante* 


%t the Aatijuity of Sbires in Engtand^ 

ehuni^ Iceni, Dobuniy KantiU afnd mwj other -naofes^ 
which I pafs ovtr, becdufe jthey be needlefs. v> be fpokeoi 
iffice I cannot as y6t Appoint thfem their trtie places, other 
than fuch as Mr. Cadiden hath given them poflieffiofi of $ 
which yet is not of every of thofe feveral peofde^ which 
ancient authors name in this land; All which people were 
fo divided by the Britons before the jcoming of the Romans, 
as I think, and that .thefe are only Latin names given unto 
Ihem by the Romans before the felf - divifion of the realm 
by the Romans ; for they made another divifion, reducing 
the former 'divided places into fewer provinces ; for at the 
firfty as faith Dion, it was divided by the Romans into 
Britannia magna if farva ; then into Britannia fuperior 
and inferior: after it was divided into three parts, as ap- 
peareth by Sextus Rufus, which were, maxima C^fariinfis^ 
Britannia prima^ and Britannia fecunda^ but the fncceed- 
iug Romans not farisSed with tbefe former divifions, di- 
f idcd it into 5* parts, which were, Britannia prima^fecundcj 
maxima Cafarienfis^ Valcntia^ and Flavia Cafarienjis ; bmc 
becaiife Mr. Camden hath fomewhat fpoken hereof, I will 
lay no more. Wherefore to leave them, and to come to. 
mattef of further opening of our queftion, we fay, that 
the Saxons, obtaining the realm after the Romans, divided 
the fame into vli. feveral kingdoms, which being after 
united into one Monarchy, was governed by Alfred 
king of England, who, beginning his reign as fome have» 
in the year of Cbrift 871, or, as others have, 872. divided 
the land into (hires ; for he (either imitating, as Mr, Cam- 
den hath, the Germans, who, as Tacitus faith, jura per 
pagGS ^ vicos reddebant, or following, as Mr. Lamberd 
ha:h, the counfel of Jethro the father-in-law of Moies, 
who divided the people of Ifrael into Trioimos, centurioneSf^ 
quinqusgcnarios^ 6 decanos, ^iii judicarent plebem in omnt 
-tempore, as it is in Exod. 18. chap.) did divide the whole. 
rcnlm into (hires or (hares, into hundreds, lathes, .tithings^ 
end fuch like, the better to i eftrain the fury of the invad-. 
ing Danes, and the abufe of tlie fpoiling.fubjefts, cloakiogr 
tfaemleivcs with the name '.^nd Ihadow of the Danesj, there* 

•, -.. ■ ■ ■■ by 

y'be Antiquity of Shins ht England. ^ 

hy taking an occafion to wafte and confume their own 
(country. The proof whereof, becaufc I will fpcak nothing 
of myfelf, I will lay down verbatim out of fuch authors as 
I have 'fcen ;: firft (hewing, that this word fiir^ or Jbdr^ 
beihg mere- Saxon, and "yet to this day retained with us» 
importeth as much, as a certain proportion or part of the 
htnd J that being deduced of the Saxon word rcyncn, whl& 
' fignifieth to eut or divide. Thh (hare <being in Latin, <if 
diveHc iinhors, - diyerfely termed ; of fome it is call<id 
Comiiatui; of others pagus, ager, and tcrritorium with :in 
adcRritecroFthc name 6f thclbirc, as pagus HuntendunenJUp 
nger Hanttahus^ Urritbrhm Ghvernenfe. Of other dfd 
writSrS it is called after the form of the Romans, Provincia s . 
as 'appeareth by Flbl-enrius Wigornienfis aiid' William of 
Malmefbury.' And Adertus'Mcnevenfis living in the tinae 
of king''Al)rfedi anif ^yritinig his! hiltory, callpth this tt&it 
.paga": for he' faith anno Domini t^^. was king Alfred 
porn in vitla regia, qua dicittir Wahatinge\ in ilia paga jwt 
' nominafiir Barockfbire : and of others this county is named 
Sat rapid, JJow the autliorities for the dividon of the (hires 
by* Alfrtd (Xyhich was attout the ao.year of his reign i«a«ii» 
Pomihi "3^2, as fomj^ will) are I'hefe. .Firft, Ingulfus 
writeth in this mgnner^ Rex ^Ifredus in fulregni negottis 
prov^endis jQlertiJfimus'erdt. Exemplo ndm^ue Danorum 
cdlire^ftian;, quidani in^genarum latrocintis ac.rapinis iti" 
tendere cueperunt; ^quos cupietis Rex compefcere^ if de hiiji^ 
, modi exccjfibus cohiheriytdtiyisAngliapagos iy provincial in 
Comitdtiis primus omnium 'comnaiiavii ; comitatus in Centu* 
riay, id eft f hundredas,;_ is' in decimal ^ id eft, .Tithingas di» 
vifit ; ut omnis indigepajigatiis Tn aliqua centuria veldechna 
exifteret : if Jl quis'fujpe^us de aliquo latrocinio per fuam 
centnriam vel decuridni vel condeniphatiis vel invadiatus 
poniam incurreret vel vitaret. Prafe^os vero provinciarum, 
qui antea vice-cfomM Vocdbdfitur, in duo officia divijit ; id • 

<stf, in JudiceSy quos nunc jtufticiarios vpcamus j if in vice* 
comitesi qui adhiic idem nomen retinent. Horum cura tf in* 
dii/tria tdnta pax in brevi per Mam terram effhruit, ut Ji 
viator quantamcunque fimmam pecunia in campis if publicit 


m^ Tkt Anti^iy 0f Sbim in England. 

^m^tis vefpere dhnififfet^ nume.vel po/imenfim reJims «ff- 
♦/^^ 6* intadiam indubium inyej^pr^.. ,.Xhu$ cauch Ii2gul« 
fu*4 afjter whom fucceedeth WiUiapj of Malmcfbury, pofc 
. liberally treatiog therer:>f, whofe word%. although the|^ |)e 
ibme^hat. loog,. I £ball not grieve to f ecjite* . ^ua occajiqnc 
(faith ht) barbarorum etiam indigent in rapiaii anhclavf* 
jf^nf, c4eo ut nulH tutus commeatus ejjfetjli?.^ arvfumum^pSM'^ . 
.^J^ix. C^ntu^rkas^ qms hundredsyif det^inias^ S^^i^¥^£^ 
ivpcflvit, injitidt jiluredus^ tU (mnis j((pglH^fyS4/^^'d^ 
Japc^t viyent. b^bejyst & centuriam 6; 4^cm^^^-Mff^ J^ 
^tis dilidli (^^tgus injir/tulan^urr^ j^atin^^fx f£nf,Uf^k^if*df^ 
ifitna eyhiberfit, qui ium pafhr<:tun^ gut irra^i/Hu/nfo^^m' 
dem nonrepe^iretj^ /i^veritatffn t^rr^ret^ fi ^quu^'iup-^-jcms 
\anU vadatmem velJ>ofi trans/j^gerett^mnss 4X fffiffjfi^j!y 
decima regis muI/^MnJjicurr^ffni. r hoc, commentQ fofct^^^^ 
. j^.^i/ j>KovinM, ut j>sr publicos i^ggcr^, ubi/mita j^sn 9f«i* 
"^Srlvium Jifiiuntury anmllas aureas juheat *Jii/pfhdi^^^,pii 
vidntittpi avidiiat^tti rjderent^.dijtm'noh ^Jety gui ea$ aiji^* 
[fdret, WhcrcuntD confenteth Matthew Weftminfterj at- 
^inBiitiog tie laipe to ihe year of CKrift ^92. whpfe words, 
^tccaufe tKey bcvaimoft aU' one with Williacn oJF MaloajB^^f^, 
''Twfllforliefu;' to recite, left I might trpuble youjwith nep^« 
"lefs repetition, of one thing. . But of this; dlviAon^^f 
"^We fliirei'* By Alfred, I much mufe, theire 'is np- 
' ■ thing fpoRea" by Aflerips Meueventisy who. being Chapkhi 
,10 the faid King, and of purpofe writing hts life, doth not 
yet touch ohe \V6rd tlierepf. Tlien after this, in the, time 
of the Danes^ whTch. pofTeiTed the government of £nglaod 
fome XXX. year 5, king Cnute, after he had obtain^ the 
whole kingdom by the death of Edmond Ironude,. divided 
the realm, as faith RanulpbusJHiigdol), Monk of Cbe^er, 
^ in bis Pofyf^rcniepn, Anto four parts,, by which partition he 
^affigncd W^ft- Saxony to himfelf j the Eaftangles jto Xur- 
; killus ; Mei^^Ia to lEdricus de Streonia, and Northuntber- 
land to fliricids. But to leave that and to come to our for- 
bier divifion, and thereiq to Ihcw, into how m.aay parts 
. the realm. /was divided; J vuli pot rcfufe to follow that 

^ learned anticjuary J\Ir. Camden^ fulgficiently Ixtating iber^of 

. . ' . • . » . . ••.•■■ . ' , 

ih Mi^^ 4 Shires in ^glanl P$ 

(9 hU leioqvcnt Bntanaia. Thde fliires at the firft TWent 
divide mto the Dun^r of 3^. Mr* Harrifda in hi^ de- 
fcription of Britaio, prifited'with Hoilioglhed'S chronicle^ 
ifoth, aale(s my memwjr &il me, affirm that the Jand was 
0t the firft divided into 3^. fhifsts ; but I rathei^ embraee 
the firft niunber : and that by th« warrant of Villlam of 
Malme(bury, vfao.writeth, fhat fai the year of Chrift 10 1 6. 
in fhc reign pf Ethelred, there ^were no .more but 32f« 
ihires x |>ttt vhen Williaoi the Conqoerpr taxed the realmi 
Pofychronicott 141 th, there were 36 : and the book of 
Dsmefiay nameth but 34 : finr Durefine, La^caAer, Nor- 
ibumberlaBd» Weftmerland, and Cumberland are not 
fiowued in that pumber, becaofe they were |n fobjeAioa 
to the Scots ; and many other ihires were either free from 
taxatioOy or clfe comprehended under the name of York"* 
ihire. Whereupon the faid Ranulfus Higden in his Poly*' 
chrmdcQfiy written in the tiiae of Ric. 2. hath in one efpe* 
idal chapter of the fliires of England, this much in Eng* 
ltfli« There. be in England 32. fliires : but if the country 
of Northomberland be divided into vi. fliires, which is 
*Yoi!keflik*e, Duramfliipe, Northumberland^ Carleoifhire, 
Applet^fliire, and Lancafter, then be in England 36* 
.without Corn^wally &c. Moreover 1 find, there hath been in ' 
Xancafluie 5. little fliires, as hath Euiogium, which were 
Weftderbia, Salfordia, Leiandia, Blackornefliire, and ter- 
fttorium de Laiicafl;er ; and fo Itkewife there was Rich-' 
janondd^ire in.Yorkihirey and many fuch other fliires, which 
4aow go under the name of other fliires. Moreover the 
book, bebpging to St. £dmondfl>ury» dividing the realm^ 
4oth in more ample fort fet down the fliires,. expreiling, 
Jbov m^y hides of land be CQiitained in divers of them : 
.the words of which book be Ahefe. Triginta dua Jhire 
Jjdnt in jingUaf ,^xcejttis Nortbumberidnd^ Le^neSy Weft- 
mi^rh^d, Cumb^rlands Cornubiain qua continentur j.Jhura^ 
^xa^tis Walliay Scotia, iff Infid^ ^ IVight. In his 32. 
Jims, trfs leges cor^ituta funt, una Weft Saxonlage, alia 
Dm^e^ tertia Mercbfnl^e. Ad We^erfU^e mvmjhirs 
^ettinebant^ jfii Kent, Su^fc, Surrey, Berkjhire^ Wilt- 
, ,VoL.l. D Jhire. 

«<J fie Antiquity vf Shires in England. 

Jbtre, in quiius continentur 1900. hida^ Satttbampion/hire^ 
Somer/etf Dorfrt, Devonjhire. M Danelege pertinent rj. 
Jbiraf Everwick^ Nottingham^ Derby ^ Lecejler^ Lincoln; 
Northampton, Bedford, Buckingham, Hertforde, Ejfex, 
Middle/ex, Norfolk, Suffolk^ Cantabridge, Stamford. Ad 
Merchienlege pertinent 8. fhira, Glocejier, in qua funt 
1300. hida} Worcejlerfhire, in qua funt 1200. hida ; Here*' 
fordfhire, in qua funt 1200. hidiz ; Warwick, in qua funt 
\zoo, hida \ Oxenford, in. qua funt 1^00. hida\ Chefier^ 
in qua funt 1200. hidai Stanford, in qua funt 5. hida* 
Then Heory the 2. about the 22. of his reign in the year 
1 176, at Northampton, when he appointed the juftices 
itinerant to pafs over England to decide matters of law 4n 
the country, and to eafe the people of that tfOubJe, con'* 
tinually following the court, made a new diyifion of tha 
realm, if it may be properly called a divifion, and not ra- 
ther an allotment of the {hires long before divided, to the 
feveral circuits of the faid juftices in this fort ; which is, 
that Hugh de Crefceye, Walter Fitz-Roberts, and Robert 
Manfel were deputed into Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge- 
(hire, Buckinghamfhire, Eflex, and Hertford ; Hugh dc 
Gundevile, William Fitz-Rafe, and William B^flet were apr 
pointed . to Lincolnfhire, Northamptonfliire, Derbyfhire, 
StafFordfhire, Warwickfliire, Nottinghamftiirc, Leiceflcr- 
(hire; Robert Fitz-Bernard, Richard GifFord, and Roger 
Fitz-Remfrey were appointed to Kent, Suflex, Barkfhire, 
and Oxfordihire ; William Fitz-Stephen, Bertram de Ver- 
done, and Thurftane Fitz-Simon were ordained to Here- 
fordfhire, Glocefterfliire, Worcefterfhlre, and Shropfhire ; 
Ralfe Fitz-Stephen, Willjam Ruffe, and Gilbert Pipard 
were put in charge with Wiltfhire, Dorfetftiire, Sumerfet- 
(hire, Devonftiire, and Cornwall ; Robert Wallenfis; Ra- 
nulfe de Glanvile, and Robert Pykenet were appointed to 
Yorkftiire, Ricbmondftiire, Lancafter, Copeland, Wefl- 
merland, Northumberland, and Cumberland. Thefe being 
almoft the fame Circuits, which the juftices have at this 
day. All which divifions of the realm and of the (hires, 
although they hav^been divers at divers times, as appear- 

' 'Cth 

Tbi Amiqutty of Shires in England. if: 

6Ch by chefe Authors ; yet altogether, as they are now at 
this iaftant^ I fuppofe, do contain the number of xxxix* - 
(hires, to which K. Henty the vin. hath joined I3, other 
Aires within ttie principality of Wales, when he united 
the fame unto England, and made it in all points fubjeft 
to our form of government. 

N<> IX. 

Of the Time, when England was firft di- 
vided into Shires, and the Reafon of fuch 

By M^. Talbot. 

THE old word for Shire is a Saxon word, and written 
rcype, which, fome fay,' fignifieth to divide of 
part afunder ; but I fuppofe it taketh his beginning of clear 
or plain ; as Scyreborne, a clear water ; Scyre^vude, a 
dear wood, Where no underwoods grow ; Scyreland, a 
plain country, where no woods grow, but apt for tillage 
and habitation of men. In the beginning the country was 
divided into ivood-land and fcyre-land. The wood- /and 
remained defcrt. for the deer, (which fince is called Foreft) 
exempt of ancient time from parifties and paying of tithes. 
The fcyre-land remained for habitation of men and tillage, 
and was bound to pay tithes, whereby it may be gathered, 
that wood-land and fcyre-land be contraries. The divi- 
iion of England into Jbires is faid to be done by E. Alfred ; 
which was very hard for him to do ; feeing the kingdoms 
of Mercia and Northumberland were not under his obe* 
dience, but governed by their own kings ; which king- 
doms contain the one half of England -, befldcs that the 
Qanea fo troabled tliis land in his days, that he and his 

Da to 

1^ ^hf Antifirity rf Sbhns in E^latfd. 

ntibiiity vrcrt forced to flie iDto a marifh and d^foiate fiatB 
to avoid th^ir cruelties; whidi j>lace tt^ktltli his naiM 
thereof, and is called to this day etsdneye at Eth^eig« ii| 
eft, infiilif rifbiUmn. fiefides that, I do not read the word 
fcyre in that fenfe, (but p^gus or pr^wncit^J until the year 
of oar Lprd i oo i . whereas Alfricns, archbifhop of Canter* 
bpry, in h}$ teftament hatji thefe words, an**) ^q- rapep he 

jeajSe JJwn polce to Cent -j ojSrcp to piltune rare: • At wh^ch 

fime and after I find mention made botli qf fcyre an4 


Of the fame. 

By Mr. Brawghton. 

IN Hbro de Chertfey De /chins. 
Jtex JhtnduSf Iket inter anna Ugesfikant^ inter frer 
mitus armorum leges tulit^ ^ Centurias^ quds hundred di- 
iunf, if decimasy quas Tyethingas vocant, i^ittiit. 

Legts EdWftrdi Regi^ Senioris. 

Ic yille 3^ elc jejicjrt) haebbe sjemot? a ^b 
jreoyeji pucan ^ gcbon ^ aelc rrmi yy jrolcjuhtc/ 
jfipfc^ '^ ^Ic jrpjiek hebbe enis^: •. 


fbf Af^k^y cf SUns in E^^lanit isl 


Of tb9 Time wken England was firft divided 

into Shires, 

By Mn Jambs Let* 

THE word /bir0 is an andcnt Saxon word, derived of 
fcifian, which is to cut, (heer, or to divide ; and 
die afplration [JbJi hath been bronght in by the Normans, 
as in diverfe other the like words may be exemplified ; for 
at the ancient Saxqn word ycAlm'Sy they hare formed the 
modernal word bulling ; of fceal, {hall ; of cilt)» child ; 
of ic, ich ; of en^IifC, englifh ; of pilijx, wellh ; and 
foch like. I am not of their mind, which think, that 
Jbire doth fignify the plain and champion, and fo make 
difference between Jbyregerefe and woodgerefe ; for the 
contrary of that doth appear by the foreft of Shirewood^ 
which being compounded of Jbyre and wood, is no cham« 
pion, but a foreft or wood ; and fo all coppice woods in the 
Wefb cou|iti*ies are called Sheer^vjoods^ which I think in 
jt<ati& is ail one with fylva cadua \ fo termed becaufe 
thofe woods are nfoally felled and cut; or elfe, becaufe 
they are incoppiced, fenced, (hared, cut off) or divided 
from other places, to the end the fprings might be pre^ 
ferved. In like fort there is a town in the north part of 
the county of Wilts called Sharefioun, which took that 
nanie, either, becaufe the town is the utterm<^ bound of 
the county of Wihs, and iht Jbare-tawn^ Jbire-towrif or 
town of divifion between the fame and the county of Glou* 
cefter ; pr elfe of a certain done, not fzr from thence, 
which is faid to be a bound or divifion between the three 
pounties Of Wiks, Glouceftcfr, and Somerfetfhire. And 
fo alfo, when any thing is parted or divided into equal por- 
^pns^ we fay in coff n^oo fpeecb^r# mid Jhart Uh ; and 


|5 tSe Antiquity cf Shires in England. 

the crop or firft cutting of grafs is called xhtjbare^ and ihc 
iinplemcnt wherewith the plowman divideth the land, is 
termed a Jhare, and, to conclude, the very inftrument of 
cutting of cloth is called a pair oi fieers, 
' Concerning the firft divifion of (hires in this land, I find 
in Ingulphus Croylandenfis, that the firft diftinftion of 
Jhires was made by king Alfred ; although I for my part 
can eafily yield to thofe, who think, that the ufe of fhires 
was long before ; for Matthew of Weftminfter * fheweth, 
that king Offi reigned in 23. (hires, which he red tcth by 
name 5 and yet afterward he faith f, Jlfredus legem tulit, 
centurias, quas hundredas^ 6" decimas, qms titl^ngas ^- 
p^llantg injfiituity ^ vadationem &c. So that I am of opi- 
nion, that the (hires refpefling their i^ames, circuit, and 
quantity, were long before king Alfred reigned ; but re- 
garding the fubdivifions into tithings, the government of 
' them by diftinft law-days or views of Franckplcdge, 
which he calleth vadationem or binding of pledges, they 
were, firft formed by king Alfred. 

Concerning the firft conftitution of (hires, I have obferv- 
>cd two kinds of principal caufes ; the one fort, the caufes^ 
why they were divided ; the' other fort are, why they were 
in fuch fort divided. As touching the former fort, it doth 
appear in the report of Jn^ ScIT H. vii. by the opinion of 
Fineux; who was then chief juftice of the King's Bench, 
that there were three caufes ; the firft was for the eafe gf 
the people, in refpeA that ail jufiice being at that time 
imm^jdiately in the CroWu, the fame was adminiftered only 
at that place, where the king was perfonally prefent ; which 
upon the increafe of people growing troublefome, it was 
therefore ordained, that every (hire or county (hould have 
juftice exercifed within itfelf, and that the county-court, 
being holden monthly, (hould decide the pleas between 
party and party ; and the (heriffs turn being holden half- 
yearly ihould iotermedtjle , with caufes criminal^ which 

* Matt. Wel^m. p. 28?/ 
t Videpag, 545. 


The jfrttquhjr of SUrts h EngUhi, '^ 

wcreberwcen the king and theTubjcft; TTie fecohd/lc* 
the toore eafy confervation of tht peace, and ready^exccai- 
tion of the law, by rcafbn, that every (heriff having the 
charge only of one county, and being refident iri the fetfle, 
might with -the greater facility fuppribfsf all tumult, and 
with the more conformity execute all procefs. The third, 
for the readier defence agalnft foreign invaCons; neither 
\7as it fo eafy for one man to make colleftion of all the peo* 
pie of the realm into one place, as it was for every fliire to 
make their particular aflemblies'in their own countries. 
And to thefe three reafons I may add a fourth ; which is id 
refpeft of fhe better taxation and colleftion of all fuch rents, 
aids, revenues, and profits, as were due and papble unto 
the king. And* as concerning the CJVUfcs why the fanie 
(hires were divided In fuch fort as they are, thefe things 
are to be noted: firft, that moftof the (hires in Ehg- 
Jand, and cfpecially fuch as by nature* and fituation were 
apt for the fame, do confift of two kinds of foil, the one 
low, moift, or fertile, the other hilly, dry, or Barren. 
Devon hath the middle and north part barren, and the 
South Hams fertile. "Somerfetftiire hath the high country dry 
and hilly, and the marfhes and moors fat and moift. 
DorfetQiire hath a great part hard and dry, and another 
part, called Blackmore^ moift and fruitful. Wilts is di- 
vided into Soisth^yiits, vrhich is all downs, plains, an4 
champion, and into - North wlits, containing the vale and 
being very fertile. Berklhire hath the hill country and the 
vale of Whitehprfc, Qxforiiftiire hath the Chiltern and the 
vale. Buckinghamfhlre the woodlands and the vale of 
Ayle(bury. Nottinghamfliire, the tiorthweft part thereof 
the foreft of Shirewcod, dry and fandy, and the fouth part 
the vale of Bever and pleafant river of Trent. So hath 
Dcrbyfhire the Peak country, and the- rich vales of Skarf- 
dale and GlofTopefdale. ' Gloucefterfhire hath Cottefwold 
hills and the vale country, where the' river" of Sewrn run* 
ncth. Lincoln(hi^e hath the plain and fandy countries, and 
the fens and plalhes : and in fuch (brt are the moft part of 
the ftiircs in England. Befides, I obfcrve that although in 


jM 1?^ Anti^t^^ Scrawl* Mtitmi. 

* mill; places the flm^ ane (e^rated ty^r famous and &al(^ 
iious bounds, as rivers, hUls» highways^ and fiich like^ 
yet romettmes there are ceitaiQ qoilkts, \pxig within th^ 
limits of one jQiire, which nevertheless are parcel of aoo 
ther ; the reafon whereof I conceive to bei for that the 
faine quillets are parcel of the po0eiGon of (bme noblemaOi 
bifliop, or Abbey, who had fome great fetgniory la that 
county, whereof the fame quillet is aipcoonted pared ; si 
for example, the couniies of Devon and Cornwall aredi*' 
videdwith the river of Samer, but yet a certain qiiilkt 
lying on the hither fide of the river, is parcJel of the Earl- 
dom-land, and therefore it is a member of the county of 
Cprijiwall ; fo alfo a certain parcel of land lying within the 
county of Berks, called Twyford, is parcel of the county 
of Wilts, which is at the leaft 20 milea diftant from the 
ffime. The reafon whereof alfo is, in refpeft^ that it was 
parcel of the inheritance of the abbey of Ambre(bury, the 
fcite and chiefeft pofleffions whereof are in the county of 


N^ XII. 

Df the Antiquity of Terms for the Admini* 
ft ration of Juftice in England. 

-' - By-JOSEPH fitOLLAND. 

. - a^Nov^ 1601.. . 

HOLLINGSHED in his chnoaicle doth (hew, that 
William the Conqueror did alter the manner of our 
trials at the common law, and bcoqght in the trials by 
twelve men ; and ordained the court of Chancery to be 
tobove the common law ; fo Ukev/ife he ordained the terms 
for the determining of matters in law to be kept but four 


Tit Anfi^iy df Terms in Ef^lani, 33. 

limes ia the yeaiv according as is ufed at this. day. And 
ill the time of Henry 3; there fat 6. judges on the bench, 
and the chief juftice was an earl ; for proof whereof X 
have an antient charter made in that time of a conveyance 
of land§, in plena curia apud Londonias coram ' Jiijliciariii 
DGmini Figis de Banco ; hii teftibus^^ SVillelmQ Comite Arun- 
del^ and Jix judges with him, which are particularly named 
in the faid charter. , • 

Alfo the circuits were likewife ufed for the determining 
of caufes in every fever^l ihire^ and ihe judges were calle4 
Jujliciarii Itiner antes ^ and juftices of a(Gze> according ai 
it is obferved at this day. 



Of the Antiquity and Etymology of Terms 
and Times for Adminiftration of Juftice 

in England. 

By Fr. Thynne. 

THIS word TVrm, in Latin Terminus ^ had its original 
from the end or limits, terms, or bounds of lands, 
which among the Romans were termed Termini \ who 
therefore made a law, that qui terminum exarajjet^ ipfs (3 
boves duo facri fierent , Which bounds they did alfo fignify 
by the name of Columna or Columella : whereupon the 
bounds of many nations are yet called Pillars ; as in Spain 
the pillars of Hercules note the cape or utmoft part there- 
of ; and the bounds of Armienia were by the Roman em- 
perors, as appeareth in the Roman hiftories, named Colum- 
nas Armenia ; whereunto . agreeth Servius upon Virgil, 
noting the bcHjnds of Egypt to be fignified by the Pillan 
of Egypt. 

Vol. I. . % ' Orcr 

3+ fbe Antiquity of Terms in England^ 

Over thefe bounds and limits there was a "God, called 
Terminus, appointed by Numa Pompilius, fecbnd king of 
Rome; who firft eredled a, temple to this new God, and 
placed the fame nekt to Jupiter Optimus tnaximus in the ^ 

To this Terminus y as hath Alexander ab Alexandra lib. 2. 
dierum gcnialium cap, 22,facrumfejtis tenninalibus in agris, 
fexto ah urbe viiliario, fub patent i caelo Jieri folebai. At 
which time no living creature was offered unto Him, becaufe 
they held him the god and keeper pads ^ quietis ; and 
For that caufe thought it a deep offence to have any flaugh- 
tercd facrifice done unto him. The folemnities of which 
feafts and facrifices were named Terminalia, having the 
month February confecrated to him : .as hath S. Auguftia 
in the 7th book and 7th chap, de civitate Dei, That 
month, as hath la Mere des kijhries cap, 29, being named 
Fcbruarius of the purgation of fouls, which the Romans 
ufed therein ; for they believed that the fouls of .their de- 
ceafed Anceflors did hover and wander in the air and in- 
fc<^ed the fiimc ; for which they ufed a certain kind of 
purgation, fuppofing by that means the fouls returned to 
their fepultures, which purgation was called februatio of 
the Roman God FebruitSy otherwife PlutOf to whom they 
confecrated the month February ; for as they dedicated the 
month January to the fupernal Gods, fo they confecrated 
February to the infernal gods, as hath Natales Comes. 
All which I have written to deduce this word Term from 
the God Terminus, and tkat it is taken for limits or bounds. 

But you will fay, what affinity hath this proud Terminus^ 
God of limits or bounds (his motto being cedo nulli) with 
our word Term, for matter pf law ? Firft, I anfwer, Ter- 
minus, like unto Janus, w*as called the God of Peace, becaufe 
all limits, which have their name of Utes, or contentions, 
might be kept in peace and quiet in this peaceful govern- 
ment of Terminus ; that word is of kind to the Term of 
law, which is the timcAvherein peace muft be ufed, and a 
peaceful end made between contending perfons. Secondi5% 
as ti)is Terminus is a bound or limit of place, fo it is a 


The jiniipiiy ^ the Terms in England. 35 

bound or limit of time, in that the mooth and time, Wherein 
the god was worftiippcd, was called Terminus, Thirdly, 
thai as.thefe facrifices were among the Romans called Ter^ 
minalia, fo were they the fame Terminalia alfo by them 
taken - for limitation of time, when thofe facrifices were 
performed, and alfo by Varro fet down to be the laft day 
of the year, including the end and limits of the year. 

Now having fhewed, that this word Terminalia amongft 
the Romans, being deduced from Terminus, was a limitation 
of time ; we will prove that amongfl us here alfo, that this our 
word Terminus or Tenn haih been taken for a period of time 
as well as for bounds and limits or ends of things ; and fo 
by confeqaence that it implieth among us a limitation of 
time, wherein caufes fliall be determined, and not the de- 
termination of the caufe itfelf. That Terminus (a word 
ufed by Glanyil) is a limitation of time, is proved, in that 
our law calleth it a term of years, when we let land for 
certain number of years ; (o is it for terms of life, limiting 
and bounding the life and years : and the modern and an- 
oint LcfTors did in refcrvation of rent ufe qiiaiuor 4nni ter^ 
mines* In which, as this word Tirm can h^ve no affinity 
with the land letten for years or life, and therefore muft 
needs fignify the number of years ; fo fhall it not fignify 
the caufe determined, but the time. 

In fpea king of things done prefently at that inftant of 
time ; Walfingham calleth thofe aftions injiantis termini^ 
%hig, in anno Domini 1387 ^ 10 R. 2. Paraverunt/e ad 
fulcandum liquentes campos Dominus Richardus, comes j^run* 
del, if Dominus Comes Mowbray, Comes Nottingham : quo- 
rum primus conftitutus eft Jdmiral/us injiantis termini. 

Terminus then fignifying amongfl the Romans and us a ]!• 
mitation of time, (eemeth to give the fame fignification to 
our word and queAion. And that our Term is nothing but 
a time limited and bounden for to minifter law therein, to 
the end that every man might know the time limited cer- 
tain to follow their fuics, and then is not called the term of 
determining and ending of caufes, as feme Civilians and 
others will have it, for fo it ftiould rather after the Latin 

E 2 be 

36 The Aniiquity $f itermi in Englani.^ " 

be called the Fine than the Term, as is the lerled fine of 
land, which hath that denominatjon, becaufe of the end 
made of that conteation for the land ; ior finis ^Mn Utihus 

That this our Term is taken for a limited Hmejj appear- 
eth by Glanvil, who in divers writs, wherein he doch fet 
down the time and day that the party (hootd appear be- 
fore the jufticers, doth in place thereof in the writ fay, 
^od Jit cor dm me vel Jufticiis meis ad ilium iermiman re^ 

The Terms themfelves, and the days of the returns of 
the Terms, have their names of limited times, as Michael- 
mas Term beginneth in 05labis of St. Michael ; - Hilary, 
Eafter, and Trinity Terms, all having their names, begin- 
ing of and from and after thofe feafts and times. In •nice - 
fort the peremptory days in court being a time fixed, is in 
Latin, but efpccially by the Civilians, calkd Terminus pe- 
^temptorius \ whereby it appeareth, that in al! matters of 
law both civil, and. canon, and pontifical, the days and 
times belonging thereto are called Termini or Terms ^ as 
bounding the determination of the law to certain days and 
times of the year, as is yet continued in the fpiritual as 
well as in temporal courts, being appointed at fuch limes, 
as all men might with moft eafe and lefs hurt repair to the 
place of law to plead and end their contentions. | 

Thefe Terms being now but four in number, as Mi- 
chaelmas, Hilary, Eailer, and Trinity Terms, paving di- 
vers returns, feem to me in the reign of H. 2. and of K. 
John, and of* H. 3. to have been cither longer, or that 
there bath been fome other term more tl^an thefe four. 
Fbr I find in ancient writs, and in records of the Tower, 
the return of writs at certain other Says than are now 
bounden or limited ; for 1 have feen records of writs re- 
turnable after Bartholomew tide. Glanvile nncntioneth a 
returq at Weftminfter OHabis clau/a pa/chit: if rot.finium, 
ji. J(iha,nnis mem. 5. hath a return in crafting Ol^ahis claufa, 
§oJch(e^ which proveth Eafter term to haye been one fevcn* 
EJaht befofc it now bcginaeth ; for we have now no re- 

turn thereof before ^indena, 'which in times jpoill 
was the faii>e return, which wat called a tkuff pafthm hi 
pdndedm dies. In tlie £uxie r^U of king John mem. lo. s 
ihe return of Crajiino Hitiarii, which* is a fevenn^ht beware 
our term, whofe firft return is now in OBabis Hilamf' 
which proveth that Term alfo to be one fcvoini^t longer 
than it no^ is« '- ^ ■ 

In like fort/as they had other cercnnand fettled retums^r 
that we now have not, and alfo the fame certain returasif 
which we now have ; (o had they many more other returns/ 
which we now have not ; for in Rot^ fimum 6^ J^hmmis^ 
there is a fine given jaro hahendo quodam ppoaj^ de cufiodiA 
terra &c. heredis fVakeri Bijett i^erfus Robertum ds Fregofi 
(sf Sibil/am uxorem efus coram Domino Reg^die Veneris, ^ro^ 
icime pqfi fefium S. Michaelis. Which coram Rege with- 
out any other adjunA, as I take it, is to be the 
King's Bench ; for in many places coram Rege is fo to 
be taken, when coram Rege 6 concilio is often taken for the 
Chancery, but moftly for the Star Chamber, the genuinal 
court of the king and hts council; thotigh "all other c<yarts 
be rightly the king's courts ; and in Rotulo finium B, H. 2* 
m, 5. the land of R0& of Cheftercon being feized into the 
king's hands, (he was to appear coram Hugone de Burgo 
Jujiiciario ^ Baronibus de ScaccariB die dominica proxima 
p0i Odlabis fan^a Trinitatis. Where, by the way oi parer^ 
goriy we may note, the ancient chief juftice of England had 
his place and voice in the Exchequer. Laftly, as antiquity 
rfed returns in other forms than we now do ; fo had they 
the fame returns which we now have, but by other names ; 
as the return of 05tabis Trinitatis is that return, which in 
Rot, finium 7. Job. mem, 13. is called h die Pentecojlei in 
quindecim dies : and the return of Crajiino j4nimarum is in 
Rot,fimum^o{'4. H. 3. fet down by the name ^ die/anBi 
Michaelis in quinque feptimdnas^ anfwerable to our now 
returns, which followeth menfe Michaelis. 

Upon all which I conclude firft, that the name of out 
Term had not his denomination de caufis terminandis or A- 
f(rminan£s^ (as fdme Civilians and others think) but of the 

. limited 

'jt 3ie jhti^iiy sf Cilifis in England. 


fiDaits4 tirne^ whorein caufe$ are to be determined. Next, 
that our Terms either were more in times paft, or thrfc 
Terms, longer. Thirdly, that our now returns are not fa 
many nor akc^ether the fame, as were in times pad. And 
laftljjr, that the returns of Termfs altered wich the time 
wherein the Term, was changed or <ibridged ; which, for 
this time I fuppofe, was in the reign of K. H. 3. being 
done (if conjefhiresmay fupport my afieirtion, for as yet I 
bftve no record to warrant it) by reafon of the continual 
V^rs between the king and his barons, whereby they were 
forced to ihortea their Teirnis to . follow . the wars ; for^ 
Am iingent armaijiient leges y if inarmorum Jirepitu nulk 
civiUs juJlHia* And fo I pray you to take in good pftrt 
this weak and iickly difcourfe of a fick perfon. 


I Alt* III 

> I 

. ' No XIV. 

■ For the Antiquity of Cities in England. 


3. Jfin. 1598* 

THE firft city of name in England is Totnes in Devon, 
for that by opinion of writers Brute landed there, 
and within that towo is a great flone, as London (lone, 
whereon the report is, that Brute repofed hjmfelf, when 
jie firf): landed there. It is at this day governed by a 
rnayor and bailiffs. 

Hollingflied is of opinion that there were greater ftore of 
cities, towns, and villages in old time than there are at 
this day : and he doth vouch Ranulf Munk of Chefler, who 
telleth of a general furvey made 4. W. C. and that there 
were to the number of 52000. towns, and 45002. pariflies; 
but by the aflertioos of fuch as write in our time concern- 
ing that matter you (hall not find above 1700c. towns and 

7 villages 

VimenfionS'hf fif€ Land-t^^ngland. f^ 


tillages Jn the whole; which is but little more th^i^^a 
fourth part of the aforefaid riuflibefV* ' 

Itappeareth by the records belonging to the' cathedral 
diurch of St. Peter in Exon, that the biftiops fee for Devon 
was firft at Kirton, and from thence after removed into 
Excefter ; which Kirton is but a little village at this day, 
and hath but one church. ' 

I have divers antiquities in coin (lamped at feveral towns 
in England, the ancienteft whereof is a Britifti piece of 
gold, whereon is CamitlaJunum, which HoUingflied taketh 
to be Colchefter,' but Mr. Camden taketh it to be Maiden 
in Eflex, the town where the King's mint was kept. In 
the days <tf king -ffithelftane there is mention that there 
fliouldhbe a mint for coins in Canterbury, Rochefter, Lon- 
don, Win ton, in the ftreet of Lewes, in the ftrect of 
Haftings, Chichefter, Hampton, and diverfe others. 


ur XV. 

Dimenfions of the Land of England, 

By JosEi-H Holland. 
20 Nov^. An. Dom. 1 599. 

FOR the manner of meafuring of land in old time I 
find it to be fet down in other terms than is ufed at 
this day, as by an ancient charter made by king Edward 
the elder before the conqueft doth appear, by which char* 
ter he did grant unto .the abbot of Hide by Winchefter ccr» 
tain lands by the name of fo many hides, a copy of which 
charter I have here fet down as well for the ftile of the 
kings then ufed, as alfo for the bounding of the lands' 
therein contained. 

Edivardiis Rex excdlentijjimus^ cognomento fenior^ prin" 
Ciifjuc vi^oriojtjimus, magnjfici Regis Alfred Jilius anno 


• 1 

Dmini 901- a PUimundo^CoMtuar. Arcbi^ifcopo in R^em 
foUmniJJime coronatusj paUrnivoti nou fcgms executor^ ad 
BdJaudem if ho^otem^ «b ad fanSi Grimbaldi reverentiam 
fb amorentf monqfi^ium iwuum nuncupatum, infra hienniurn. 
in urbe Winton r^galitcr fundavit : dedit erUm utramqxu 
villam de Stratton^ Popham, Drayton^ Mucheldever cum 
fuo hundredo ^ Eccleftam cum centum fex hidis, 

la the book of domefday I god mention of hides, plough- 
lands and knight's fees, and thefe were the terms ufed In 
bounding of land at ihat time, but fmce the conqueft, and 
from tlie time of K. H. the fecond, the ufual meafuring of. 
lands hath been by acres, as doth appear by a charter 
made about that time by William de Vernon, Earl of 
Devon, whereby he gave lands unto the abbot of Quarry 
by the name of fo many acres, which is according to the 
ordinary meafurlng of lands at this time* 

For at this day 5. yards^and half make a perch, gnd 40. 
perches in length and 4. in breadth make an acre, an hun- 
dred acres make a hide, aqd 8. hide^ make a knight's fee. 


N« XVI. 


Of the DImenfions of the Land of Englaud. 

By Sir John Dodderidge, 


5 difcretn qitantitas feeginneth ab imitate, which mul- 
tiplied doth make a namber ; fo continua quantitai 
bcpnncth from tlieleaft admeafurement, which I ffnd to be 
TheiBch. the inch, which is the length of 3. barley corns, taken out 
of the midft.of the ear, or of the -grains of barley dry and 
The foot. iy>irnd. 12. inches make a foot 53. feet make a yard ; 5. 
Ihc pcrdi W^^ ^^^ * ^^ make a perch ; and forty perches in length 
and four in breadth make an acre. 

Lanli bf Engldnd. 4 i 

The compojition of yards ^ perches ^ and atres. 

Thdfe ^vas iiiade in ji. E. i. a treatife of the contents Thcacre^ 
tof the aci'e ; that tvheri it contained lo, percHes in length, 
it (hould contain in breadth i6. perches, and when ii. 
perches In length, then (hall it be in breadth 14. perches 
demy, q*, one foot, and fo after that rate : and when it 
was 45. petches in length then fhould it be 3. and a half 
In breadth. The ordinance of meafures 31. E. i. 

The acre in Latin is called Jiigerum, fo called quod uno 
BoUmJugo per diem exarari poteft. Alciatus in legem Mille 
paifliis de verb, fignificatione. It is defined thus by the 
lawyers to be men/ura agreJliSy qua eft in longitudinem pe- 
dum 24b. in latiiudinem 120. Clojfa vacant arvipendium. ArpentKum» 
vide Varf. lib. de re ruftica cap. 10. 

^ht Ilomnns had a tallage upon every acre, hereof call- 
ed Jugdtioy fpbken of in many places of the civil law, as 
lib. 10. Cod, leg. l. De quihus muneribus velpraftationibus^ 
Eodefb Hbro de fufceptoribus, Leg, 10. feodem libro ^e 
indulgentiis. Leg. 4. &c. and in many other places. 

The AVord acre is merely JDutch and favoreth of the old 
Sixofl. The fignification thereof is -^^^r or ^rt;r/w, and 
jickerkenti is agetlusy and Ackaren is arare or exarare. 
Dufleus in Etymologico Teutonico. 

irhe Acre of land (notwithflanding the former quantity 
prefcribed) is not in every place in this land of like quaniity ; 
for the Coraifti acre is faid to contain a carew of land, 
6. E. 3. 283. and in the commentary of Mr, Plowden the 
Cornifh acre is faid to contain an hundred other acres* 
Com. Throg. & Tracy 154. 

The fourth part of an acre in fome places is called a yard Yardlani 
land, and half an acre is a felion, 9. E. 3. 479. A Virgata S* '^^^jg',^^^" 
terra is half of a rood of land, for fo they feem to expound acre. Virga- 
it. And thefe are not of one meafure. For Erafton il!^r.V^' 

seres 2Q* 

fpeaking hereof in his writ ae morte antecejforisy faith that a4- Jo» 
there arc two meafures, larga & ftri6la menfuratio 269. §. 2, 

And of a virge of land a fine may be levied 41. E. 3. f. 
fines 40. A writ of right may be brought 5. H. 3. £ droit 

Vol!l f 66^ 


FoSn terra 
30. acre$. 

r^ 10 acres. 


Diminjions of ibe 

66. but of another precipe it is doubted 13. E. 3. f. fine 


A rood of land containeth 20, 24, 30. acres, and of this 
alfo a precipe may be brought for the certainty thereof 
3. E. 3. f. breef 740. 6. E. 3. 291. 

Bovata terra or an oxgang of land containeth in fomc 
countries 10. acres, and thereof alfo a precipe lieth. And 
it, is always underftood of land in Gayoery, 13. E. 3. f, 
breef 241. 

Carucdta terra may contain a houfe, a mill, a toft, and 
divers parcels of land of divers kinds, T. E. i. f. breef 8, 
m. and it feemeth in quantity to be fo much as a plough 
land, viz, a tenement, whereupon a man may keep a 
plough for huibandry, with all neceflaries and incidents 
thereunto, derived from the word caruca, which fignifieth 
a plow, and canicata a plough or wainload, but the pre- 
cife certainty doth differ in divers places and countries 
35. H. 6. -29. per Prifot. It feemeth by Prifot in the fame 
place that a carow (hould be fo much land as a plough 
fhall plough in one year. 

A hide land is tanta terra portio, quanta unico per annum 
ararip6terit aratro, as it feemeth by GervaGus Tilburienfis 
and Matthew Paris to confift of an hundred acres ; fo it 
feemeth to import a competent tenement for' a man to keep 
huibandry upon. Lambert's Saxon laws in expo/itione 
vocabulorum. * IVilliam Benvaltus tenet in Ravenfih^rp 
&c. Ogeriis Brit to tenft in 

In 4. E. 2. f. avowry 200. a virge of hind is faid to 
confift of 80. acres, and 20. of thefe verges are faid to 
make a knight's fee, viz. 1600. acres. But this is alfo 
different and uncertain, according to tKe tenure as it was 
firft referved, 12. Ed. 2. f. breef. 

* Ldccft. in lib. domefJay. 

N' XVI» 

Lan^ of England. 43 


Dimenfions of the Land of England. 

By Mr. A card. 
24. Nov^ 1599. 

ALTHOUGH I muft confefs that in this prdiwfirion I 
have more travelled than in any of the former, for 
that it concertteth me more to underlland the right thereof, 
efpecially in that fundry have refortcd tome thereabouts to 
know whether I have in my cuftody any records that avouch 
the fame in certainty; yet fo it fareth with me', that in 
penifing as well thofe abbreviations I have noted out of 
Domefday and other records fince that time, as alfo thofe 
Botes I have quoted out of ancient regiders and books which 
have fallen into my bands within thefe xxx. years, I have 
found thediverfity of meafurement fo variable and different 
in every country, (hire, and places in the realm, as I was in 
a mammering whether it were proper for me to write or 
Dot ; for finding all things fall of doubtfulnefs,- and that I 
could not by any means reduce the queftion into any certainty, 
I (hould but make a (hipman's hofe thereof, and therefore 
meant to leave it untouched by me. And yet, left I (hould 
be deemed one that fhould begin to break order, I thought 
good to put myfelf to the cenfure of your wife judgments, 
rather than by filence to draw upon me your harder con- 
ceits in that behalf, and therefore i fay to this queAion of 

Antiquity, ^ ^f dimenfions of 

For /Intitjiuityn 

I do think that our nation drawing firft our original. 
from the Trojans, that is, from the Trotians as fome write, 
could not but bring from thence the fame order which was 
obferved in thofe countries of meafuring their lands, as ap- 

F 3 peareth 

^ 44. IMmeiffi$Ms » ^ tie 

peareth by Dido in Virgil, who was the founder of Car- 
thage, and coming thither by fe^ bought of the prince of 
that country fo much ground, as (he could compafs with 
an hide, to l?uild a city for herfelf and her fubjefts ; which 
being granted, flic caufed the fame to be cut into fmall 
Ihreds, and fo compafTed a mighty deal of land more than 
was expefted ; fo our forefathers, as it ftiould feem, did 
coliop out the countries they dwelt in in iikc fort : but you 
will fay, wbe^ ? To this I fay> ia OYWy provloce ancjia 
every kingdanu of Englaqc^j wh^rqof as appe^eih'by hif- 
torics, by fonjie to be v i ^ . but ^fp^wUy by moft writers v, 
fcU, Weftfaxons contains vm, (feir^, i. kingdom. 2. Eft- 
fa}(ons 6. ft^ires, 2. kingdpi^st. )t][oribun(ibeclaQd from 
](jumbcr to Scotland^ i. kingdom, and the kingdom of 
Mercia 15, ihiies, I. U^4oq2. There were weight9^ 
and meafures of lapd according as it pleafed the prince ; for 
it is a principle in Canutus's laws, that it belongeth to the 
prince only to appoint weights and meafures, mcnfuras ^ 
fonder a d\li^^Hter dirigawus^ Yet the certainty pf -meafur- 
ing of Uads cam^ not in until tihc re^lm was under the tri- 
bute to the Djines> which wrw^ as Waher Witlefey, the 
monk of Peterborough, writeth, in the 30. year of king 
j£thelred, (^ui mijit nuncios Dank, dicens quod V4liet its 
trihutum c^e, vt a rapinis defifitrent, ilii cop^Jerunt, b 
dabatur ii$ tribHtumy qufid eft 36, miUia librarufn argcnti: 
for the levying whereof the realo^ was admeaflired, and 
the money levi,ed per hi4as^ as appeareth by fundry ancieni: 
^egiilers, which I have feen, whereof I will mention what 
I find in the book of Dqnftapk, that there arc in tlic realm 
32. fliircs, in which were three kind of laws exercifed; 
that is, Weftfex law, to which belonged 9. (hires,- iji which 
were fourfcoi:e thpufand eight hundred hides of land. 
The fecond Dane law, to which belonged 18. fliiree, 3200, 
hides ; and Merch law, to wh.iob belonged 8. fliires, in 
which are iiScp. hides. Which all p^id the Dajoegcld^ 
according to their hides, as Domefday affirm(?t,h> c^t ?n4«^ 
rhim de T, fe defend, pro Z.hidis. And fo in infinity 
places alfo, antequam t^rra f/idafafintf by which it ap- 

^ peareth 

IM^ 0f EnglMd. 4$ 

peawth that lands were firft meafored by hlAe$. The 
etymology whereof I tb'mk was drawn from Dido's aft be*' 
fore fpoken of, for you fliall not find that word in any 
other language than ours, neither French, Latin, Italian, 
(fc. Neither in the book of Domefday (hair you find that 
^ard. fflda in all Ihires^ but in fome ftiires, as in Kent, Solht 

and SoKns, 

In Lincolnfliire Carucata, only. . . 

And fo in divers fhires likewlfe Carucnta only. And 
becaufe there are mentioned divers names of meafurihg 
land in the fame book, I wUl recite fome as near as I can : 

SoUn, Jugum. 

Hida^ Virgata. 

^ Ferlingata 

Carucafa\ is 


Of all thefe t will fay fomewhat according as I find in 
ancient books and records. 

But before I enter into that, it (hall not be amifs to 
qualify one doubt which may arifc in thi?. jneafuiement, 
that is, by what number of tale of acres land was meafured, 
for there was before the conqucft Anglicus numerus which 

XX. xx« 

was VI. to the C. and the Norman number which was v, 
to the C. As Domefdiy fheweth in civitqte Lincolnia, 
Hie numerus CC. Angtico numero ccxl. fo that when the 
realm was divided into hides I take it for certain that it wag 


by VI. to the hundred. Now to the words, and firft for 
fcliuy take Domefday itfelf, which faith thus : 

In communi terra SanEli Martini JUnt cccc. acra 6* t//- 
midkmy qua fiunt- o:. filins (b dimidinm. Now this word ■ 
dhmdium fkft named muft have relation to half an ^lundred, 
and not to half an acre, for in all the^ whole book there is 
not naoicd half an acre. And then I take it that a folin of 
ground after EngUfh account containeth 216. acres; if 
rf«er Norman tale then nine ftore acres. And to this 
agreeth foaiewhat near a note taken out of a ledger book, 

f 46. DM^fiJiaos ofjbi 

which the.bifhop (^Norwich DoAor Redman hath In thefe 
words. Item Mbas dicit quod in lUro vocaio Domejdei 
San^i EiwartH apud Weftmin/ier Jic haietur, Mbas SanlEli 
^ugu/Hni tenet manerium de Langeporty ihi eft unum Solin 
^. unum Jugum i^c^ Et ulterius^ Idem y^bbas dicit quod 
/fcundum interpretationem antiquorum terminorum unum 
Solin continct CC. acras. This is as much as I can leara 
any where for this folin. Dpmefdei vii. Soliiis terra efi 
XVII. Car. pro una SoRn dimidic/e defend, ir Jic in infini* 


The Black-book contalneth thefe words in chap. penuU 
timo lib. I . Hida a primitiva injlitutione ex centum acris 


conftat^ which in mine opinion is vi. acres, becaufe the 
next word carucata inducetb me to think fo, by 


an ancient writer before named, which is Wittlefey, who 
hath thefe words fol. 37. in provincia Lincolnia non funt 
Hiday ficut in aliis provinciis, fct pro hidis funt Carucata 
tcrrarum,-(b non minus valent quam hida. 

Again, an ancient writer called Henry Knighton, a chro- 
nicler of Leiccfter, who wrote in II. V*^*s time, and in the 
cuftody of a gentleman in Leicefter named Mr. John Hunt^ 
hath thefe words, agreeing with the former fol, 37. Jo- 
bannes Rex Jolempniter denunciatus ^c. iyftatim cepit tri" 
butum Per totam Angliam^ videlicet de qualibet Hidoy i. e. 
Carucata terra* III^- if rediit in Normanniam. 

Alfo in a note entered in an ancient record in the treafury 
before a declaration made of the knights fees belonging to 
the biftiop of Lincoln, are thefe words, Nota^ quod Carucata 
terra continet in fe^C acras : if Jeptem bovata faciunt 
Carucatam, i^ qualibet bovata continet 1 5. acras. So as I 
think in thofe (hires inDomefday where no hides are named 

but Carucata. there the Carucata containc^th as much as 


Land of England. 47 


HiJa, and that to be vi. acres. * But 'where there is hida \ 
named, and then faith thus, Dorfote Brixi miles E. tenmr 
Odetun pro xii. hidis. terra eft %\i. car. de ea funt in do-- 
minio 4. Carucata ; in this and like places I take it, that 
Carucata is to be referred to a plough land, which is about 
threefcore acres. And thus is mentioned in Domefday for 
my better proof in Yorkfliire, under titulo Rex in Eifice- 
vuU, funt ad geldum xii. Carucata terra ^ quas vii. Ca^ 
ruca pojfunt arare. In civitate Eborac. Turchil 2. Car. 
terra, pojfunt arare 2. Caruca. 

And yet further for the better proof that a hide of land 


was both reputed before the conqueft and fince vi. acres, 
I find mentioned in a book intituled Rejiauratio Ecclejia de 
Ely (which Mr, Cotton lent me, and now Mr. Cop hath) 
thefe two places worth the noting. In the ix. leaf are 
thefe words. Et non invenerunt de terra qua mulieris jure 
fuiffet, niji unam hidam per fexies XX. acras^ is fuperhidam 
24. acraSi Item in cap, 13. /« Wilberham emit Jbffas'ab AU 
fuuino eSr uxore ejus, duas hidas duodecies xx. acras, 6* to- 
turn hundredum uniufcujufque emptionis fuit in tejlimoniumm 
This was before the conqueft. Now fince the conqueft, 
inter placita de juribus bf ajfifis coram Johanne de valUbus 
^ aliis juftfciariis itinerantibus apud Cant. an. Xiv, E. i. 
termino T/initatis, menfuratio comtnuna pafiura in Hokin- 
ton, Ita quod Warimus de infula 6 alii non habeant in ea 
phta animalia i^ pecora quam habere debednt ire. dicunt 
quod funt in Hokintoh xii. hida terra^ quarum qualiiet 
hida continet in fe fexies viginti acras terra 6fc. Et tenehs 
unam hidam terra integra pojjit fex boves, duos equos, fex 
vaccas txxx. bidentes, if xv. Aucas, if qui minus tenent 
Jecundum quantitntem tenen. habent ifc. unde Vic. teftatur 
&c. Thus much, if not too much, for Hida and Cam* 
eatd terrd. - 



48 ^imin/icns 9f th$ 

Jfigum vtl Jugery 

Is taken diverfly, as by Dunftaple before mentioned, 
who in his 4. leaf doth fay it is a hide of land. His words 
are thefe : J. D. 1074. RexWiltielmus JValliamJtbifubdidit^ 
i; poftea mijit Jvjliciarios fuos per unamqiiamque Sciraniy 
i. e, provincUm, Anglia^ iff inquirers fff it per juiyimentum 
quot hiJa, i, e. jugera^ uni aratro fuffidentia per annuTj\ 
ejfent in unaquaque villa i;c. But I think it far otherwife 
by Domefday. Domefday Cant, in villa de Hadene, qua 
fuit Epifcopi Baioc. Odo tenet de Epifcopo unumjugum terra 
If ejl dimidium Car, So as I take a ^olin to contain divers 
juga^ and jugum to be taken but for as much land as a 
yard land, /ciL 34. acrcSi and fom^times 30. acres at the 


Is * taken dlverfely, as I find in a t^ifter book of Ely, 
which now the DeaA bath, in fundry towns fundry mea^ 
fures; as in Leverin|;tpn a yard land is lx. acres. In 
Fenton xxx. acres. Tyd 32. acres. In Coin virgata opera- 
hilis XV. acres, stnd in another town not ndmed by my 
note ao. acres, and fo I have feen extents* 

Tlie like I have feen of 


As fome 15. acreS) as before is declared, in fotne lo, 
^tt%f and in fome 24* acres, and in fome t%. acres^ id fun- 
dry fhires and countries diverfly. 


. That word is only ufed in the weft parts, wherein 1 reiait 
myfelf to the opinion of thofe countrymen: bitt I cotlld neVer 
find it expounded. Domefday faith in Somerfetfliirc. 

♦ In biindello Efch. dc anno a<J. E. x. infra turrim Lond. funt ibi vix, 
yirgatae tcrrx indominico continentes quinquics x x. &xxx. acras. quarum 
' ^[tMilibct virga valet vx i ifli. prctium acr. «d. ergo x vx. acra pro virga. 


Land pf Ef^Umi. 49 

&oger Arundel aa the town called Cary, Duo iaini termer. 
{T. R. E, ^igMahat pro una hida uno Ferling mi ma. Item 
in Sanford, Geldabat pro 2. hldis if d'umdia virgata Urrne 
if uno Fertwg. So as I take it under correftion of bettef 
judgment, that a '£eflifig of land is. lefs than a hiJe, a 
caruc, an^ yard-land, and is no more than an oxgang, 
which is called Bovata, ftbout xv. acres. 

It follow4?th nof^ to (how how much land belongeth to 
an acre, and that is fet down by ftatute, and yet there are di- 
vers meafures in divers places, although the meafure is by 
pole. The table in the ftar-cbamber made in the 12. year of 
Henry yTT. by fundry of the council by commiffion fetteth 
down, that an acre (hould be xl. poi<e in length and 4. 
pole in breadth : but how many feet the pole (hould con- 
tain it mentioiieth not : but this I iind in the arrentatlof>« 
of AflarteS of Forefts made in Hency the 3, and Ed. i. 
time, that for foreft ground* the commiflioners did let the 
land per pertkam 20. pedum. So have I rend of rnarifh 
grounds meafured. But how'foever the meafuring of land 
hath been ufed before the conquefl, it is not ami fs to know 
at what ttiiie fince the conqucft, it began to be ordered 
bow laod-ihoold be mcafured to avoid ccii trover fies. The 
firft I read of was king Stephen, whom Knighton mine 
fiutbor, in Ms x. chap. fol. 43. commendeth in this fort. 
Stepbanus Rtx in bonttate if juflitia multiimforiiitf fuhtiln 
if vtrfiitttSy ts Brdinationibus faciendis art^.ciofus if de pen- 
dsribui if menfitris mfiituendis t^ de terra arahili prudens 
if operofus, if de Carucata, Bovata, Virgata, Pcrcha^ 
Acra, 'Roda^ if dinddio Roda, Pede, Pollice, Cubito if Palma 
cSw. de Anfulisy Balancis, if vtenfuris^ metis if bundis ter*' 
rarumfuil cetta ma\fura pofita^ ficiit ufque in prafens tene- 
tttr ac etiam de venditionibus, emptionibus. And for proof 
of this he voucheth Cejirenf, in lib, 7. cap. it, 

i^extfoliowied Henry 2. of whom fakh the Black boojc, 
that unam mon^am if unufnpondus conftituit per totzim reg- 
nttMy vAiCSfa a^ons continued in ex^rdfe although they 
Sfpesr nut by nmter of record until £. 1. time, who more 
k^^€iq»reir<Kl tbe iaipii^. Aad ib I pray you accept this 

Vol. I. G in 

50 Of the Antiquity J Office^ and Privilege 

in good part, having omitted fundry notes for confirma- 
tion of this, which I had fet down, bccaufe I would not 
be exceffive tedious, as I fear I have been. 


Of the Antiquity, Office, and Privilege of 

Heralds in England. 

By Mr. Leigh. 

WERE it not that the order of this learned aflem- 
bly doth forbid me to be always filent, this quef- 
tion having been fo judicioufly handled by others, and my- 
felf unable to fay any thing to it, I ftiould, as heretofore, 
have requefted your accuftomfed favour to have difpenfed 
with me. The few notes that I (hall deliver to you I have 
chiefly out of the epiftle of iEneas Sylvius, who fearcbing 
for the fame thing that we are now about, reporteth that 
there was found in a vefl:ry, in Paul's church in London, 
an hiftory written 600. years before his time, the author 
of it being a commentator upon Thucidides, a famous Grae- 
cian. The comment faith, thsit If eraldi are the fame which 
were anciently called Heroes, men whom the people had in 
fuch reverence for their worth, that they efteemed them 
far fuperior unto men,, little inferior unto their gods ; and 
their virtue in their account was fo admirable, that they 
durfl: not call them men nor gods, but gave to each of them 
ihe title between both Heroem^ qusifi /emideum. Dionyfius 
or Bacchus, (that with ftrong' arm firft invaded India, and 
fubduing thofe favage and ravenous people reduced them 
into civility) was the firft inftitutor of them ; and that this 
may be probable, the ceremony now ufed of pouring wine 
upon them that are made Heralds doth induce me to believe* 
Thefe Harolds doth Roger Wall fometimes a learned herald, 
call H erodes, but upon what ground I know not; but fo 
he uleth that word masy times in his Latin hiflory of tb« 


of Heralds in England. '51' 

wars of Hcary the v. wherein himfelf was a fervitor. 
Dares Phrygius an ancient hiftoriographcr, and a foldier in 
ihe wars of Greece and Troy, reporteth that at certain 
plays of wreftling and other feats of aftivity done in the 
court of king Priamus, Paris nndcrftanding thereof came 
into the lifts to encounter He<flor, whom the herald Idst 
beholding, and ftanding by executing his office, not know- 
ing him, nor feeing any marks to defcribe him by, faid 
unto Priamus : lo here cometh a knight bearing filver and 
a chief gold, framed by the cunning of nature, for that he 
was naked, his body being all white, and his head yellow. 
The ancienteft record that I have feen of the name of He- 
ralds in England is that of pellif exitus, where, in Eafter 
term in the 12. of Ed. 3. is mentioned the pay to Andrew 
Wicdfore Norrey regi Heraldorum. For in that time the 
ftate of Heralds was in great regard, and they were more 
ancient than that king's time. For Mr. Gerard Leigh 
faith, there were heralds and kings at arms in Ed. the i. 
time ; and that no man might have to do with arms with- 
out their confent ; that they fliould take diligently the pe- 
digree of all gentlemen, and /hould make their vifitations 
in their provinces every feventh month. Their privileges 
were exceeding great, as may be read in that epiftle at 
large ; and for that they were old retired foldiers, they 
were not only free from fervice and taxes, prefcnted where- 
foever they came, and cloathed at all folemn (hews with rich 
and royal robes, as now with us they are, but they had the 
chief government of the commonwealth, to minifter juftice 
for punilhment of malefaftors and defence of the innocent. 
Their oiRce confided in proclaiming peace and war, and 
therefore they were called Foeciales and Caduceatores, anfwering 
the Roman Fwciales in proclaiming of wars and concluding 
of peace, being likewife called Foeciales^ a foedere faciendo 
and Caduceatores of the caduceus of Mercury, becaufe they 
were Mcffengers of Princes one to another. Such did Ju- 
lius Cacfar inftitute, lying before Carthage, as appeareth 
in the gejla Romanorum ; fo that they were amongft the 
Romans well known, though not by the name Heraldi. 

G z N" XIX. 

jZ The JH*iquity, Office^ and PriviU^e 

Of the AntiquiU', Oipce, and Privilege of 

Heralds in Englaad. 

By Mr. Camden, 

AMONG all civU nations, fince cTvillty fifft entered 
the woi^d, there have been officers of arms as medi- 
atoi-s to negotiate peace and war betweea princes and 
countries; the ancient Greeks called thcn^ Ki^yfcs^ by 
whofe mediation folemn Ccivenants with tbqir enemies were 
made. They were nnen of efpecial reputation, aod carried 
for therr cnfign a Caducais, whereupon they were alfa 
called Cadxtceatoresy which was a white flaflFi whereunto 
^ere affixed two ferpentSy male and . female, whereunto- 
was added afterwards Cofta-cornu. Thq flaiF was yhite iQ 
token of fimple truth, the ferpents betokened wifdoraj 
both fexes, as alfo the Copia-cornuy betokened fruitflil in- 
creafe and plenty, the companions of peace. They wcrtf 
fent to redeem captives, to treat of peace, t^ prt)cure fafe- 
«ondiids for anabafTadors, to rcquine^ the dcacJ bodies to be 
burjjgcl. Inviolable they were in thcs greateft rage of war^ 
and reputed men of a divine originskl^ as firft defcendcd 
from lUs^jtfxQi the fbo of Mercury, of whom they were 
^amod linqwau and hereupoa Honaer cafleth Eumedes 
l^'Ma^uo3f. It N^erc needleis here to mentioft the^r rite»i» 
Qiakitig-peaee, hawibisy broc^t two lambs fr^tG iaa bot- 
tle of goats ikioi, goldem cJaacgecs^ mid oUiei^ veflilS) if€* 
as it i& not^d by Qomect 

Tl%e P*pDaJui«. likewLfe h^ their F^viabs^ fo.csilei ajfdg 
is foedere facwxd^^ fiarfb inftituwd m hai^y by Ifeflbs a«d 
brought to Ron^e firft by Anciu Maptius.: their coHege 
confifted of twenty. The ppiocipal was caliwi Puter Fa* 
trains t. becatife It was rcqmfite that be fhouM-be PatrimaSf 
tjiat is., hav« his ikiher albse^ aad he hicn^f hftve ehildrea : 
. the fccood was c^l^ f^erkenaams^ foecaufe when tbe F(sci* 
ales were feat ehrtg^itumy that i» ta chalieBge goods tak«a 


away cfo/ra V9€$, he carried the h^A tarkena with flint 
flooes & '^roAX i cf/fiitc grmrum, as Ovid caUetk it, 'virhick 
he rec«i¥cd of she Prater* 

Diouyfkia Haikamttff recordeth that fbc . efpecbl poMCs 
were incident to their OMfiee. Firft, that they ihoeM hanre 
fteare, 4eft the people ef Rome flio«iId vnge war agaloft 
any of their confcdierates; Secondly^ thar they (hociM 
chftHenge an J require again good^ iojuvioufly takeft away 
by eeemies, Thirdty, (hat they flioukl preciaitft vrar 
agaflOfA fuch as refofed to^ make refli^mtioR. Fonrthty, that 
they fhodtd rake notice of injuries dene contrary to* cok^^ 
nants. Fifthly, that they Aioutd carefully provide that coih 
ditions ftionW be faitbftrfly obfefved. ^xth^y, that thqr 
fhotild treat atrf compound peace, and take notice what 
generals and comniandeH had done contrary fo^ their oath. 
When they requtred peftitBtto», tbef wore oa their head t 
hood of yari>, and ofed thefe words : y^Wf ft^itery atuSfe 
Fines f cmdktt Fas, ego Jum fnhUcuf mmcius' populvRomant, 
jnjte pieque Legatm vtnh, vei^ifyue meisjide^Jii 5pc. Like** 
wife when they proclaimed war tfcey did cajR into the ene* 
naie» coiuitry a bloody fpeai* burned at the upper end, nt- 
terhig thefe words, as AgelHus reporteth, ^odpopuktsHer^ 
muiufulus, hominefipie' p^ptdi ffermun(btli adverfus poptdum 
Romatmm belhtm fecere deliquere^e ; quocbjue popuhts Ra* 
manus cujn popuh Ihrmundiih hominibufque HermunduHs 
beltumjujitf ob earn rem ego popuhifyfie Romanus popuh' Her* 
munduk popullfyue Ifermundutis beltUm indico factoque* But 
this was ftarde republka. Under the Emperors^ as I find 
no mention of thp Tosciaies^ yet it feenjed they coatinued s 
for when Ammianns Marceffinus maketh mention of the 
fiege of Amida3 under, JuBao, he reporteth that a Ferfian 
did caft into the Town a bloody Tance, nt marls ^ nqftru 
After the decay of the Ronian empire and erefUon of king- 
doms, the heralds of the old Franks carried virgas cbnje* 
crataSf when they were employed in meflages, that they 
might not be touched or trotibled by any : and this was 
Juxta riium Francorum, as Grcgorius Turonenfis writeth 
SBro i"^ capite 3-1. 


54 STi&tf Aiii^mtyr Offiti^ and Privilege 

But in the time of Carolus Magnus began both the re* 
putatiDD, honour,, and name of Heralds, as ^oeas Sylvius 
reporteth; out of an old library book of St. Paul, the au- 
thor whereof derived their name from HeroSj but others, 
to whom moft incline, from . the German word Herald^ 
which fignifieth old and ancient mafter. Yet he which 
writeth notes upon. Willeram, faith that Herald fignifieth 
faithful to the ar^ly ; and I have found in fome Saxon 
treatife, Heold^ interpreted yumm^j Pr^ojitus, Neverthelefe 
this name is rare or not found in the hifiory of Charles the 
great, nor in the times enfuing for a loog fpace either by 
our writers or French writers. The firft mention that I re- 
member of them in England, was about the time of K. £d. i« 
For in the ftatute of arms or weapons, it is ordained that the 
kings of heralds ihould wear no armour but their fword$ 
pointlefs ; and that they fhould only have their Houfes des 
Artnes and no more, which, as I conceive, are their coats 
of arms. The name and honour of them was never greater 
30 this realm than in the time of K. Edward the third ; in 
whofe time there were kings of arms, heralds, and pour* 
fevants by patent, not only peculiar to the kit^, but td 
others of th.e principal nobility : and Froiffard writeth that 
king Edward the third made a pourfevant of arms, which 
brought him fpeedy tidings of happy fuccefs in the battle 
of Auroye in Britanny^ immediately upon the receipt of 
the news, an herald, giving him the nmne of Windefore. 
And at that time were liveries of coats of arms firft given 
unto heralds,, with the kings arms embroidered thereon, as 
the king himfelf had hisi robe royal fet with lions of gold» 
In France alfo, as the faid Froiflard writeth, at the lame time 
Philip de Valois increafed greatly the ftate; royal of France, 
with jufts, turneys, and heralds. As for the privileges of 
heralds I refer you to the treatife thereof purpofely written 
by Paul bifhop of Burgos in Spain» 

No XX, 

'^/ Heralds in England^ 55 

N^ XX- 

Of the Antiquity and Office of Heralds in. 


By Mr. Whitlock. 
a8. Nov'. 1601. 

/T^HE name of Herald fom^ have derived from ihc 
X Saxon word Hercayld, becaufe anciently they were 
men chofen out of thofc foldiers, which were emeritis Jii- 
fendiis : and Hereauld is in the Saxon tongue an old foldier 
or old mafter, and you may tafce either word to come of 
Hems or Heros, 

Heralds were anciently called Feciales, ol fides as fome 
fay, quia/?^W pubJica pr'aerant ; and hence comethyopiwj. 
The Greeks call them zlfYivo^iH^g^ and it was called y^ir^r^fo- 
iium, Numa was the author of that college of them ; 
their ofHce was to treat of all means of peace before there 
(hould be any open war. They were as Legati, the chief 
of them Pater Patratus* 

I fee that the order obferved in . the fending of heralds 
in thevWars was taken from the ancient fafhion 
of the Romans, of whom Dionyfius Palicarnafleus writeth 
thus in his fecond book. When any of the heralds was to 
be fent on a meflage to any city vejie augujiiore injigniifque 
verendus, that is, having his coat arms on, 6r. went to 
the city of that nation, . which they fuppofed had done 
them wrong, and there demanded recompence of the wrong 
done, or delivery of the parties that had offended, and until 
they had performed all thefe ceremonies, and fought by 
ail means of treaty to compofe matters quietly, and this had 
been fignified to the fenate, they could not denounce war 

Livy and A. Gellius defcribe that the herald at arms, 
after he had done his meflage, and made demand of that 

2 ' which 

$6 fit jimipdty ^md <^ 

which was unjuftly withholden, and nothing was anfwered 
him, denounced war agaiaA them by taking a fpear in 
. his hand, and throwing it fo far as he could into the ter- 
ritory of the eneay. This is caUod with lis, ghtn^ f 
defiance. Another part of the oiice of a herald was to 
make leagues with foreign nations, in which many cere- 
monies were obfer^, as ^biodfqg of thdr heads with vcr- 
bene and fuch like herbs. 

Pater Patraius was appoiiirted bf the herald ad patran- 
dumjusjurandum, to take the oath, which was done in the 
many execrations and vows of pcffbntoaftce by traHing tbeit 
Gods to witnefs, and thelaft was the herald, having a ffint 
ftone in his hand and a fwine ftattdhtg l>y Mm, who when 
be had repeated all, prayed Juptter to ftrike the people of 
Rome as he flroke that famine, if they dctlitied from perform- 
ance of that which he had profefTed, and thereupon did 
he ftrike the fwine fo hard as he could with the ffint flone. 

For the atitiquity of heralds when they eame *fft into 
tills realm, I will leave the difclofing 6f that et^ thofe that 
are of that preyfeflion, who know it beft, and flidl not ht 
prevented by tne tliat att a ftranger to it. 

Their office fe erar cotnmonwealth is fh« irery cxercife 
of honor ; for it converfeth only m cafes cf hortor, in war* 
or pcate -, in wars, they are the king's ttefltenger* to pafs 
to amd fro between enemic? w*thotit wfong or vktetlod, 
and this fe by the few of nationi ; for they are the 4une, 
which in the ancient oaticftts arc aA\tA Ltgati, and ftiouM 
pafs as privileged pcrfon^, without intermeddling ftftiiit r 
than to declare thdr meflage. 

5. E. 4. t. b. 7. E. 4. 22. b. ten pormds the y«r was 
granted to garter by the king, and it w^ hitended to be 
by reafon of his office, and deierminaM^ on thcf taKng 
gway of his office. 

V^ XXI. 

9f ElUr^ in knglaki. 5 f 


Of the Antiquity and Office of * Herald in * sic. 


TM B office, by opinion of Vigener and TiUct, is older 
than the name : the firft in his notes upon Livy ap« 
plyeth KwtfWKff in Homer, which Euftathius deriveth from 
the verb yu^i/cu, to fpeak loud or proclaim a Haraut. Tiliet 
bgreeth with the former, that the FiTiiaks and thcfe are all 
one : the affinity of the funAions may fecond this opinion* 
The etymology of this Rom^^n office fuiteth not much this 
queftion though it was in lail being, at their firA fubjec- 
tion of our ftate, for I find it not ufed later than by Sue- 
tonius in CktiSo.. But the inditution and office may give 
fome ground to this of our time. 

The inftitution Halicarnafleus referreth to Numa. It 
Was a college of 25, one chief ruler or king, called Pater 
Patratus, by Plutarch, chofen by the reft. Pomponius 
Laettis. The 24. divided into two ranks ©f miniftry, Fw^ 
dates and Caduceatoresj this may fit the now diftinftion of 
kings, heralds, purfevants. This focieiy admitted none, 
faith -f Nonnius Marceilinus, but ex cptimis /amiliis, be- f Sic. 
caufe they prefented the pubJick faith, and what they con- 
cluded 'was held facred. Their perfons were free iti all 
fefvlces without interruption. Suidas. Achilles is made by 
Homer to call them the h!y mejfengers of g^ds and men. 
Thfey had by the firft inftitution peculiar garments to their 
profeffion, btit no HalicarnaflT. Alex- 
ander. The heralds of France ufed a coat of arms, as we 
here in England from an ancient inftitution, as their owa 
difcourfes affirm. And in Comenius we read, what fliift 
Lewis the French king made to furnifti out a counter fdt 
herald, shaking acokt of arms of two trumpet banners. E» 
the 3. I cortceive was the firft that in ihis ftate inftitoted 
cither hfetalfl of their apparel ; for before his time I find ' 
none in courfe of our country ftories. And what banners 

Vol. I. H they 


58- 5rt&^ Antiquity and Office 

they now are enjoined, it hath in their patent relation to 
that of E. 3. 

Their office is of peace and war under commiffion of the 
prctor or ttaff. For the fiill they regard that the confe- 
derate cities receive no wrong by the Romans. Halicar- 
na/Teus, but to admonifli the emperor and ilate in breach 
of their publiek oaths or promife. They are judges or 
diredlors in fingle combats and triomphs, Servius, So ia ^ 
France, notes Tillet in his officers of France ; andfo io 

They were to order the plays decreed by the people to 
the gods, until Tiberius gave that employment to the 
piiefV of his houfe. Suetonius. 

In wars the Fceciales were only imployed. Servius. No 
juil war but proclaimed by them. Tully. And that was 
after fixing a fpear in the frontiers in the witnefs of 3, per- 
fous, at the leafl the prefident, and other ceremonies Dio- 
^yiius HalicarnafT. fetteth down. 

In ending war was the fole , office of the Caduceatores, 
called of Mercuries rod, which they bore as their Symbolum ; 
the flraight rod noting their juftice, the 2. ferpents the 
different perfons they fhould perfuade : part of their peace* 
ful ceremonies were herbs, a Lituusy and ftone taken from 
the temple of Jupiter Feretrius. Thus much for their 

The etymology of heralds Gorppius would borrow from 
the old German tongue, taking . Her for publicus^ and Jit 
for niincius. But the opinion of feme Germans rejefting 
the firfl letter H, fo it is printed in all jhe imperial diets 
at Mentz, derive it ftom Er, which is honor ^ and Naulf, 
holding, a preferver or holder of honour. For the better 
.regard Tillet faith that they had affigned them tides c^ 
cities and countries, as Normandy, Orleance, 6"r. and in 
England," Lancafler, Winfore, York, eJrc. The reafoo, 
faith an old book of thisqueflion, is to fliow the conjunction 
• of holinefs, puifTance, amity, and authority in them. 
They were by the French • ftories in foch reverence, th^t 
they fate at the king's stable . ... . , ,, . . .,. 


»/ Heralds h England. ^'9. 


• • • 

Of the Antiquity and Ufe of Heralds in 


By Joseph Hoi^land. 
28. Novr, i6qi. 

MR. Gerard Leigh doih (hew that at tb^ Erft ther.C: 
were certain knights' called Jncients, fuch as had 
ferved the wars 20. years at the leaft, thofc w^re made by 
emperors and kings, the judg^ of martial afts,- and of the 
laws of arms. Add after them fuGceeded Herehaughfs, 
which by interpretation is as much to fay as old Lords , and 
were fo called for the honour of their fervice. 

This Herehaught being apparelled in the coat of arms of 
his fovereign, the prince himfelf at his creation tafceth a cup 
all gilt and poureth water and wine upon his head, and 
piuteth about his neck a collar of SS. the one S. ar. the 
other S. fa, and wlien his oath is adminiftered, he giveth 
the fame cup that he was created withal unto the herald,, 
who bearing the fame, in his right hand, miakcth a Largefs 
io th^ hall of his iovereign. 

For the antiquity of the name here in Eligland.! find, 
that Malcolm king. of Scots fent a herald joato William the 
conqueror to ,treat of a peace, when both armies were in 
order of battle. 

John of Gaunt, duke of Lancafter, married Katharine 
daughter of Guyon king of arms in the time of K. Edward 
the 3. And Geffrey Chaucer married her fifler. 

King Henry the fifth fent a herald to fummon the caftle 
of Mauftrowe in France, and becaufe they within the caflle 
gave opprobrious words unto, ihe king's herald, the king 
caufed a gibbet to be fct up before the caftle, on the which , 
were hanged twelve prifoners, all gentlemen and- friends to ; 

the captain of the caflle. 

H 2 Before 

(hJ ^he Aptiqulty and Ufe 

Before the battle of Agincourt the French king fent* 
herald to king H. 5. to know of him what ranfom he would 
give. But after the battle he fent Montjoy Wing at arms, 
aid four other Freoch heralds, lo defire burial for thein 
that- were flaia in the battle : the king feafted the of&cers 
of arms, and granted their requefts. 

Clarentieux king at arms was feat by king H. 8. to make 
defiance unto the emperof Charles the 5. but before he did 
deliver his meflage he prayed that the privileges belonging to 
his place might be kept, which was, that he might have a 
fafe condud to return within the dominions of the king his 
snafter. Whereonto the emperor anfwered, your privileges 
Iball be kept. And while be did deliver his meflage of de- 
fiance, he held his co4\t .of arms upon his left arm ; and 
when he had finiftied his fpeeches he did put on his <x)at of 
arms, and had the emperor*s licence to depart. 

The Lord Brabafcn of France in the time of K, H. 5. 
did appeal from the king's fentence unto thefemenc©of the 
heralds and officers of arms upon this point, that behaving 
Ibught with the king body to body in a mine under ground 
s at the town of Melun in France, the king ought not after- 
guards to put his brother in arms to death for any caufe: 
and fo was the opinion of the heralds at that time, other- 
wife the king would have put him to death, for that be was 
confenting to the death of the D. of Burgoign. Whereby 
it appeareth, that tlie heralds and officers of arms, In thofe 
days, were learned and ikiliul in maitial difdphne. 


^ Her^Us in En^l^jfi, |<|| 


Of the Authority, Office, and Prmleges of 

Heralds in England. 

ByMr. Agarb. 

FOR the antlqoity I thiak in the queftioa before, 
touching arms bearing, was by me in part touched, 
that before the conqueft there was no mention made of he- 
ralds in England by means of the continual vexation of 
wars betwixt the Britons and the Saxons, betwixt the 
Saxons and the Danes, and the Saxons them(elve$, except 
you will take thofe ancient Bttrdt among the Britons to be 
inftead of heralds, whofe exercife was to celebrate the 
ancient defcents of men of worth by rhymes. Biit fure I 
am that at the conqueft there was no praftice of heraldry. 
For unto them belongeih to Bfe flcilful in languages, to be 
able to deliver meflages of love, peace, or to denounce 
war betwixt prince and prince. But the Con<}ueror 
ufed a Monk for his Meflfenger to king Harold. And 
Harold never fent any to William the Conqueror that I can 
read of. 

I remember Ingulfus maketh mention of one carl With- 
lacius, who calleth king Egbert, and Athelwolf his fon, hi« 
lords or kings. This Withlacius by his deed confirmeth to 
Crowland the gift of one oxgang of land in Lcithorp, 
which one Edulphus his meflenger gave, called -by the 
name of Nuncius fnus. So as I leave it to the judgment 
and cerifure of the learned, whether he is to be taken for 
a herald or no. 

I fuppofe the beft time and chief riling of them was ia 
Ed. 3. time, even when the garter took his beginning. At 
which time eleftion was made of learned and difcreet perfons, 
to be employed as well for the fending of them abroad 
with the order to foreign princes, as alfo for to treat with 
them for negotiating of leagues and treaties of peace and 


ihi ^be Juiborilyy 0$ce^ and Privileges 

cosfederatioD. Yea, and of late I have feen a treaty of 
peace made in K. H. 7*. time with ihe king of Denmark, 
where the chi^f commiffioner was ClareacieuXy wherein 
iKere fet down fo wife aad learned articles, as that H S. 
foft to H. 7. in renewing the league \vi:h the king, 
iifech the fame words with no addition to the fame: 
which league hath, ever fince the making continued 
firm, until of late that the king of Denmark that now is, 
Icwght to oflfer to oUr m'erehaois fome hard nfteafiire hf 
ijcw impofu'rpa$» ^^But 'the xjijeeo's majefty fending the 
lord Zoucb . tbiUhfl'. ^vith the fasnf: leagues exemplified, 
l«K:iiicd the-matJtfifv.... ; 

' Now I take it dut I may very wsU divide heralds iat^ 
two ftrts^, 

K Nmcivs, 
\ Iniermincitis, 

jyuncius I think to be the- herald of arms who is apparelled 
with his coat of armour bearing the arms of the pi-ince, 
which coat A*»as woot to be called Tabor, for fo I remember 
itt an aftion of trefpafs in H. 4. time, one impleadetji an- 
other, $tii2re Taboram fuam cepit. And to this coat be* 
loDgeth reverence, in that if fo be;, that an herald be feot 
with this coat upon him, for any man, a fubjeft, conimand- 
kig him to obedienee or appearance, to refufe is deemed 
We?ifan, ^lia expteffam habet Regia majefiatis imaginem^ 
9& in Tilberienfis is faid of the king's feal. And in all re- 
Ibellions, they be employed with their coat to deliver mef- 
fagesof pardon and proclfimatlons tp the rebels; and their 
coat is a paOport : and to hart or kill any of them in that 
iHjfmefs, is treafon, as was deemed againlV the rebels of 
Norwich, who flew Mr. Man, an herald there, coming to 
them to have proclaimed pardon if they would have accept- 
ed it. Neither are any melTengers from rebels to be ad- 
mitted to deliver any meiFjges, before the king's herald 
have gotten them licence to fend : as was lately in K, 
E, 6. time proved by that worthy earl John of Bedford, 

who was fent to reftrain the rebels in the weft : where, 


fff Htralds in England. , t^ 

after he had overthrowa thofc of Devonftiire, and march- 
log oa towards CornwalU there came in poft to him a 
filly wretch without boots or fpurs with hay about his 
legs from the rebels fent, faying, he was fent by the rebels 
to ray lord with one . . i . . . who, when he came be- 
fore hira, ufed this fpeech or the like. My hrd, the 
commons in Cornwall have fent me to you^ to tell you^ that 
they 'mill hid you battle to-morrow on fuch a hill^ if yovi 
dare come thither. The earl anfwered, Well faid\ bid 
have you never a better borfsy faid he ; no, indeed, fiiid 
the meffenger : thm take him and horfe him better againfi 
yonder walU where they pitched two bills, and caft the 
third over: and banged him, which the poor wretch feeing 
provided, Oh I faid he, it is againfi the law of arms t9 
hurt ambafjadors : but ray lord anfwercd, Sirrah, no law 
of arms is to be kept with traitors^ 

Now for Internuncii I take them. to be thofe which were 
called Purfuivants, a meaner fort, which now do wear a 
a thing wherein the king's arms are engraven, called a Box: 
and furely their authority is great and their arms bearing 
is reverenced alfo. But thefe we fee meddle not with arms 
bearing, but many of them have prefumed with harms, 
bearing, whereof they have tailed for their prcfumption 
for abufing their authority. 

N*> XXIV. 

^4 ^^ ^iifmty €ind Privileges 

-; 'i«' 


Of the Antiquity and Privileges of the 
Houfes or Inns of Court, and of 

By Mr. A G a R d. 
Pafchx 33. 

IR E A D not in any ancient writer or record how the 
fame did grow to a head or fociety at any time before 
or fiAcc the conqueft. Before the conqueft I am perfuaded 
that lawyers had their chief abode for ftudy in ancient ca- 
thedral churches or abbeys, becaufe that I have feen that 
in fines acknowledged, that the fame have been done before 
blfliops, noblemen, and abbots ; and after the conqueft fn 
K. H. 2. time, and K. R. i. }• and H. 3, times, fines were 
acknowledged before abbots, deans, and archdeacons, who 
were juftlces itinerant through the realm in circuit for trial 
of life and death, for trial of titles of land, and for aflizes. 
As for example, Brinkeland, the chronicler of St. Ed- 
mond's Bury, faith, Abbatem Sampfonevt fuijfe virufn fnt' 
dentem^ sj Jujiiciarium errantem in circuitu, ts vixit tem^ 
fore Ranulphi Glanvil Jufticiarii AngUa^ Again, I have 
feen fundry^n^i/fj conccrdia taken before the abbot of Pe- 
terborough in his circuit of juftice itinerant, in fundry 
ftiires in H. 3. time. Alfo Salomon de RofF. archdeacon 
of Rochefter and Magifter Thomas de Sodington a prieft, 
were juftices itinerant in circuit both for affizes and quo 
wai:ranto's in Ed. i. time. So as I fuppofe that the ftudy 
of the laws of the land were in the court and religious 
places, a great fpace until the making up of the ftatates of 
Runnemeade, magna charta, and de fore/lay for then after 
Communia placita non fequantur Curiam nojiram^ et-ery 
courts nainiflers knew how and where tliey ought to 


W . . . ' 

tf Ms if tW; aifd Cbantef^. i$ 

citefcife their offices and pleadiDgs, which before followed 
theefchequier being in the king's court, which cfchequieris 
called by an .ancient writer, the mother court of all the other 
wuf rr of record. 

Thefe ftatutes being (lablifhed, then the king gave autho- Ex Attov 
rtty, yea by parliament, as appeareth by an aft in dn. ao. J^p^^^tj^ 
E. I. to the Jufticcs, quod per e9rum£fcrethnem provideant cUs Domi- 
fcf ordinint certum numerum de quibus cotT. de melioribus fc^ jtmxit j. de . 
Ugalioribus & libentius adU/centihis fecundum quod intel* Mrtingham 
kxerint quod curia fu^ ^ populo de regno melius vatere /«• fuis quod^ 
terit & magis commodum fu^t.- Et quod ipfii quos ad hoc *^' 
elegerint. Curiam fequantur^ if fe de negotiis in eadem curia 
intromittant if alii non. Et videtur Regi 6r efus conjilio 
quod feptiis viginti /ujfficete poterint. Apponant tamen 
prafati Jujliciafii plufes Ji viderint ejfefaciendn vel nume* 
rum aniicipent. Et de a/iis renianentibus Jiat per difcrc- 
ftonem ^rundem 'fujiicia^ (sfc. 

So as then in that king's time the law began to be fettled 
in perfeft form and d^ue courfe as it proceedeth now, and 
by that aieans did draw fladents to provide convenient 
plices both for their ftody and conference. 

For their liberties and privileges, I never read of any . 
graiiteil to fhem or their houfes : for having the law ia 
their hands, I doubt not but they could plead for them* 
felves', and f:ly as a judge faid (and that rightly) that it is 
not coj&v'etiient that a judgie (hould feek his lodging whea 
h« cotneth to ferve the prince and his countrj^. 

VoL.i* I N^XXV. 

66 Tie Antiquity iff ibe Haufes of Lam. 

N° XXV. 

Of the Antiquity of the Hou(es of Law. 

By Mr. Th YNNE. 

IT is queftioQlefs that lawyers, as wdl fuch as opened 
or defended the clients caufe, and fuch as heard and 
jtfdgcd the fame, had efpecial places for their abode, as 
the judges, firft in tlie king's houfc, and after in other' 
places, and the pleaders, attorneys, and follicitors in their 
private inns and lodgings, which I fuppofe they had in 
fevcrai parts of the city a long tintc until the 18. of Ed- 
ward the 3. and in Michel. 29. Ed. 3. they had Tioftels or', 
inns, for in that year in a quod ei to one exception 

taken, it was anfwered* by Willoughby arid Stypwithe, 
that the fame was no exception in that court, although 
they had often heard the fame for an exception amongft 
the prentices in hoflilles or inns, 'which was, as I take it^ 
one aflembled fociety in one fettled place, called the Ap- 
prentifls hoftells. And I have heard, but upon no ground 
but bare conjectural, that in times paft there was an inn of 
court at Dowgate, called Johnfoa's Inn, another in Fetter- 
lane, another in Pater-nofter-row ; which laft they prove, 
becaufe it was the place next to Paul's church, where each 
lawyer and ferjeant heard bis clients caufe and wrote the 
fame upon his' knee : the form of which ferjeants fo writ- 
ing is at this day in many places of the Guildhall to be 
feen, where the ferjeants with their hoods upon their heads 
iit writing upon their knees, and to this day the new 
created ferjeants do obferve the fame, in memory of the 
dd cuAom of (landing at the pillar in Paul's church ; fot 
the new ferjeants after the feaft ended, good to Paul's ia 
their hal^it, and there each chufetb a pillar to hear the 
clients caufe, if any come. But of thefe conjedural things 
I will no further intreat, but defcend to fuch matter arifing . 
out of our queftioa as record or hiftory will warrant. • ^ 


Tie jftrtiqul^ of the Heufes of Law. €j 

Wherefore touching the antiquity of houfes of law ; 
firft, we will fliew that they aflembled together in one 
houfe. Secondly, why thofe houfes were called the Inns 
of Court, of Chancery, and of Serjeants Thirdly, whco 
thefe houfes were of greateft number, and where they were 
placed. And laftly, of the original and antiquity of thd 
fame feveral houfes of law at this day. In the treating 
whereof, if I (hall not fo fully fatisfy you as I defire, and 
as our learned lawyers can (as being a thing wherein they 
ought chiefly to have travelled) I crave pardon, defirirg 
you to think rather what I (hould and would do, than 
what my poor flcill can well do. 

Touching the firft (having many times mufed, that fp 
honourable an aflembly did never keep any note of their 
firft meeting, fince there was not the meaneft fociety of' 
religious perfons but kept a regifter of their firft founda- 
tion and fociety) I fay it is out of controverfy, that ia 
time the apprentices of tlielaw,5being divided mio inferiores 
xijprenticii and nobiliores apprentidi^ did in time aflemble 
themfelves from their feveral lodgings into one houfe, to 
the end they might be more at hand to confer about their 
clients caufes ; but when this aCTembly fliould firft be, it 
is hard to know, as will be alfo the original of. thofe inns 
of lawyers which we now have. Wherefore I will here 
leave them in fome fettled place, although I cannot rightly 
fay, where, and prove the divifion of the apprentices of 
the law to be apprcnticii nobilicr^s, whkh are the inns of 
court-men; and apprenticii without any addition, which 
are thofe of the inns of chancery : for, Walfinghame, in 
ihewing that the rebels in 4. R. 2. did fpoil the. lawyersof 
the Temple, faith, etiam lacum^ qui vocatur Temple-bar^ 
in quo apprenticii juris morabantur nGbiliores, diruerunt* 
But in the inquifition 18. Ed 3. it apjpeareth, that Ifabel 
Lady Clifibrd (as after fhall appear here more at large) did 
let Clifford's Inn (which is but one inn of cliancery, and 
not (b noble as an inn of court) with thefe words of re-^ 
cord, that (he did let it apprenticiis de Bancol' vixlhovit any 
other additioa to them, as being apprehthit' in/eriores'iti, 

I 2 rcfpeft 

f ^pcft of a^prenticii nohiliores ; fo that qf neccffity they 
jpduft aiQong themfelves have a kind of aca<leaiy or .viniyef* 
fi.ty wherein the laws ipu/t apjirt be taught from othcf 
fdeoces, aiui opt in the ^Qiverfities of fcholaf^kal Ijearoingi 
.t^caufe^ as faith Fortefcue in the 44. chapter of the l^wsi 
pf England, they i^ere taught in other languages thafi 
yrare ufed in philofopbical academies, as in the J^rench and 
luch pther Latin as is not Known in the univerdties, which 
.ireU appeared by Sir Thomas Mprc, which breing in Francgi, 
jto crofs a prQu4 doAor that won].d difputc of ajUi jLbings 
l^iGwn, 4id ptjit up this queftien in Liw Lat^^, virvnt 
averia capta in Withgrnamiidn^ Jinf irreplegiabilia necnt t 
wh/:r«of the dp^ltor could not under/land one word, and fa 
iijiras aOianied of his arrogancy. 

J'or the fecond point, thefc hoqfcs wherein thcfc la^y- 
l^rs were fettled are called the Inns of Court, and of Cha^i- 
^ry, and of Serjeants* This )aft fo nan:|ed, and for none 
Qlibcr ^y^S^^ \>^ jtpi' ^V- ^^ judges and fcrjeants have 
|be}r refianpe, lodging, and djet tfierc. But they which 
VC called the Inns of Court haye that title, becaufc in 
fhjp ftfittc, fuch of the gentry and nubility npurifhed and in- 
firu&ed there, might l>e able to ferve the courts both of 
jjuQice an4 Ae king's palace. Sir John Fortefcue (being 
only chief juf^ice of rfie bench, and not chancellor of Eng- 
J^nd, %% he is pntrijly called by Molcafter ip tranflating his 
• bopkof the laws of Engfend, finpe he was ohly chancellor 
jp. the yonngcft prince Edward and his mother after he 
^d witji ibem into France) doth fay in his 49. chapter of 
Aat book, that rhc Oudents ip the unircriities of the laws 
iffor fo he calleth the houfes of court and chancery) did 
.not only fiudy the laws to ferye the courts of juftice, and 
profit their* country, but did further learn to dance, tcj 
J^ JO play on inftrument^ pn their ferial days, and to 
jfta^jiy dbWty pn the fe^ival, ufiog fuch cxercifcs as they 
. ijld wh>cb wefP |?j*oMght up in the king's court. So thaj 
. tbffe boi^S being pourifhcries or feminaries pf the court, 
tpoj^ their d^ojninjition pf the et|d wherefore they were 
«ftitatfid, wA (0 caUed th^ Inns of Court ; to every of 

fke /iniifrity .#/ tie Houfis $f Jjm^ If 

^hieh hoiifes tbere did to Fortjefcue's time bdong 2. bpa« 
ijred ftudeats or tbereabontf, whereof maoy bad their 91M 
Mteadant on thenx* The iims of chancery wece £9 icalM^ 
^ the faid Fortefcue in the iaine book writetb» becjiiif^ 
Sttidentes in il^ pro eorum parte ^majori juvf net fi»nt^ on-- 
ginalia if qmfi'legU eltmtnta addlfrentes^ qui in itUs pr^ 
fienUs ut ipfi maiurefcunt ad majora hojpitia ftuH iiliuXp 
qua hofpiiia curias app^Uantur^ afftmuntur, 80 as that 
the greater bouies of ines of court wereiemioaries to the 
court, fo theie inns of chancery were (emioaries to the ioa^ 

Thirdly, thefe houfes of inns of court were in th«r 
height and greateft number in the time of H. 6. For, as 
the fanie- Fortefcue hath, there were then beioogiog to the 
bws univerfity 4. inos of court, which are the fame now 
extant, each containipg two hundred perfons, and 10. iniia 
4of chancery, each houfing one hundred perfons, being 
more inns of chancery than be at thb day, for there Is now 
but eight : which inns of court and chancery were then, 
as they now be, placed out of the city and noile thereof^ 
in the fuburbs of London, according to Fortefcue, cap. 49. 
where he iatth, Situatur etiam Jiudium illud inter locum 
curiarum illarum ^ civitatem Lontkn. And a little after, 
nee in civitate ilia ubi conftuentium turha Jbidentium quietem 
perturbare poffit, fitum eft Jhu&um illud, fidjeorfim parum* 
per in civitatis illius fuburbio if propius curiis pradiSis^ ut 
ad eas Jine faiigatioms incomtiiiodo Jludentes indies ad libitum 
aecedere valeant. Of which number of ten inns of chaoe* 
eery I cannot think there is any yet remaining for their an- 
tiquity> but Clif&rd's Inn and Clement's Inn, and that the 
old inns of chancery called Strand Inn and St. George Ian 
might be fome of tfaofc ten iiins. Of the antiquity of which 
inns of chancery we will fpeak hereafter, in the mean tinae 
(hewing that this placing of the inns of courts and chancery 
^thin^the city out of the fuburbs by Fortefcue for quiet« 
nefs fake, as I conceive it, overthroweth the opiG&>n of 
thofe, which fappoib one inn of court to be at Dowgate, 
and another in Bater noAer-roW| both within the city. 
" Laftly, 

^0 ^bi^ntiqiiiiy df the Houfes^f Law^ 

' Laftly, \vc will defcend to the inns of court and chancery 
in pur time, which are four intis of court; viz: LinMs 
Inn, the 2. Temples, inner and middle, and Grey^s Inn : 
and 8. inns of chancery, which arc Staple Inriy Fumivai^s 
Inn, Bernard's Inn, and Tbave^s Inn in Oldborri ; Clif- 
ford'j Inn in Fleet-ftrect ; Clement's Inn, New Inn, an4 
Lion's Inn without Temple-bar : of wbofe original we will 
fpeak no further than may be confirmed by ' record and 
hiftories, being fach ♦/arrant^bie proofs as 1 have col- 

Lincoln's Ih^ fituated in New-ftreet, now called Chan- 
cery-lane, corruptly for Chancellor's- lane, is compofed of 
the ruins of the Black Friers houfe of Oldborn, and the 
boufe of Ralf Nevil, bifhop of Chicefter and chancellor of 
England toH. 3. in whoTe time he built that houfe, and 
died in the year of Chrift 1244. 6 28. H. 3. of whom and 
of his goodly palace in Chancery -lane thus writeth Matthew 
Fayis; Annofub eodem vcnerabilis patir Epifcopus Cicjflrenjls 
,Itadulphus de NevUla Cancellarivs Anglia, vir per omnia 
.hudabilis is tmrnota columna in Regis negotiis fidelitatis, 
Landini in nobih Palatio fuo, quod ifundamentis non procul 
i novo Tentph conjiruxerat, vitam temporalem^ tetminavit. 
Of whofe houfe alfo there builded, and the lands which he 
had^ thus (peaketh tl>e record of Claufa 1 1. H. 3. parte 2. 
m, 7. Rex conceffit Radnlpho N. Epi/copo Cicifier. Cancellario 
Placeam illam cum Gardino, qua fuit Joannis Herliztnuy 
^ui terras ftias forisfecit in yico ilk qui vocatur New'fireet, 
ex oppoftto terra ejufdem Epi/copi in eodem vico. Of this 
bifhop's houfe and of the Black Friers did Henry Lacy, the 
JaA earl of Lincoln of that name, conftableof Chefter, and 
guardian of England, ereft a ftately houfe, \»ihich, accord- 
ing to the order of moft of the o;her noblemen's houfes, 
was after his title of honor, called Lincoln* s Inn, where he 
made bis mod abode, and died in the year 13 10. about the 
•3. or 4. year of E. 2.. the pre-eminence thereof ftill remain- 
ing in the biAiopick of Chiccfter. This houfe not many 
years after was made an inn of court, and greatly re- 
pleni^d widi fludents and a&ive gentlemen, which being, 



as I fuppofe, ihQ ancieatefi houfe of onirt, as be£bre tbe-^ 
Temple, was in following fandry. tisn^s greatly enlarged.' 
and beautified wiib A^tcly bu^lding^^ but efpecially with 
the Gate-houie, built by Sir Thomas Lovely treafurer o£ 
the houftiold to H. 7. in whofe time (be fame was builded^ 
on which building be placed his own and Lacy's, ear4 o£ 
Liocoln^s arms; Uealfo caufed the fcveral earls of Lin-^ 
coln'3 arms to be caft and wrought in lead upon the tower 
of tlia.t houfe, which were a lion rampant for Lacy; 7, 
mufcles voided for Quincy ; and three wheat- fheaves for 
Cheiler, which three were earles of Lincoln. This .houfe 
being fome time the inheritance of Sulliard, byreafoahc 
was defcended of the furvivors of all th^ feoffees, to whom 
the cppireyance of this houfe was made to j^bliOi the in-. 
linritaDCo thereof in the Society, vrhich^]pought the feq- 
funpi^ of it, of the biftop of Chicefler, in .fhe time, of H. ?. 
hedid4^pikrt with all his intereil and title therein to the;,, 
eomf^any of that houfe, }oiing both a lingular, privilege, 
and hefiefitcinio him.whUQ^he kept it; So th^t the fociety 
of chat houfe Are ap}v chief lords therepF. But I will not 
lEOubieyQU.miacb therewith, becaufe there are fome of thac 
houfe, whith can fpeak better of it, wherefore we will 
come tcfc ^ Temple. - . 
.The;NEW Temple fa^Ide4 againfl: the end of New- 
ftreet, was confecrated by Heraclius, patriarch of Jerufalem, 
in anno x 185. i]| the time of Henry the 2^. as may appear 
by the ancient inforiptton thereof in great Saxon characters 
oirer the door going into the Temple church, yet remain* 

This houfe about the beginning of the .reign of Ed. 2. 
yras defpoiled of the knights thereof, after that their order 
was condemned, whereiQpon this Temple coming to the 
pofleffion.of £d« 2. he gave the fame to Thomas, earl of 
Lancaiter, who rebelling forfeited it again to the king, 
who after gave it to Adimare de Valence, earl of Pembroke ; 
ail which is fet down in the king's grant 10 Valence, Cart, 
15, Ed. 2. m. 21. After the death of Valence, the king 
granted the iame to Hugh Spencer the younger during hi^ 


I8ii, iftcf ^vhofc bcfetea<liDg it came agsfitf to E<f. 3. All 
\fhichf is fct &WJ4 III 90 inqaifition in the Tower in ihk ift. 
of Ed. the 3. \vi this fort : Juratwres Meant qu^d Thomas 
Ctmiei Lancqftria tenuit quoddam Meffooagmm infra Barrum 
^ Ttifhpli Londoni, quod aiiquo fempdre fmf Templariorum^ 

ipiod vocdtur novum Templum : de qu6pr^£6hts Comes fuit 
fefitusfimvl cum aliis rebus ad idem Mejpaxagium pertinenfi^ 
bus : fed dicimi quod pqft mortem di6ti Cwtttis^ Edufdrdus^ 
tunc Rejc Anglic dedit Meffwagium ilhd ad Adorttariim' (k' 
Valentia ad termnurh vita fua^ fedpofiia dedit idem frtener. 
Hugofii de Spencer Juniort^ (ftc. pofi tnijus morieih in fhanu 
Homini Regis nunc extitit, cSr nihil vaieat uhrd fufienfa^ 
tionem domorum^ After, becaufe it was ordered by^ a 
council at Vkan beid in the year 1324. and abtHK tht 
19. of Ed. a. that the lands of the Templars (hoirld hi 
beftowed on the holpkals of St. John's of Jernfalem; eom^* 
naonly known by the name of the Knights of Ithodes, 
Edward the 3*. granted the Temple to thefe knlgKfs of 
I^hodes, who, as it appearetb in tliaaf. i2^. Ed. 3. 
were forced to make the bridge thert^. After thk (^ult 
at what time 1 certainly know not, ahboiigh I goefeknoe 
much from the 30. year of Ed. 3.) the kn^hr? of tbe! 
Rhodes granted the fame to the (Indents of the comttoil laws 
of England for ten potinds by the year, from wfaidi*. tlihe 
they have remained there as they Jtt do. Of the flewaird! 
of which Temple and lawyers Chaucer Ipeaketh in the 
Manciples prologue in the prologues of Chancer, and diters' 
fltithors mention how therebek in 4^. of Richard tbeiecoocl 
fpoiled the Temple and burnt the lawyers books ; of the 
which I Will i^ouch* you two atrtfedrtfi^s, the one of the 
fiQthen' of a'n ai^hiM Written chrdirkie i|f tVendi bdOBgiog- 
to the abbey df St Mary's in YorHr, wWcb li^ed' at thar" 
time, and thebAef Is'of Walfii^hame. The abbey bo^ 
of York faith, Les Rebels dllerdnt a Temple pour dS^rmi^ 
' lis Tenants dd dit Temple ^jettetunt les meiajbne ak tert* 
l!f auegkerenf toUtes les que ik fuitnn^' 

coverture en ^ 6 dH&ont^en fe/glejis^ ^t" 

frejferoiit ioktes ki K'vres 6 rolki d^ fm^h;anc^\ ^u^S 


Sie Antiquity of the Houfes of Latt^. 73 

ftitunt en leur buchef (tins ks temple ies apprentices (le la 
iey^ if portcront en le haut cheminf ij ies ardetunt. 
Whcrcunto agreeth Walfinghame in the words before. 
Here fe^xiewhac to turfi fay pen to a thing not altogether 
agaiaft our queftioa, I have l^eard fomc afErm upon the 
deAroyiag of the Temple bythe rebels, that there were no 
more inns of coart at that tinye, becaafe if there h^d, they 
would have been deftroyed then, ii thence they went 
aboac to murder every oik that had any fmall learnings 
and then mention would have been made of them as well 
as of the Temple ; bat thi$ is no good confequence, for 
the Temple is not there mentioned to have been deftroyed 
only becaufe it was an inn of coart> but becaufeit was 
belonging to the houfc of St. John of Jerusalem in ^nglia : , 
for they deilroyed it mofUy for the malice they bore to Ro- 
bert Hales, treafurer of England iind prior of St. John'-s, 
as they did that houfe alfo and other manors of the faid 
Prior*s in Ci^rkenwell pariAi, and fo no cauie why they 
ihould fpeak of any other inns of court, although there 
were then maily, becaufe they were not deAroyed. 

When Gret'sInn had origipal I know not; it wn^ 
fonaetimes the manor of Port Pool, being al(b a prebend of 
Paul's and now a goodly inn of court, which naine was re-^ . 
vived to that houfe at the grand Chrtftmas of the temple, 
which then was called Ferragopontus and Grey's Inn. 

That it was the lord Grey's houfe many- affirm, and I 
dare not deny it, becaufe I cannot difprove it, fince the 
deoomination itfelf doth to have been belonging to 
the Greys, bur for the antiquity (a thing unknown to the 
moft of that bopfe) as I cannot deliver any; thing of ccr- 
tailkty, r<^ yet it is moft certain that in the lime of Henry 
the 4^^ it w^as one. inn of court. For a. H. 4. barr. 72. 
you flialLiiud an action of battery tarought by the chaptam 
of Grey's: Ino. 

• Thus Audi foe the inns of court, who have ^certain 
lioiiorabfe eni^ns armorial appropriate unto rhem$ as Lin- 

.coln'slona hand ifliuag out of a cloud, Grey^s Inn a 
griffin, ami the Inner Temple a Pegaf^s. 
Vol. I. K Touching 


j^. fie '4niiquUy of the Houfes of La^, 

Touching the inos of chancery which now havt bcittg 
(for to fpct\k of Strand's Inn^ defaced by the- duke of So- 
merfct for the building of Somerfet Place, it h needltfs) 
-we will begin with GLiFiORD'a Inn, which m ahe time 
! of H. 3* was belonging to Makuhne At Harley, and after 
• catnc to the hands'of Ed. !• by reafon of certain debts 
whigh the iliid Malculmc ought :to the king \Vhen he w^s 
.dchetor on this iide Trent : after which John dc Britany, 
.carl of Richmond, held, the fame at the king's pleafufe»« 
and rcfiored it again to the king, whereby £d« 2. in die 
third of. his rgigo did grant the fame to Robert Clyffordf 
and his heirs for ever ; the recx>cd whereof being parent 
3. £d» 2 mem« 19^ is worth the hearing, although it be 
femewhat long, and therefore fet 4own hi thefe words : 
. Rpx'i5<!i 'concej/imusj (^c R9berto 4e CS0^ard Meffioagium 
illud ciint^pertinentiis juxtaEvcleJiofd StL Dunjlani Wefi in 
fuburbio Londini, quod fiiit Mdkolnii de Herky^ i; quod ad 
tnanus Domini Ki quondam pat f is nofiri devenit ratione qtW'* 
. rundofn dehitorum in, quibus idgm I^lalcolnws die quo obiit 
patri nqfinto tettebatur^ de tempor$^ quo fuit Efceaior patris 
\7i2/lri cUraTrentam, eSr quod diUEius t^ Jidelis ntfier Jd* 
^banne^Js^ Britannia^ Cotius Richmondy nuper Unuit advo- 
. luntatem nqftront^ quod etiam in tnanu nofira exi^it.,Tenend. 
eidem Roberto ^ heredibus fuis per fervitium unius denarii 
Jhigulis, ahnis^ nobis is heredibus n^ris ad Scaccaritm nofitrum 
\ad feftum San£H Michaielis per manus viceeomitis London, 
qui pro tempore fuerit^ inde reddendo iu perpetuum. Ita 
qttodfi nos vel heredes rtoftri MeJJwagiufn pr^rdiifum heredt- 
bus pf4ediSi Malcubni ex aliqua caufa eontingat refiitu^re, 
ipfitm RoberUan isf Aeretks fu9s indempnes c&nfirvavimuf iti 
hae parte, ftdvis tamen aiiis/eodi iltiux fifvitiis mde debit if. 
Dat. zi..Feb. After the grantof it to Ciifibrd) it continued 
, in the po&i&on of him^ his liTue, and ibme widows pf 
that boufe aboat 34. years, and then canie to thepoflefp 
/ion of the prentices of thf bench, as appenreth by an iar 
qoifition dated the i8. of Ed. 3. faying, tbsLt I/abelia qua 
fuit uxQr , Roberti Clifford Mejfviogium crjoh pertinentiie, 
quod Robertus Clifford iaiuitf in parochia Stu Dunftant 

^ Wefi 


Th JnHquity of tbi Houfis of Law. 75 

IFeJi in fuburbio London tenuity it illud dknijtt pofi mortem ' 
Domini Robert i j4pprenticiis de Banco pro decern iibris ^nnu^ - 
atim ifc. 3o that the fame hath been ia pofTefTioa ofc the • 
lawyers 256. years, being the aDcientefl ion of chanrery or 
houfe of law, as I take it. 

Clement's Inn wa§ an ancient inn of chancery, of - 
Ibme faid to have his name of a brewer called Clement, 
which fold the fame ; others as our fellow antiquary Mr. 
Stow, affirm it to be fo called of St. Clement's Church or 
Clement's well, becaufe it fiandcth neareft unto them both ; . 
which may well ftand together, that it might either take the 
pame of the perfon or pf tbis-placie. This inn I think 
of great antiquity for m inn of chancery, for that 1 find a 
record of M* 19. E. 4. rot. 61. in the book of. entries, 
folio 108 • impref&on 159.6. under the title of Mifnomer : 
where one, to ihew how he was mifnamed of the plaoe, 
did plead he was of Clement's Inn, with thefe words, Et 
dicit quod ipfe f empire ipipetratimis brevis fuit de initio 
de Clemenifs In^ in parochia Sti, dementis Dacorum extra- 
Barrum novi Templi London in Ccmit. MidMefeXy quod qUt^ 
dem hofpitium eft bf tempore ante * tmpetrationis brevis if * sic. 
dipi ante fuit quondam hojpitium hemnum Curia legis tempo* 
rolls ^ nee non Imnihum confiliariorum ejufdem legis* Thus 
far that record, which called it one of the courts of teai- 
poral law, and of the men of the councellors tbereof« loQg 
before, the timpof this plea. M. 19. E.4. The inheritance 
4of this houfe was bought by Sir William Hollyes, grandr 
father to Sir John HoUyes now living, to whom they pay 
ly. iib^ rent by yean 

New Inn being dawght^a- of St. George's Inn, took its^ 
name of Its la|ter building and new foundation. Of which 
St., Qeorge's Inn Mr. Sto>v writcth in his Sun^mary of 
London, that in St. George's lane on the north iide r^r 
maineth yet one old wall of ftone inclofing one piece of 
ground of ^-cole-lane, wherein by report fome time 
flood an ion of chancery; which being greatly decayed, 
the lawyers removed to a common hoftery called of the 
(ifin,. our I^54ije*s inn, npt flu* from Clement's Inn, which 

I^ Z they 


Tbe Antiquity of thi H$uf€S $f Law* 

they procured from Sir John Fineux, Lord Chkf Juftice 
of England and the Kiiig*s Bench, and fince have held it 
of the owners hy che name of New Inn, paying vi. lib. bf ^ 
they^ar. This, as fome hold, (h6uki be about ihe begins 
ing of the reign of H. 7, but I rather think in the* time of 
E, 4. although fome will have it latter than any of thefc 
dates, which poifibly cannot be true, for that m the time 
of Henry 7. Sir Thomas More was a ftudent in this inn, 
and ib went to Lincoln's Ion : and therefore of necefiity 
it mud have been an inn of chancery in H. 7. his reign. 

fi£RHARD*s Inn was of latter time an inn of chancery, 
being firft called Motworth's Inn, and belonging to the 
dtan and chapter of Lincoln, as appeareth by a record of 
32, Hi 6. 

PuRNiVAL'aiNN was fometime the houfe of the lord 
Famival, and in the 6. R. 2. as appearerh by record, was 
btlongii^ to Sir William Fnmival iindThomefinehis wife, 
who hid in Qldbourn two^ffuages and 13. /bops, the 
rlgbt and inheritance of which houfe was in the memory 
of our- fathers purchafed by Lincoln's Inn, to which houfe 
it belongeth at this day. 

For the reft of the inns of chancery I can fay little, both 
becaufe I pleafare not to favour every fi£Hon and fuppofal 
of their orfginal, as for that I have only determined to de- 
liver nothing bat notes of record and hiftory. 

Touching the inns of the ferjeahts, the houfes which 
rlicy now have in Fleer^reet and Chancery-lane are but of 
lateereftion ; and although* Mr. Serjeai^t Fleetwood in his 
table to Ploydon's Comntientaries would infer thiit there 
was no fcrjcantft inns in time of Jlenry the vii. becaufe he- 
faith the ftrjjtsants and juftites aflembled at the hoftel of 
the chief jufticc, yet it is mofl: certain that in the time of 
Henry the 7th. there was a ferjeants inn in Oldbourn over 
againft St. Andrew's church, now called ScrOp Houfe, 
whereof you ftiall have the record itfelf, being an inquifitioq 
taken qt Guildhall in the parifh of St. Lawrence in Old 
Jury in the ward of Cheap in London. 13. Oftob. 14. H. 7. 
Juratons dicunti quod Guidp Fairfax miles, nuper unus 

' J^JiitiariorufJ^ 

The Jj^hy 9f Plam, Gfr. yj 

Jufiitiarlonm Domini Regis ad pldcita eoram iJ>fo Unenda 
affigaat.fuitfsfitus in dominicofuo ut defeod^ dt umnufjfu'' 
"WO Jive temnunto vocat. Serjeants Inn^ Jituafo 4X op^fo^ 
iccUfia Sti. Andrea Holdborne in civUat. Lsndsn, cttm dwf 
tus gardiniSf dwbus Cbttagiis eidem Mejfuagio adjacenti* 
bus: is fic inde fefitus per chariam indefttatam datam 8. 
Febr* 9. ,^. 7. juratoribus ojlenfam^ dtmifit^ deliberavii f^ 
eonfirmavit JoianniScrope militi Domini le ScropM de Boukon 
^ aliis pradlBum Meffiiagitttn ifc. ad nfuni Johannis Scr^ 
heredum if * Affignatoris fuorusn inperp^tuum, ikice *^<c. 
which time rbe juOices and ferjeaots beAowed themfclves 
in other places where they now be, as tn Chaocery-Ian^ 
aad Fleeti-flrcec : which Serjeant's Inn in Fleet-ftreet be« 
longing by inheritaflce to Mountague, and the term of 10- 
tereft of the judges a.nd ferjeants being determined about 
fome few year& pid^ Mountagae quarrelled with the judged 
and lawyers to remove them from thence^ but in the end 
was forced to grow to compofidon with them for ccrtaia 
rent, and fo they at this day enjoy their eftatc i& as ample 
manner ae they did before, wlierewith I end this cbarfe 
difcourie of th^ bou&s of law. 



The Queftjon is. Of the Antiquity, Ufc, 
and Privilege of Places for Students and 
Profeilbrs of the comoion Law. 

By Joseph Holl^nb. 
I. Julii. 1 60 1, 

THE two Temples, which is now a place for the ftu- 
dents of the common law, was firil builded by the 
knights templers, which came iqto England in the time of 
king H. the firft^ as Mr. Stow in bis furvey of London 
bath fet down ; and at firft their temple was builded in 


78 The Aniiquiiy of Places . 

Holbaarn by Southampton houfe ; butaftct they left that 
place and buildcd a new temple by the river of Thames, 
this was their chief houfe, which they builded after thef 
form of the temple near unto the fepulcfare of our Eord at 

. Tbefe tcmplers were at the firll: fo poor as they bad but 
one houfe to ferve two of them, in tbken whereof they 
gave in .their feal two. men riding on one horfe, but after* 
wards they grew fo rich and therewithal fo proud, that all 
the Munplers in England, as alfo in all other parts of 
Chriftendome, were fupprefled in the .year of our Lord 
1308. being the a.E. 2. 

And by a council holden at Vienna thetr lands were given 
unto the knights of St. John of Jerufalem ; thefe knights 
had their chief houfe in England by Weft Smithfield, and 
they in the reign of K. Edw. 3. granted the new Temple 
for the yearly rent pf ten pounds by the year unto the ftu- 
dnits of the common law of England, in whofe pofleflbn 
the fame bath ever fince remained. Thefe two houfes I 
take to be tl^ ancienteft of all the inns of court ordamed 
for the ftudents of the common law. 


Of the Antiquity, Ufe, and Privilege of 
Places for Students and Profeflbrs of the 
ijommon Laws of England. 

By Mr. W h i t l o c K. 

I DO not find any evidence for the antiquity of our fo- 
iiety of common JawyerGiri the Temple before Edward 
them's timt, in whofe reign I fuppofe that the'^conveniency 
of 'the- place caufed fdme of that profefTion to hire and take 
lod^ngs there of the kcighrs of the order of St. John of 

. .* ; ' * Jerufalem, 

for Study fkf the common Lawsi 79 

Jcruialcm, who granted. the fame to the ftudents of the 
common laws for ten pounds the year rent. It may be 
they had the principality of hotffes in thofe places, as the 
fcholars of Oxford had of any houfes in Oxon before any 
fecular men, of which there is a notable cafe in 40. Ed. 3. 
17. b. 

The moft that I find concerning profeflbrs of our law, 
their, kind of life, privileges, and degrees of any antiquity, 

. is in Fortefcue in his book intituled, The commendation of 

the laws of England. For concerning the (late of them as 

they now are^ anS be repurcd of in the government, I will 

jiot ipeak, becaufe no man here but pnderflandeth it ; an^, 

as I fuppofe, our meetings are to afibrd one another our 

. knowledge of ancient things, and not to <l;ifcourfe of things 

Fortefcue that li\'ed in H. 6: and E; 4« time, and was 
chancellor of' England, and. teing of tlie faftion of Lan- 
cafter, lived an exile' in France, when that family was ii^^ 
prefTed, writ a fmall pamplilet of ithe law of England ia 
that his baniftiment, wherein he reportetb, that at tfeat 
time there were four greater inns of colirt, which were the 
fame that be now, and in them lie reckoned to be at that 
time 209. ftudents in every of them, befides ten fniallor 
houfes called inn* of chancery, in every of w^iicb he efteem* . 
cd then to be about a 100. ftadeots. - For the • inns of 
court there are not at this time any more io commoos 

•among us, when there are moft, than aoo. or lo. or ir.. 
fcbrc, which is very feldom, end 1 fuppofe Fortefctie 
meaneth only thofe that at that time were as refid^ats^^^nd 
ftudents in thofe houfes at fonae times or others. So,| 

•take ir, there is no great di/ference of the nutolber q^ 

• ftudents in the ions cf court beG\Y,epn H* 6*. ttme and tlijl^. 

He fetteth down ten inns of chancery at that tii^e, an3 

■an hundred ftudents io every of them; at this daj; ther^Bi 

are but' eight, and in none of tl)en;i fo many ftndei^ts, but 

*in many- of them fewer. He faith their edu^iatioii ia. thofe 

places at that time was.ia ftady qf ..the chiefeft ppints of 

• law in the 4aQS of court, of ffae groundf; ap4 originals .of the 

' law 

So The AiUffdlj rf PUufs 

kw in the inns of chancery, hi mnfic, in armorj, aod 
generally in gendeflaan-Uke qualities, as be fetteth it down. 
Their expences, faith be, is yearly twenty nsurks, and 
that is the reafon be alledgeth why they were the men of 
the beft ftate and quality that were brought up there by 
reafon of that charge. 

Fortefcue giveth this reafoif, 3vhy onr law is not tatght 
In any univerfity as the civil and canon laws, bccaofe it is 
recorded in three tongues, whereof one only is known ia 
the univerfity, viz. Latin, French, and Englifli. In 
Latin are ail our \Vrits originali judicial records of pleas in 
^ the king's court, and certain ftatutes. French, in which 
we have arguments in court, which fiifhion is now abro- 
gated, certain ibtutes,- pleas, judgments, and terms of 
that profeiEon. 

He reportcth, that at that time the French nfcd in Eng- 
land by the lawyers was far finer than that then commonly 
*fpoken in France, but now it is fo barbarous as a French- 
man cannot underftand it ; which I fuppofe is long of their 
refining their language, and notour corrupting theirs, for 
we may judge' of that by the change of our own tongue. 

la the fame treattfe of Mr. Fortefcue, we find much 
unitten of the degree of a feijeant, which I will fpeak of 
as among the privileges of the profeffion of the common 
law. ^Ife faith, that a lerjeant oi the law taketh upon bio 
by that dignity both an eflate and a degree, and is tbere« 
ibre wrkten A. B. Efqntre, feijeant of the law. He fettetji 
' down the order of iheir ele£Vion in this maooer* 

That the chief juflice of the Common Fleas by confeot 
of all the juflices eledetfa them, and prefents thein to the 
lord keeper : the lord keeeper by the king's writ of fob- 
|)gena warneth them to be before the king, at a dayaffigned* 
to undertake the degree, or to (hew reafon to t|ie contrary; 
if al that day they (hew no fufficieoc caufe to the contcarYf 
then they have a day prefixt them^ and doiake a corporal 
oath to be ready at the time and place to lake it, and to 
give gold according to the cnftom. Thfcy were then by 
(he order qC t))cif degree to fpend 400. maiks iA.die lakisg 



for Stu^ (fiBi common Lawsl 8x 

. ' ' '^ ^ » ' 

bf ity ^nd to keep a feaft like the coronation for fevea days 
together^ and to give gold after this manner^ ring&of gold 
of 26^' 8«|. thfe piete to aH archbifhops, dukes, the chan* 
cellor and .trcafurer ; of io^- to all earls, the lord^rivy fealj 
and biihops, the two chief jullices and chief baron ; of 
1301. 4<i, to all lords of pkrliament, Mr. of the rolls, jufticcs,. 
abbots, prelates, and worshipful knights ; of fmaller fums 
to thecHamberlkins aiid barons of the exchequer ; and to the 
officers of the king'^ courts, but efpecially of the Common 

He noteth further thefe isxcellencies of the degree of a 
fei-jeant ; that theiy have not the degree of do£lor of the ^ 
municipal l^w of any kitigdbm'mChriftendom but here, 
that noprc^flbrs are fo gte^t g^iners^ that- they only are 
made judges, atid they onfy^plead in ^eal a6lions in thi!! 
Cbmmon Pl^a^. ....'.' 

They ihuft be fixtcen year$ ftudfents bf the law before 
they be advanced to <hat dignity. 

Their enfign is a white furred cap, ;^hich they tnuft Jie^'et 
put oflT, though they be in th^ prcfepce of the king« 

Of the choice of a jadge be writeth thus : , - • 

That 2d« years time doth but biing a profeflbr of the 
l»w to that preferment, whereas ^now one cr tivo^and 
^^nty years doth' not bring .theqn to their iirfl readiog»' 
ivhereas they, fliodd read twice before they be Jerjeanrs#. ^ ' . 
.Tlve kiogxHoofeth a ferjeant, ancl by his letters pa^nt$ 
iii.aketh hiin juftice, and he b ind^<9d by the^Jprd chai)« 
t<^lor,^ who ma^^tb a pubjick gihorwlon tq.hi^i/^nd.fet* ., 
ctji j)lth.;ij^ f pbqf^t^riirio aa acplcl»iid.i$ (et tahfi ftftt ia,. 
thjs chpr^ ;|indi ihat place he.fiULJiiWpeeb , unleft>he be y%* 
movfd by>th^.ki9g»' . .. • .:*a :,-• :.. . . 

Of oth^r. jfteKeopKtoti^ ted 4ii^eitif Jlhe 6fSce: of d. jtujgei ; 
IVhich ^e Ki9ii>wa to ,|iU mOavby^itJfcirown eKpdteoc^yir 
wUl not fpfpkji Thus nmdJ Ijhoii^ht fit to deli^*, v^ic;h.; 
I haV^. 01^^ o$/th|. ot5f(;rvattOD iof fo grave a/judg^ &nd fo \ 
cxpert.asFdlr^ffetf* waftii;tbc!j5iiie"he JiVtd. 

pf ||ie .pwitege. Qjf fhc :pl%tfirliVQ Jive jn, J kdaW .of, no 
pateat^ or grants, but I fuppofe that the exemption of the 

Vol. I. h ordinary 

iz Of Knights made iy Abbots. 

ordinary jurifdiftion of tfce Temple, begaa ia the regular 
knights that lived there, and fo "continued in the place, as it 
were in fucceffion, to the ftudents that followed. It is not 
unknown unto us of" many jars that have been between the 
• mayorof London and the Gentlemen there, about the carry- 
ing of ^is fword upright, there, at the ferjeants feaft; in 
Which 6ofitro\^erfies there have been many diforders com- 
ihiffed, Which bccaufe they are related in our chronicles I 
\<'iil not fpeali of them. 


€>£ the iCnigtlfs made by the Abbots. 

By Sir Francis Leigh. 

fTT^HE queffion' is, What knights the abbots made in * 

J: tfit time of H. i. or before ? For anfwer of which I 
think that abbots made two forts of knights, the one fupc- ' 
rior, the other inferior, and that thofe termed milites^ can- 
ifot be taken for common foldiers, but for a degree : for 
the making of knights by abbots in Ingulphus, before the 
time of H. i. rhuft needs be intended of feme fuperior or- 
der of knights, becaufe they contain very many ceremonies ; ' 
for in all matters of honour, the greater ceremony flie 
greater bonoun And that this making of knights by ab- 
bots fliould be entended of knights of greater dignity and 
of le£r; affpears by fom^ proofs out of the book of Ely, and ^ 
ibt!bo6k'ikg€ftis JfefevMrdii for Hercward, acoblemaii 
that long encountered William the Conqueror, was knighted ' 
by the abbot of P^lborough, and WiUiam Rufus, was 
knighted' by Lanfr^nk AvB. of Canterbury ? whitli kttight- 
hood, had it not been honourable, would net fiave b^ed 
accepted of fuch perfons : and the words of the charter of 
26. of H. I. that abbots fhould not make them nifi injacra 
viffie, which Itaioe was ^ask copet^ieemed to add th^ 

Of Knights made fy Jiiots. * 8| 

more reputatioh to the receiver. BeCJes I thiak tbat ab- 
bots made other kDights a degree inferior to the former, 
%vhich were always remaining in the bou(e of the abbots, 
aod fuch as did attend upon other noblemen, as appeareth 
by many records. In the book of Reading their diet, with 
the manner of their allowance in the abbots houfes, is iet 
down, and their place hdof^ efquir^s ; fo that thefe milius 
there made and harboured could not^ be common foldiers, 
as I coojeAure out of the .words qf thefaid charter, whcyc 
it is faid, nee faciat parvulos milites^ fed matures (b dif- 
cretos : for vain, it ^cttfg4:ere parvulos piilites, whocoujd 
perform no force pf arms. Therefoce fioce every prphili- 
tion implietb the former doing of a thing, h feemeth that 
before, they knighted children to honour. them withall, 
and not for fcrvice, by reafon of their tcndernefs of years. 
Neither can I find that ever there was here any folefuuity 
u&d in leaking common foldiers. Moreover upon tl^e 
words of the charter of H. t. I imagine that the fame li- 
berty .to make knights was a difpenfation granted by ^« i. 
becf ufe Malme(bury hath in the life of An^^lfP; A« ,B. .9f 
Canterbury, that about the third of H. |. it was by fyno/i 
edabiiflied, Ne ajfbates faciant vtilites, which fynod de- ' 
aeed the fame, for that the Normans held thofe knights 
by fpiritual mean npt perfeA knights ; and yet Here ward 
holding it the niore honourable and more fortunate eflate 
to be fo knighted, would, in defpite of the Normans (for 
fo are the words of the author) be made knight by thp 
^bpt of Ely. 

h 2 No. XXIX, 

H Of Knights mdde h.JhbttL 

, . • * * 

N^ XXI?;. 

pf JCni|;hts ma<^e by Abbots* ■ 

By Mr. T A T e. 

THE foundation of this quijftion being grpnnded pppji 
the words of K. H' i. charter io the abbot bf R6a4; 
ing, which are bbfcure, before I entreat thereof h is ne- 
ccflkry to explain the hardeft ^^brds therein/ which are, 
' Terras cenfuaks non ad feodum dqnet. In the Red boo)c de 

' ^hfervantiis Scaccarii, 1 find the revenues of the crown 
diftinguiftied into Jirmas i; cenfus , the firft comprehend- 
ing the certain revenues, the other cafual and uncertain 

■ • I. ' * « •• • 

profits, of wood fales* and fach like ; not that the word 
'cenfus importcth fo in his prbpe^r fignification, but in that 
it is oppofcd tofirma. The true fenfe wherein 1 take it to^ 
be here ufed appeareth in Cafliodor. epift. 52. lib. 1.3, 
tariar. Avhofe "words are Augvfii temporibus orbis Romanus , 
« agrU divifiis ceri/uque defcriptus eft^ ut pojfejfio fua nulli 
hWieretur tncerta quam pro trmttorum fufcepcrat qtianti" 
tate foJvenda* Thefe terra cenfuaks in our law phrafe.are 
lands gilJable, hide and gain, that is, riot wafle grounds 
but manured lands by no' liberty or frahcbife exeaipt, but 
fubjeft to tax, and all payments laid generally uppna town 
or country for the publick good. The next' words adfeo^ 
dum darey are well interpreted by the Feudifts, who fay 
agreeably with our common law, Feudum eji ret immobilis 
fa&a pro homagio benevola concejjio. So K H. x. doth 
here prohibit the abbot to alien lands given him, and to 
create a tenure of bimfelf in foccage, for homage alonef 
maketh not a tenure by knight's fervice, and fuch aliena* 
tions the law of our land and others did always forbid, as 
appeareth by our writ of contra formam collationis, and by 
fumma Rofetla in the title of Feudum* Res immcbi/es Ec" 


0.f^ :fj^h ,t^t,t)ogJc, -de fipyp non pojfunt dari iilfm^t^, 
na7n:^.^rakH:poc jfifOfnt ; Jed fes ^g,ua pritis er^nt fft^q,lef 
Munt iterm f^udofu fi Vsfffl^us propffr f^lji}*^ caufajn 
fardat*, ' . 

Ncc ffici^t^^tes. The coherepcc^Qf . thefe wjor.d^ ^yit^ 
.^!^e .fpracr ip^ke me ,ftay ^th^ ^i^iepce ii(?rp. In", (l^e ^fif- 
^mer words the kiog forbad the abbot jp create ^ jt^ou^e c^ 
himS^f by hpmage, which fervice is /nil pf hwip|lity i»J[)ijl 
rever^ace, but addeth no ftreog^h to.,^e ftll)ot ibyj^tfjenf- 
daocc ojF the homagejf tp dpfepd ^is. lord's peffpn or .ppf- 
feffions. Now this qlAUfc forbid^fj^h aljjenatiqn with f cferr 
yatjon of ajtcnyjei)y J^pigjiit's feryio^, fe|l the abbot (hould 
have military men at his comuiandment : for wiVif/ here i^ 
oppofed to rufiiats or focmannus, a ^^%f>t in foccage ; .^nd 
in other wrjters I find the like oppofitipn or antitbefis ^f 
m/tj and pagdnvs. Juvenal. 1. 5. Sat, x6. v. 32. 

-^— citiasfidfimt producere tejiem 

Contra fagiirmmj>f3ffis^ quam vvra hqnentem 
Contra foriiimm artnatif - — -- — ■" 

Aud fo the oyM ^?^ V^^^h ^^9 ^??^.?^?5^^ I. ijh §. I. D. 
^e caf^*. pecuL I wil) not ]abo)ir to. ^ake further pipof 
now eijd^er that tenants by knights fervice ^re called MiliUSi 
becaufe it hath been already haodl<^ in the quctftioo of 
knights fees, qs (hat the kings of this ixalm did ancieatly 
rojfe all t^ejr ibrfc according to the Icpights IFees held of , 
(hem mediately or impitediately, the &me being fo w^i] 
known in this aflcmbly, but pafs over to.the.iotJe^ret;9t}oQ 
of the words that fo^ow in the charter, nifi in Jacrq vcfit 
Chrifti^ in qua parvulQs^ &c., The wowl A^Uites carrying 
with it a manifold fenfe, the king taketh occafioa upon 
|he former words of reAraint, by this exception to ei)larg$ 
the abbot's power fo far, as it was necci&ry for him tp have 
liberty without prejudice to the re^iqa ; as if the king 
fliould haye (aid. Though I reftraia you from making 
knights, yet my meaning is not to reilrain you from mak- 
ing all kind of knights* The making of fecular knights, 

to defend the realm by fervice done ]>j themfelves in perfon 
"■''••■ " ^ ■ or 

«6 Of Knights made hy MbotY. 

or others in their behalf, I will referve to myfclf atid fecu- 
lar men ; but the making of knights to do fervice to Cfirift, 
whether they be clerks or laymen, Heave free to you^ fo 
you make none but fuch as purppfe to take upon them the 
habit of your profeflion, advifing you only to be very fpar- 
ing in receiving infants into the profcflion of your order, 
that are unable to judge themfclves how they Ihali have 
power to perform their vows. 

This I take to be the proper fenfe" of R!. H. i. charter, 
for manifeftation whereof, and to make my entrance into 
the queftion, I will fpeak fomcwhat of divers forts of 
knights or milites. All knighthood is either fecular or 

Secular knighthood Is cither with dignity or without 
ffigttity. This knighthood without dignity is either pre* 
dialor perfonah 

Predial knighthood is a fervice annexed to certain lands, 
binding the owner thereof in fierfon, or by fome other for 
him, to defend the realm or/ome certain place therein, in 

time of hoflility. Of thefe knights mention is made in the 

^' • . • • ^ « • . *-* ... 

general charter of K. H. i . In the Red book^ AfiHtihif, 
qui per loricas teflra^ fuai defervittnt^ tefrai dominicarttm 
carucarum fuarum quietas dh omnihus gtldis if ab omni 
^ fipere propria dono meo concedo* 

Perfonal knighthood without dignity, is a duty impofed 

... ppon a ipah's perfon, binding him to performance of things 

. inciilent to his condition, with arms or without arms, and 

. is therefore cxprefted by the names oi militia armata is 

iogata. I A which refpeft militare i^ all one with mimjfrarc, 

la this fenfe the officers in the exchequer of receipt are called 

, Milius'm the Red book, as miles argentarius it miles came* 

rariorum. And fo common lawyers may be called Milites 

Jujtitia: of whort Sarifb. 1. 6. c. i\ faith,' negie reipitb, 

militant foli illi, qtii galeis thoracifque muniti, in hoftes 

exercent gladios aut tela qualibet, fed 6" patrcni caufanim, 

qui hpfa erigunt, fatigata reparant^ nee minus provident 

humano generi, quam Ji4nborantium vitam, /P^^9 pofterof- 

que armorum frajidio ab h$^ibus tuerentur. 


Of Kwghts ffiade hy Abiotsl 87 

Armed knighthood fecular and without dignity, Is that" 
fcrvice whkh is performed in the camp by fuch as are in- 
rolled in the captain's or mufter-mafter's lift, on horfeback' 
or on foot. And from hence fprang the difitrence of 
Equites and Milites caiigati; forsis Caffinaeus faith Pedcftres 
miTites dtcuniur^ qui habent caligas dc carlo* 

Knighthood that carrieth with it dignity, is that knight- 
hood which a king, or fome other authorized by him, giv- 
cth with fame ceremony, as putting a chain of gold or 
collar of SS. about one's neck, or a gold ring upon his 
finger, gilding one with a fword, or ftrikeing him there- 
with of purpofe to do him honour. Caffinacus CataL 
gloriae mundi, parte 9. faith, in fignum dignitatis a Prin* 
cipe cingi debet ^ 6" gladiiis quo cingitur debet ejfe deaurd- 

ius is ifta militia collata a Principe confert dignitateTti* 

But of other knighthoods he faith, militia nedum eji dignU 
ins fed nee nohilitas, Sarifburienfis 1. 6. c. 13. Re5le cinguh 
decoratur ad militiam quifqins accedit, quia cnim expeditunt 
ejfe ad mania reipublica officii fui neceffitas exigit, accingi 
namquejolet cui gerenda imminent. . Cingulum ergo indicium * 
eft lahorii^ labor honoris meritum, ut liqueat cmnibus^ quod 
qui laborem indiBum militia fubire detrf^at, hbnorem gladii 
in militari cinguk frufira port at. 

Spiritual knighthood is either virtualis or Votivalis^ 
But before I handle the pans of this diviilon, I will briefly, 
prove, that as there is a fecular, fo there is a fpiritual 
knighthood. Sarif. lib. 6. cap, 5. ifaith,' Lege libros tarn . 
E^cleJiafticoSy quam mundanos, quibus agitur de re militari^ 
^ manifefte invenies duo cffe^ qua militemfaciwit, eteElionem^ ^ 
fdU is facr amentum. Hac enim duo communia funt hiis, . 
qui fpiritualem <b corporalem militiam exercent, Peccham's 
cqnftitutions at Lambeth prove the fame,: Sunt nonnulR, quos ] 
apparet feculum. intendere perpeiuo relijiquere, ist in clauftri 
excubiis velle totp fuo tempore Domino militare^ qu^ ^rava* 
lei^te in lis carnalidefiderioyfeculutnrepetunt. And St.BernarJ 
fauh, milites Chrifti fecure prfxliantur prcelio Domini fui ^ nc" 
quaqiiam metuenfes de hoflium cade peccdtum, aut (fc /ua 

nece periculuni. 

. • _ • .. — . .... ;: ,. ^j^.: 


i 3 df Irishes tHdiehy Jbe^i 

Tli^'firft branch of fplfltual knights which I ftid to^ 

virtual, extendeth itlelf^ to private perfons or to publick. 

. Ofthe ffrft Tort' afe all good Chriftiarfs, \vho'murt watch' 

over their* own wcaknefs, that their fouls eneniy furprize 

them not* calling to mind that which J6b faith, militia eft 

vita hominis fuper terrain : but more efpdcially it cohcerncth 

biftiops and paftoVs of the churchy who are public perlbns 

fct over congregations, to fight agai'nfl all the enemies of 

faith, acid the invertfors of hcrefies " and errors ; and of 

this kind of kpighthood is fpoken^u Liriwbod*s fcotirfltu- 

tions id the title de j^pojiatisi Where alfo I find ' th^ other 

branch of ihy divifion de militia votivati : of which eccle- 

llaflical votary knights' fdrrie zvt ordinary, fome extraorii 

nary. All that are profefled'ln any abBey,' priory, of 

frier-houfe, may be called ordinary Votary Church K!night$* 

But the extraordinary, are fuch of them only a$ have] 

vowed by fword or lafilce^ itnd all knights means to defend 


Now from this odr q'ueftrori, what order of knights 
Were made' by abbots in the days of king Henry' the firft, of 
at any time before, fi nee thd'conqiieft^ 1 exclude airfeculaf 
knights of what kind foever they be : and of fpiritnal 
knights I purpofe to maintain that they had power to make 
all ordinary votary knights of Chrift, arid extraordinary 
alfo, but this hot ^vithout fpecial licdice from their fupremc 
ordinary. The firft, as a matter clear by dayly experience, 
X pafs over/ The other I will prove by examples of other 
colintnes ; for this queAioh it redfained to tim^, but not 
^o* the linaTts 6i this kirigdtinii To the timl6,' therefore, 1 
m^ni prccifdy hold myfelf. It is <vell kno<vn, that the firff ^ 
ofAugoftfln. Dom. iioo*. K^H. firft. began his rdgn^ 
and'thalf the %'. of J6iy the year before, vit. lopp.^the'' 
Chriftlaris recovered J erufalerh from" the Saracens, which ' 
Mitthevir Paris in lirshiftory fetteth do^n at large.; after , 
wliich three religious' houfes were there built > in all of 
"which there were knights having a dignity rather* eccUIi- 
aftical than teAipbral; as Cafliriaeus faith*. The firft 6rtKTi'' 
fort took up their habitation in part of the Temple there; * 


Of Knights made by Mhots. .89 

hot far from Chrift's fcpulchre, and therefore were called 
TempterSy and in armour led pilgrims fafely through the 
Holy Land, whofe order began in the 18. year of K. H. i. 
by licence of Celafius the 2**. In the 20. year of K. H. the 
firft, certain Chrift^ans of the Latins built a mcnaflery in 
the valley of Jehofaphat, which they dedicated to the Vir- 
gin Mary, and firft entertained there only Latin pilgrims, 
but after they were called Knights of St. John's of Jerufa- 
Icm, till about the 2d. year of K. Ed. 2. their principal feat 
being at Rhodes, they were called Kn'ghts of Rhodes. 
The third foit of icnightsof Jerufalem were Dutch knights, 
Mates Theutoniciy which began by the kind entertainment 
of Dutchmen by a Dutch knight; and after by the Pope's 
licence it grew to be a monaftcry of knights of like nature 
with the other two. All tbefe three lived under fome cer- 
tain order, as they of St. John's of Jerufalem under the 
order of St. Augaftine, and at 5rft under an abbot, though 
afterwards their governors had greater names. This gave ex- 
ample to raifea like order of knights atLilbon in the abbey 
of Alcohafia called Milites CalatravenfeSy not many years 
after. But in K. E. ift's time, 1 do not read of any fuch 
knights made by abbots in any place of England, therefore 
I will here conclude my fpeech of foreign knights of order 
and dignity made by abbots. 

It may peradvanture be objefted, that before the time of 

K. H. I. abbots made fecular knights that had dignity till 

it was reftrained by the council of London, to which I fay, 

that before and (hortly after the conqueft, fecular knights 

performed fome ceremonies in collegiate or parochial 

churches, but that they received any degree or dignity 

thereby I do not read. Sarilb. lib. 6. cap. 10. faith, Jam 

imltvit confuetudo folennis; ut e/i ipfa die, qua qtdfqtie mili* 

tart cinguio decor aUir, ecc/ejlam folenniter adeat^ gladioque 

fuper altare pejito o $blatOy quafi celehri pntfejfwne facia, 

foipfnm obfequio alt arts devoifedt, 6* giadii, id ej}\ officii fui, 

jugem Deo fpondeat famnlatum ; their degree and dignity 

was not by offering their fword, but by receiving arms of 

the king. And therefore when h kn'ght was made it is com- 

■ Vol. I, M monly 

90 Of the Diverfity of Names of this IJlani. 

monly faid by chroniclers, that he was gladio cin^lus, or ar- 
mis militaribus honor atus. So an. 1086. in hcbdomadc 
Pentecqfles Rex. JV. Conque/lor fiium fuum Henricum apud 
Wejlminjier armis militaribus honor avit. An. 1087. Roher- 
tuSy Jilius JV, ConqiieJioriSy in Normanniam reverfus Ulfum^ 
Haraldiy quondam Regis Anglorum, ^lium, DuncanumqUe, 
filium Malcolmi Regis Scotorum^ a cuflodia laxatos is armis 
militaribus honoratos abire fermifif, Hovedun, If time had 
not ftraightened me I might have brought in fome colour for 
Thomas of Becket, of whom the Quadrilog. faith lib. i, 
cap. 8. Tkoma Becket Cancel/ario, fere tuius Anglia fed is 
vicinorum regnorum Magnates Liberos fuos fervituros mit- 
tebanty quos ipfe curiali nutritura & honejia do5lrina injli' 
tuity if cingulo donatos militia ad pat res is propinquos cum 
honore maximo remiitebat. Though the biftiop fent them 
away knights, yet I think the king made them knights. So 
that I fee no caufe but I may conclude, that neither abbots* 
nor other fpiritual perfons, had ever.fince the conquefl: 
power to make fecular knights or regular of any degree or 
dignity, but fuch only as (hould ferve within their Cioifter, 

N« XXX. 

Of the Diverfity of Names of this Ifland, 

By Mr. Camden. 
29. June 1604. 

THAT which the poet faid of Italy, fapius dr nomen 
pofiiit Satitrnia telluSy we may fay of this ifland, 
which hath as often altered the name. The knowledge of 
ihe firft nam^, as of ihefirfl: inhabitants, is caft fo far back- 
ward into darknefs, that there is no hope for us fo late 
born to difcover them. The firft inhabitants, as being 
merely barbarous, never troubled themfelves with care to 
tranfmlt then* originals to poAerity^ neither if they would, 


0/ the Biverfity of Names of this IJland. 9 1 

could they, being without letters, which only can preferve 
and transfer knowledge ; neither .if they had letters was it 

lawful for them to conxmit any thing to letters. For, as 
Caefar faith, the Druids, which were the only wife men 
among them, held it unlawful mandare aliquid Uteris ; and 
had they committed it unto letters, doubtlefs it had perifhed 
in the revolutions of fo many ages paffed, and fo fundry 
converlions, and everfions of the ftate. Whereupon Cse- 
far, who lived 1600. years fince, by diligent enquiry could 
learn nothing of the ancient and inland inhabitants, but 
that they" were natives of the ifle. Tacitus alfo, which 
fearched into this matter, faith plainly, ^d mortales Bri* 
tanniam initio coluerunt^ indigena an adiena^ lit inter bar* 
haros paritm compertum ejl^ Gildas alfo and Nennius pro- 
fefs plainly, that they had no underftanding of the -ancient 
ftate of this ifle, but ex tranfmarina relatione ^ or foreign 
■writers. Then can we hope for no light herein, but from 
foreign writers alfo, and that not before the year of the 
world 3830. fome 370. years before Chr^ft: for at that 
time, as Polybius a moft grave writer, who then attended 
upon Scipio, writeth, that, the Regions northward from 
Narbone,*as this is, were utterly unknown, and whatfoever 
was Written or reported of them was but as a dream. 

The ancienteft memory' of this ifle is in Orphei Argonau- 
ticis, but long aftpr the time of Orpheus under the name of 
Nwaoj TTEvmEa-aa, that is The IJle of Pine Trees y and after- 
ward %spo-oy ^Ei/xarov, The White Land. In which fenfe the 
author of the book De Mundo ad Jlexandnim, which is 
fuppofed to be Ariftotle's, calleth it Albion^ and our Wekh- 
men call it Inis WeUy the White Ifland, albeit fome think 
the name Albion to be deduced, from Albion a giant*, and 
others, from the high fituation. 

When it was firft known to the Greeks, who were the 
firfl difcoverers of thefe weftern parts, they called it Bri- 
tanniay in my conjefture as the country of the Brits, thsit 
is of the painted jjeople, which was the peculiar note 
\yhereby they were diftinguiftied from other nations, as 

M z the 

92 Of the Vherfity of Names ef this IJhnd* 

the Gauls from whom they were .defcended were fo named 
oF their fliagged hair, and their country accordingly calM 
Gallia comata. While it was under the Romans an old 
Panegyrift called i^ Alter Orbis^ and Ariftides Nif^d^ /^tryaxni 
for the greatnefs thereof, as Catullus, Infuld. * cceruli, for 
that it was fituated in t}ie fea» and tdtma Qccid^ntis Infnk^ 
as the fartheft Ifland toward the Weft, and at that time, of 
it all the adjacent iflaiids were called by the Latins Briian- 
i2/>, Britajinica, and by the Greeks Britannides, ^ 

When the Englidi canp.e hither and polTe/red thcmfelves 
of the land, the name of Briraia was worn out by little 
and little, and preftrvcd only by the learned in books, and 
they called therafdves (as nations firft took up names and 
count their denominations from the nations) enjla J«o35, 
. Anjlcynn, enjlccynn, tusli' c-mcn, and the Latin Writers 
Gens Angloritm^ for you ftivill never find in Ecde, or any of 
other nations this word Jnglia^ but he intituled his book, 
Hifioria Gentis Anglarvm^ which name was common to 
them all, notvvithftanding they were fubdivided into Mer- 
cians, Weft-fex, Eft-engle, £?>. until the time of Egbert, 
who is reported, being lord and monarch of all, to have 
impofe'd the aame of Engla-lond upon all by proclamation ; 
yet I have not obfcrved thajt name, but Engle-ric and 
enjla-cynnc -pic, that is, the kingdom of the Englifli; for 
many years after Egbert, until the time of Knut^ in whidi 
time the name of Anglia and England began to be in fre- 
quent ufe, taken from the people, which came out of a 
part of Juitland, where they left the name of Angioen« 
and liot of Queen Angela, nor the gigantic Angul, brother 
to Danus, nor of Angidus arhis^ which was but a poetical 
alluficii ; as neither the people Angli were fo called of their 
angelic faces, nor that they were good anglers, as Goro? 
plus ridiculoufly deriveth them. 

This only I can add moreover, when the name Britannia 
was difco'ntiniied in common ufe, and among writers; that 
Poniface or Winefrid, our own countrymen, called it 
§§xonla tranfmarina^ having no other nape to notify this 

Of the Diverfiiy tf Nmis ^f this Ifiand. 9J 

his native country in his epIIUe to pope Zacharias, about 
the year 742. which name he forged^ for that the Englifli 
Saxons had now planted themfelves fome two hundred 
years before* 



Of the Diverfity of the Names of this Ifland* 

By Joseph Holland. 

FORASMUCH as It refteth uncertain, when and by 
whom this ifland was firfl inhabited/ and that our 
authors do vary therein, I will begin with the moft com- 
mon received opinion, which is, that Samothes thel fixth 
fon of Japheth, one of the fons of Noah, was the original 
beginner. He came into this land about 52. years after \ 
the flood, and . he called it Samothea, in which name it 
continued until Albion the fon of Neptune, who defcended 
of Cham, entered the fame, and changed the name of Sa^ 
moihea. into Albion. Some authors do affirm that it was 
called Albion ak albis ru^ibvSy of the white chalky cliffs in 
the eaft and fouth parts of this land ; lome others will 
have it come of the Greek word olbion, which /ignifieth 
felix^ a happy country to dwell in ; fome of Albina, Diocle- 
iian's daughter, which is held to be fabulous. It conti- 
aued in the name of Albion 608. years, until Brute's arrt- 
.val here, who conquered this land, and changed the name, 
thereof from Albion into Bretayn or Bnutayn, which name 
hath been diverfly expounded, according unto fundry^ 
mens opinions and expofitions, as Britania^ Brutania^ 
Bridaniay Pritania^ Prid cairt, and divers others ; but 
wrere it not thaf the name of Brute is rejedled by divers 
xnen of good judgment, J could be perfuaded, that it might 
mofl truly be called Brutayn of Brute. But forafmuch as 
|a ^e hiftori^^ of Jitaiy therp is 9 large pedigree fet down^ 


94 Of the Biverfiiy ef Names of this IJland. 

, whereia they derive themfe! ves from the Trojans aqd from 
^neas, fetting* down his genealogy both for Italy and 
France, -but make no mention of Brute, and that fome of 
the authors do fay, that totus procejfus de Bruto illo eft 
magis poeticuSy quam hijloricus, for my own part, I will 
leave it to be decided by men of better judgment than myfelf. 
This name was after changed in the time of the Saxons 
and called England, of certain men that inhabited a part 
of Germany. Thefe people drove the Britains into Wales 
and Cornwall, and other places of refuge, and Egbert K. 
of the Weft-faxons became fole Monarch of the whole 
land, and called the fame England in remembrance of that 
part of Germany whereof he was ; wherein the Jngeli or 
'Jrigels inhabited; Notwithftanding that king Egbert d{d 
ififft "begin to alter the name of Britain, yet it was not 
fully changed in divers defcents after him, for I have a 
Saxori charter made by king Edgar, which was the firft 
king In defcent from Egbert, and he writeth his ftile in the 
beginning of his charter. Ego Eadgar totius JIbionis Bafi" 
leusy &c\ and in the end of the fame charter, Rex totius 
Britannia f>rafafam donationem cum Jlgillo SanBa cruets 
coiifirmavi ; in which charter there is mention both of the 
name of Albion and of Britain. And the fame king upon 
his coin, which I have here to fliew, writeth himfelf Rex 
j^nglia, Likewife king jEdelred his fon wrote his ftile. 
Ego Mdelred Jnglia ndtionis ceterdrumque gentium triniatim 
inter ambitum Britannia infula degentium Regia digiiitatis 
folio ad tempus Chrijii mundi redempioris gratid fubthroniza-^ 
' tus Bajilepts An. Dominica incarnationis •..,., 

N^. :£xm. 

Of the Biverfity of Names of ths Ifl&nd. ^^ 

Of the Diverfity of Names of this Ifland. , 

By Mr. Agard, 
29, Jun. 1604. 

POLLIDOR Virgil, Humphrey Lhuyd and Mr. Camdeti, 
in their learned difcourfes having treated largely of 
the firft original of the name of this ifland, being called by 
fome Britannia (whereof I find not any other to be the au- 
thor of that before Caefar) and the ancient Britones the 
Welfli faying the fame to be given and derived from the 
name of Brute, the firft inhabiter of this ifland, grounding 
the fame of the etymology of their own fpeech, Britton or 
Pritton, and as the French call one of their people of Bri- 
tain Minor, un Britton Britonnant in fcofF, faying he 
gabbeth out an uncouth language, I fhall not need to pro- 
duce out of thefe worthy authors, who have gathered fo 
many proofs both out of foreign and home writers, any 
thing, in that they are fo plain to be feen. The like may 
be faid of the fecond name of this ifland called Albion, de- 
rived from the white rocks, which name alfo cannot be 
very ancient, taking fome fmatch from the Latin; but yet 
I will not pretermit that excellent and worthy epithetoa 
that K. Edgar in the foundation of the abbey of Ely by 
his charter doth give to this ifland of Albion, in thefe 
words : Ego Edgarus Bafileus dtEia Inftila JlbioniSy fubditis 
nobis fceptris Scotorum, Citmbronimy Britomim & omnium 
circum circa Rcgionum, quiet e pace f mens ^ i:c. By which 
he knittetli together the whole iflnnd being under his go- 
vernment, terming it a mod worthy ifland of all other to 
be beloved. So as he accounteth the Britons (being Wajds) 
the Scots and the Cumbers (which v/ere the Pi6ls) to be 
b'Jt as territories and members of this ifland of his called 
Albion. And now to the third name of this ifland or 
realm which is called England, by the Saxons firft given, 



96 Of tie Diverjty of Names of this Ifiani, 

who conquered the fame againfl: the Britons, I find that 
before the coming in of Hcngiftus, there landed in the 
north parts of the realm long before, one Aelle with three 
' of bis fons, as is mentioned in a book of Ely. Aelle is 
ijus tres Jilii cum tribus navibus in Britanniam venerunt^ 
ibique Britones multos occiderunt if vi6lores extiterunt, 
iy ipfe Aelle in provincia ilkrum regnare coepitt adcujus nO' 
men beatus Gregorius cum Angligenas pueros in for venalei 
inveniret poJitQS, alludejfs, ait alleluya illis in partibus opor'- 
tet cantare. And this was in anno Domini 435, that there 
he entered. And of this Gregory and of the Englifh 
Saxons a regifter of Canterbury maketb mention in thefa 
words: Primus f nit Aelle Rex Aujiralium Saxonum de cti-^ 
jus regione if dominiq pueri Roma venales quos notavit Gre- . 
goriuSf Angli ut angeli vultu nitentes fuerunt ; if quia Rex 
Aelle dicebatur, addidit Gregorius Alleluya in regno ejiifdem 
fonari debere. And the fame author fetteth it down the 
caufe, why after the Saxons had fubdued the realm, it was 
rather called England than Saxon-land in thefc words : De 
Anglis verOf hoc eji^ de ilia patria, qu^ angulus dicitur if 
ab eo tempore ufque in prafens manere defer tus inter provin^ 
cias WeEiarurn i; Saxonum perhibetur, Orieniales Angli, 
Mediterraneif Mercig tota Northu7nbrorum progenieSy id 
eft, illarum gentium, qua ad Boream Humbrifluvii habitant, 
ceterique Anglortim populi funt orti : tsf quia major if nobi- 
iiorfuit populi multitudo Anglomm quam Saxonum vel Wic* 
torum, ideo potius nominatur infula ah Anglis ^am k Saxo" 
nibusjive WiSiis* So as it feemeth to me by thefe authors, 
that the name of England began firft rather by this Aelle, 
•than by Egbcrtus the firft monarch, who followed after 
him many years. But this is certain, that the Saxons did 
abhor after their conqueA to call the ifland Britain, whe* 
ther it were upon Gildas writing, who, without flattery 
of his countrymen Britalns, (heweth that the whole coun- 
try was burdened with tyrants, and producetb Porphyriiis 
for a witoefSf who calleth it Fertilis provincia Tyrannorum s 
or the defire they had to continue their name of that part 
«f Sa^ipny &om whence they came^ wbkh name of itfelf is 


b/ ihe Bherftty of Names afthis IJland. st 

ttlmologed thus in an old manufcript. Sciendum eft quod 
j^ngHa duobus modis exponitur^ ah an, quod eft circum, if 
cleos, qieod eft gloria t quqft circum circa gloriofii : vel ab 
en, quod eft in, <b cleos gloria 5 qua ft intus gloriofa : fcili" 
tei quia dicitur^ Anglia dat florem, coelo largitur odorem. 
And furcly that fvveet name of England hath been of fijji- 
gular eftimatSon among and above all other nations ; info* 
much as let an EngUfhman be in company among people 
of fundry other natioos, you fhall have him admired of 
them all, yea, and both of man and woman fflOi% favoured 
and refpefted, than any other in the company, as one that 
carrieth more courteous, friendly, and lovely countenance 
before all other people, according to Gregorie's words. 
Yea, and it is not read that Williain the conqueror ever 
attonapted after his conqueft to alter "that good name; 
thinking himfeif a moft happy man to be king over fo Wor- 
thy a kingdom, which he placed in his ftile, and preferred 
brfore his 4ukedom of Normandy. Yea, and it is not to 
be forgotten^ that in the place of ranking or fetting in or^ ' 
dcr Chriftian kingdotns, that England is placed before king-^ 
doms of larger territories, as it appeareth in a rjEglfter book 
of Rochcftcr, out of which I. took this note, 'Writtferi above 
three hundred years paft : 

Imierator Romunorum ^ Rex Jlmanniay Imperator Corf 
Jiamtinop* . Rex Jercfol^rttitdnuSy Rex Francorum, Re^ 
yinglorum. Rex Scotorfm, fcsT iidnc Reges &c. Cajieikt^ ' If- ' 
gtQnenfes^ Ar^gomenfes^ Ponugallienfes^ Navarria^ SiciHa^ ' 
N^lEuagia; Dacia(, tinngafia; Bohemia^^ Ahnenia if Cypri. 

So as ta conclude with the Red book g( the Exchequer, 
Injidamoftra fuis tonUntabotiisy peregrinis non indiget\ banc 
igitur '^nrerito dixere prior/es, divitii/jue Jinum, deliciifqui 













C^' tZi ^*verjity of Names ojisTt ySaiaf 

• No xxxiir. 
Of the Diverfity of the Names of this Illand. 

By Mr. Ol^ WORTH* 

29, Jun. 1604. 




AMOTHEA, CumerOy or Cimhrfa^ Jlbion, Britannia, 
and Jnglia or Angulia and Scotia. Another same 
rather endeavoured than fettled, viz. Fakntia* 

For the two former, viz. Samothea and Cumero or dm- 
hi^j IJindadifTerence^ whether of Japheth's Tons was 
tt^e original poQeflor and prince here, or rather from which 
of. them it (hould receive peopling and denomination. 

Holinglhed begtnheth thus with Samotbes. Namely, that 
this ifland was part of. the Celtic kingdom, whereof Dis 
otberwife Samotbes one of the fons of Japheth was the ori- 
ginal beginner, and from him. called Samothea, viz. for 
341. years. 

Mr. Camden Clarencieux, to whom aU our nation oweth 
exceeding mnch for the light afforded by his travels, ra- 
ther obferveth that Gomer, in his ultimis Europa finihm 
origmem dcdit. To this accordeth the author of the book 
called The firft book of the hjftory of Eng^and^ who in the 
end of the preface thereof nameth bin^lf Philomathes, 
and voucheth warrant from ancient writers^ that the Cim<* 
brians came from Gomer the eldeft fon of Japheth. 

Albion. Whether from the fon of Neptune, as (bme ima* 

Mr. Cam- h^ &^^t ^ whether from JM or. Jl^f or at Albiis or a* At* 

aea anainei Uis Cattis^ or rather Albion h Cypfeofohy and ab albis ru^ 

Grocian^ ^ pibut. Ortelitts calleth the whole ifle Albion. Hollingflied 

;* maketh a colIeAion of the continuance of this name 6oo. 

years, till the year 11 16. before Chrift, that Brutus came, 

and according as he voucheth Pliny, it is not the whole 

IQand, but maxima Sritannicarum Infularum ; from 

"". AHrioa, 

Cumero or 

Mr* John 


Of lU Dlyerjiiy ef Names of this IJlanL 39 

AlVina, ao iin«glaed daughter of Dloclefiao, is not ap- 
proved. , 

Brutus many bold to be cbanga: of the name ; and yet 9rit^jQnia, 
divert good authors do much doubt of his beiog here, but 
of this the bell colle£tioo as well for variety of reafoos of 
tlie etymologyy as for probability and ^ruth» we muft afcriSt 
to the worthy and indufhious perTons I have before men- 
tiooedy whether frofio Brutus or po, and which Brutus, 
whether i^Pfl!MfZ{^/ Conful films Silvia ot fUius Hefficimu% 
and if of Brttttts» that he took his name of Brottls, quin 
watri partu mortifety quafi Brotos Gracfi and for the 
naiDex)f people or country, thus diverfly a« followeth fron^ 
the Grecians. Prutamia, Sir Thomas Elliot, a word 
taken for the common eftate, by which the Athenians did 
term redditus fuos publk^s. To this agreeth the author of 
the book intituled Rdpta Tatio, lately publifhed touching 
viz. That the people were Britons, of a word 
fjgnUying a mart or fair of fluflT or wares, of which (his 
m^ole ifland^ as iirell Wales and Cornwall as Eogland and 
Scotland, is in one kind or other repleniQied ; which word 
marte feemeth to. have po Icfs bounds than civitas. which 
figniiieth a whole commonweakb, ts AriAotle. Alfo 
Prid-cain, fciL of the WaKh/drma Candida^ fome from the . 
Danes, tat^ua libera Dama, Bry for free, SridanJa,' 
fr^rdania, Pridoitiat BritbanUf Bretta in Spanish from 
fail or earth, PrMtmia i quadam Germanic regiohe.^ Bri- 
t9na the nymph, daughter of Mars, feemeth a fiction, or* of 
Brof^^ or Pritus, foo of Araxa. Brithin d quodam pptu, 
quo ufifut^t Grteci, is but a iKght matter, jt Brutiis Italia 
whMi the Grecians called Bfetions, to which agriqeth Tho. 
Thomafius, that Brutti were a people in Italy above the 
X^ucanit fo called of their barb^roiu^ and brutifli behaviour ; 
.divers others, 2s a Brit0ie CentaurOf ABritamex gusfUia \ 
CfiHice* Britani ahfque ortgine I leave to pthers. 

JBiit I conclude with thefe two in my popr opinion to be 
moft probable and likelieft, viit. with Mr. Camden of 
Brith depi£fum aut color at urn bl Tania Rcgio^ or from the 
BrlcsUna in Armorica out of France, as well for npr fituar 

N 2 tlQH 

1 00 - ne Etymology^ Jniiquity^ 

tloQ as alfo for uniformity in language, religion, and policy 
t)etwcea the , ancient Gaitls and Britons, which is obfeived 
in Mr. Clapham's book, and fp to be named, rather the 
land of the people, than the people of the land. 

Valencia, Theodofius in the days cf Vdlentinianus and Valtfntius. 
emperors, and in their remembrance, endeavoured to call 
it Valentia, as Marcellinus writeth, but it took no effeft. ' 

jLnglia, Ecbert -r^. D^wi. 800. niade an edift atWinchefter to 

call it Angles-land or Angel-land. He defcended of the 
Aeglcs, one of the fix feveral forts of people that came in' 
with the Saxons, all comprehended under the nami: of the* 
Saxons, becaufe of Hengift the Saxon, who arrived firft 
of. them.; andnpt qf any Queen called AnghiW^ ab An^' 
^u/(9 a corner. - , - ■ 

% » 



The Etymology, Anrtiquity,. .and Priyilpgg'^ 
. . . of Caftleg. ''; 

3y §ir R 8,E* T C Q T T o jr. ^ 

TH|§ quc|liop . mafoeth ia itfclf aptly three f^rtj. 
^ Jhe firft^ the^etymolpgy of the name wirb the fere? 
ral 5yne77zymiS .* the iecond> the ^ ntiqnity : the third, the 
privileges. For the fir ft, Ifidocys faith, caftrum dntiqui^^ 
dicebant of>tdum Jo^ct altrj/imfi Jiiumy quafi cafam alt am) a 
quo Caftellumyjiye qn^d c.^fic^batur ibi lufntid habitantitim, ' 
ne^pnffimyagarfintur'% an4i^& a.jdyfercBce he fetteih thift ' 
down, that v^Vj, cajiell,ai i^,i>^h/uht qua nulla ^dignitafe^ 
ciyitatis arnanti^^ J?d vulg<^ri,^oj»^num convfnpi inccltmittr,^ ' 
y pr6pt€r .parvitatem fuis-n^rikuAJdvUaiiius aUPibttun* 
tur. "And Sigonius fiiitb^ A^t th^ RooJaos epidatfrequen^ 
tiores isf ampliores homini^m ^cmv^tj^us, ejje taluerunf*;' Ca* 
ft', la mtnores atque angujim^es,, fed_nujLJorUni.ambUu feptos -^^ 
vicos Jine muris. Laurentius Valla defineth..C^>i/mto be" 


and Privilege of Cafths. joi 

tocus muris munitus : and Julias Ferettus, that Cajlra 
di&a funt a caftitatey quia ibi omnes cafle vivere debent ; 
and arces d'tdlafunt ah archido, quia arcent hojles a longe. I 
find this word Caftle in Latin divers ways varied, as Ibme- 
rimes it is called Qtftrum^ Caflellunty arx, turris, fojfa is 
fnaceria, Mota^ firmitas^ munition; of thefe \ find ixi a 
jcharter made between king Stephen and H. 2. five of thefa 
mentioned, Caftrum de Wallingford^ Cajiellum de Belencom* 
bsry Turris London^ mota Oxenfori^ Jirmitas Lincolnia^ ' 
munitio Hamptonia / the reft as divers of thefe are ufual la 
^11 old ftories. 

For the antiquity of Caftle, the fecond member of our 
qneftion, it doth divide itfelf into, five branches : in the ' 
firft, the firft ereftors of Caftles ; in the fecond, the ufuaf 
places ; in the third, the matter wherewith they ufed ia 
old time to baild ; the fourth, the forms they obferved ; 
jbe fifth, the end and caufe of building. . . 

For the firft, we read the firft builder to have been the 
founder of the I'ower of Babel, whofe height Beda wri't- 
ipth was 1 174. paces ; and Brifonius by his obfervation ga-, 
thereth, that the Perfians were the firft ufual builders of 
Cafties in the world. For our own country, we find that 
the fort by Holland called Armamentarium Britannicum^ 
firft builded by Caligula, and after, as by an ancient infcrip- 
tion appeareth, reftored by Severus and Antoninus his fon, 
V^as the firft builded in thefe parts, next whereunto were 
thefe inland Caftles erefted by Didius Gallus, as Tacitus 
^writeth; after this the Bulwarks erefted by Severus in the 
Plfts wall, were the certain oldeft I find remembered ia 
ftory. I am perfuaded by the opinion of that reverend* 
learned man Antoninus Augufticus, That, that fort-like 
building ftamped upon the coin of Conftantirie the younger 
with this infcription, Providentia Cafarum . noteth 

cither the erefting or repairing of fonae Caftle here in Eng- 
land, which Qcco calleth only Mdificium quoddar^. It may 
likewife not feem unlikely, that as other inftruftioris, fo this 
of fortifying, was borrowed by us here in England from 
p,ur next bordering neighbours, the ancient Gallif who, as 


tot yi^ Etymology, yfntiqutfy^ 

appeareth by Csfar, had the fklll of it in his time : for ia 
his fcventh book he writelh, that Vcrcingetorix was the firft 
that perfuaded and Uftrufled the GaUi orderly to encamp 
and fortify themfelves. 

ToQchiDg the places where thcfe Caftles were builded, I 
find neither the valleys' nor the hilIS| nor privilege ianc- 
itiary avoided : for Innocentias in his conAitudon de immu- 

hitate Ecclejta faith, that tempore necejfuatis belli^ licitum 
tjl hofpitari W incaftellari in ecclefta : and in high places, 

» » Per/arum Reges inflruere in ahum editas arces^ 6t in afcen* 

fum arduos colics emunire, faith Zenophon. Rcmana militia 

Jliperiorem locum optabat,' faith Ramus in his de morUms ve- 

ierum Gallorum, SedCaVorumfuit confuetudoy reliSfis locis 

i fuperioribuSj ad ripas Jlumfiiis cajlra dimittcre fcf munire, 

ftc Helvetia, fie Germani fub monte confederunt^ faith 

Of the third, being the matter wherewith the elder ages 
builded their forts, I obferve them to be fometimes earth, 
Ibmetimes timber, fometimes ftone. Of earth, this kind 
^as ufed much amongil the Romans, as appeareth in this 
land by.many ruins of old towns and caftles of thofe times, 
where there can be no appearance of any ftone work to be 
difcernedi only fortified with a great ditch and a bank in^ 
ward of an extraordinary height : and Csefar in his fev^nth 
book de bello Callicoy maketh a pLin diiTerence between 
the fortifying of ftone and earth, where he writeth thus, 
ad Gergoviam muro ex grandibus /axis fcx pedum faflo, 
deinde ad Mexiamf^a £jf maceria fex in altitudinem pedum 
perduBa. In one place Caefar calleth it a Wall, in the other 
Ramus underftandeth it a heap of earth. Of forts of tim- 
ber, Herodotus in his ninth book faith, that the Perfians 
fled into their wooden walls, which th^ Lacedaemonians 
/killed not to aflaii, as not having the experience of caAIes 
or walled towns amongft them. Vitruvius in his (econd 
book defcriblng the caftle of Larignum upon the Alps, 
faith that Caefar coming to aftault it, he found the moft 
rcfiftanije made from a tower builded of timber, which 
affiiiling by all means pofliWe to burn, he could not pre- 

3 ^^ 

and Privilege ^f Cd^lisl io j 

▼ail, as being a fubftancc not combuftible- Scipio burned 
the caftles of the king of Numidia being made of timber. 
And Caefar had much to do to gain the caftle or town of 
Cafibelane, which wa$ for the moft part ilrengthened by 
timber and trees. 

For the feveral forms Vitruvius in his firft book faith, 
that Turres rotimda aut polygonia funt facunda^ quadrat as 
enim machina celerius dlffipant, quia angulos arietes tun- 
dendo frangunt^ in rotundationibus (ut cun€Os) ad centrum 
adigendo laden non poffunt. Another ufed Sevcrus, who, 
as Suidas noteth, building the walls of filzantium made 
feven Towers a Thracia porta to the fca ; in the firft of 
which rowers, as he faith, ft quis inclamajfet aut tapidem 
eonjecijet, cum ipfo re/inaiat, tunc eundemfonum fecunda 
l^ ceteris omnibus quaji per mantis tradebat : of this form 
feme have dreamed the Pifls wall was made here in £ng* 

Touching the ufe and end of cafllesi I have noted fome . 
builded as monuments, other for peaceable ufe and orna- 
ment, other for defence. For the firA Berofus writeth, 
that Nembrot founded that great tower in the field of Se- 
naar, to the height and higbnefs of mountains in fign and 
monument, quod primus in orbe terrarum eft popuhs Baby^ 
hnius : and Adrichomius in his Theatrum terra fan^a^ 
fpeaking of Tamberlane rafing of the city of DamafcuSi, 
faith, capta vero tirbis poji fe trophmim rellquit tres ex 
calvariis caforum turres fummo ingenio ereDas : and Cro- 
mer in his fecond book of his hiftory of Poland writeth, 
that Lefcus, the fii A duke there, builded a caAIe where he 
found an Eagle-neA, and called it Gnafno, which is tile 
fame in the Poland language as a fign of happy fortune, 
and bore an Eagle in his arms, which is until this day io 

For peaceable ufe and ornament were tbefe towers by 
the temple of Jerufalem built, upon the top whereof fome 
of the prieAs ufed to found iilver trumpets for aflembly of 
the people; which tvere called Turres Buccinatorum i from 

whence ' 

104 ^^^ Etymology^ Antiquity^ 

whefice no doubt were derived our towers or fteeples tjfed 
to the fame purpofe", their tnimpet being changed into our 
tiells, Solomon builded that goodly tower of Libanos to 
overlook Daniafcus ; fome like done by our kings and no- 
bility may we fin^. For ornament was builded that to^Ver 
of David in Jerufalem, of which in the fong of Solomon is 
faid, Jicut turris David coUum tuiim qua adijicata ejl cum 
propugnacuUs,: milU clypei pendent ex ea, omnis arnuitura 
fortium. And Tiraquellus in his 37, chapter of nobility 
quoteth this for h\v,Ji paupernobilis habet magnum cqflrum 
ever/um vel deJiruSfum, quod per paupertatem ei reficere non 
liceatf potejl cogi ad condendumj ne civitas hujufmodi ruinis 

For defence, we find many builded for J-efiftance of fo- 
reign invading enemies, as the many buUwarks raifed by 
Severus in the Pifts wall, as Orofius wrueth ; and divers 
in the Heptarchy qrefted upon the frontiers of their neigh- 
bouring Jcings,' and many fuch upon the coaft, andapteft 
havens for landing, Lave been builded. And for repreffing 
rebels, and fure eftating this country jander the Romao 
fefviiude, it was by Didius Gallus tfiougbit meet to build 
many caftles, which he did far withm land ; which obfer- 
va'tion till' fince- the cbnqueft was. thought expedient, until 
thfe' kings of pnglancJ, as H. ai' and his followers, found 
th^t thefe retiring places of fafety ^vere the caufes of thofe 
many revolts of his Barons,;;,'.whcreupon many hdhdreds 
of them were rafed by comihfJGons,, and fome by Writ to 
\ht ftierifF; and a laW enafted, thtft none afterward might 
without efpecial litence enbattlc Jiis houfe : of this Opitffod, 
as Ferettus writeth; wasTimolioti of Corinth, quidocuitde- 

ftrUi arces omnes ii$i fe recondebant tyfanni : and it feeincth. 
that the Poland kings were as fufpicious of danger thereby, 
for Uladiflaus and Kafimerus their kings have ordained a 
law, as appears in their Polifh Statutes, that nullum cqftrum 

feu fortalitium regni Polonia * aliquo Duci vel Prind^i cont' 
mittatur. But let this reft as it is, a well argued pairadox 


• Sic. 


nai Privilege pf tomi. t t9j| 

«AioRg our m^tiafifts, for I reft fattsfitd with thif of Ho^ 
xaoe in hit 1 6ch ode^ Bb. 3. 

y^urum /^r medhs^ irefatelliteo 
ti perumpere amatfaxOy poteniiia 


Of the Antiquity^ Etymology, and Privilege 

of Towns. 

By Sir Robcrt Cotton. 
23. Junli. 42. 

FOR the firft branch of this qoeftioo, the antiquity of 
towns^ it hath been partly in- the other two kft of 
cities and caftles difcourfed of, neither need there arife an/ 
doubt but that lire have had here in England, towns as a(i«' 
ciemly as in moft other pttts^ fi^iice in otir eldeft ftories^- 
even ad that firft difcovery by Caefar^ we read him to hav6 
found a town of Cafibelane, a king of thi^ 

conotry. And the Bke Idve of fociety, oat of all queftion, 
whkh refornned the rude and elder world in the firft inha- 
btted countriesr4rom their favage life to dWell together,- 
bred in us at our firft pofleflioo of this land the like efteA, 
fo that we muft account owr towns antiquity from our firfl[ 
frsmffiottation hither, which was, in all likdy fupix)fition, 
vhen our fiext neighbour and mother country France watii 
fully iapeopied. 

For the etymology, we may confider the ufual Latin, 
Bricifti, Saxon, and £ngli(h names for Town, as Oppidumi 
Burgus, vicuSf villa, pagus, that are ufed in our country 
Aories or records, 

I. Opidum, faith Varro, tHaxirnvnt' eft adjficium ab op0 
Sffutn, qu{>d thMttur opts .gratia. Aud^Foiliponius in de 

Vol.. I. O verborum 

10$ The Antiquily and Privilege of Towns. 

vcrborum figoificatidne ftith, ab ope dicitury quod ejus rH 
caufa m(£nia funt conftituta. Opidum ah oppojitione muro- 
rum, vel ab opibus recondendis, faith Ifidorus in his xv. 
book, and that it doth differ magnitudine 6* moenibus a vico. 
if pagOy yet doth it" contain in it vicus \ for Varro in his 
fourth book de lingua Latina, faith, in opido vici a via^ 
quod ex utraque parte via funt adificia : and Rofinus in his 
firft book and 12. chap, d^ antiquitatibus faith, that a 
city and town is divided, in regianes tanqtiam in majora 
membra^ in vicos tanquam minora: fo in Rome there was 
vicus Loreti Tnajoris in the xm. region, vicus Tiberi in the 
XIV. region, vicus Lanarius in the third. So London hath 
in it divers wards or regiones, and thofe wards divers ftreets 
or vici, I may conjediure that thefe places with more in 
the Roman age {oppidum being next in dignity and ufually 
taken for any city, Rpme excepted) were thefe that the 
Saxons called Cafter and Caftor, and we here in England, 
now for as many as remain flourifliing, term our boroughs 
of parliament, as Ver^lamiura firft, Verlamcefter after, 
and UQW the Borough of .St. Albans. And we ufe this 
word Burgujf.Bury, Borough, being all one, as a commoa 
pame for a town : as Richborough, Peterboo.urgh, Ed* 
mundbury, Tilbury ; even as wc do Tona, Tuna, and Town 
for mod of our Englifli villages, and adjunft for the like 
vicus ; which, as I conceive. We term in Englifli wick, 
5ind Bonwick ufually in Domefday : the firft being a com- 
mon additipn to niany towns in England, as Lowwick, 
Southwick, Stonwick ; and holdeth the fame derivation i^ 
Holland ; for that place which is written in their owa 
-^ tongue ^ortwicky is in the Latin Nortovicus, and hath its 
etymology, as Ifidpre faith, a vicinis habit ationibus, vel 
quod vias habetfine maris, and in his 15;. book, eo quod Jit 
vice oppidi; and Brifpnius in de verbprum ' fignificatione 
^th, that, vici pro pngis accipiuntur. 

4. Villa by Coluoiella in his Hrfl book and 6. chapter, 
is divided into three parts'; in Urbanam, rufiicam, fruElun 
ariam. Urbanam fuijfe apparet, quam fibi Dominus, qui 
vrbem incolebat, ^dificabat. Ru/iicapti. quam Villko procuz 


* CfDifntftfion ofLand. f 07 

• • • • 

ratori, in/trumentifque rei ruftica,^ Frudhiariam, qua fni* 
gibus Condendis parabatur, Scaliger notetti vUa pro villa 
to be often, becaufe the former times ufed tic t to double 
their confonants. • -And Hotoman, for the etyipology of 
villa in his Commentaria verborum juris, noteth ; Ruflici 
viam veam appellant propter ve6luras, if vellam non vil/am 
quo vehunt, 

' 5, Pagi^ Brifonius noteth, were villages ufually feated 
near tofprings, from whencethe name was taken • and Ifidore 
defineth them to be apta adijkiis loca inter agros habit anti" 
bus ; and they be alfo called Conciliabu/a, a conventu ir fo^ 
detate multorwn in unutn. 

For the privileges, I muft leave to the obfervation of the 
ftudents in law, only this I find that it was not lawful la 
former time to build any town or city without the licence 
pf the king, of which Caffiodore, in his 4. book variarum, 
noteth a grant to one Albinus, a Senator, for that purpofe, 
from Theodoriciis the Goth. And in the foundation of 
Croyland the king granteth to the abbot, as Ingulf us not- 
eth, a licence to build a town there. And E, i. 29. of 
his reign, direfteth his Writ to John de Britton, wardor of 
London^ to chufe four fufficient men to devife, ordain, 
and arraty a new town for the beft profit of the king and 
his merchants. 


Of Dimenfion of Land. 

By Sir Robert CdrroN. 

THIS word meafure is by fome defined to be quic^ 
qmdpondere, capacitate^ longitudine, latitudine, aU 
tittidine^ animoque Jinitur, Two only of thefe fall fit 
to our queflion, length, zni breadth^ vi\i\c\i is return if 
planum ; the firfl being meafured only in length, and not 

O 2 in 

of piminfifin of Land. 

m breadth, as lines, miles, and fqch like \ the other iff 
length and breadth^ as fields, fituatipp of houieSy aa4 
^hefe like. By th^ firft of thefc and from the right courfe 
pf the fajpe, as Poael|us &ii:h, the Etrafcw foothfayer firl^ 
divided the world into, two e^ual parts, thf one called 
ihxtra, qua Septentrioni ft^aciht^ th^ p%\kix f%n\^ra^ qiuf 
ad meridianum terrarum ejfet occafum. Ouf elder? tha^ 
{dividing tjie world into p^rts, 'parted fkefe mto prpTipces, 
;he provincjes into regions* tfaofe regpdns ipto Umf^iOf 
ifo called a territii fugatifque %nd$ k^fii^) ^bi<^N WP^^ 
Siculus Flaceus ufeth only for thofe plj^pes xb» ^pp^s h^^ 
conq^uered, and new beflowed and 4i^ide4« Tb^ <^^' 
tories they fobdivided into fiddly and c^led tfew ^b^^^^^ 
Jgri, of the que^lof s which i^we i^ppc^ted ty thp p^qple 
pf Rome to fell ai^4 di^M^ (b^fl^r and tb^fe tM^?Uy vim 
parted into JlEfo cetaena jujs^m^ 9P9P which a liuo4^^ 
perfons wer^ pkced, aQ4 was ^alle4 Cgfiiwia cffi divifi if 
qffignati. Thefe, ffikh Lampcidiufi were by Sevqxi^ the^ 
emperor lirA givei^ }p i&t^erit^f)C|| to ;l;e Ibas c^ thg ^df^^ 
or veterank fht other w^re cgr\ occufu^orii ^t^iajjfs^ 
called fo ab arc^ndis hfiibuh ai^ ^rifflutii qffin/4h 
n^nfurp, cantinen^ury l^^t/fio^df^^ ^ntiquam^obfipffi^it^^m*' 
The other was (iger comf^^u,:^ left w% %t th/s ^ri^.df?i- 
fion for the qeighbours in common. For t}i^ fQ^^U^ of 
limiting the fields, Frontinus faith, anfe Jcrutm Umitts nofi 
parebant qui divider^r^, ^^* ^ <^ ^tus ejl Ivmei ut U" 
tern decerneret. They did firfl, in imitation of that firft 
diviHon of the world, c^ (heip from eaft to the wefl, and 
called that Duodecimanum, becaufe it divided the ground 
into two parts ; the oth^f ffpm lh.e f^^t^ t^ the north faitk 
Htglnus, quern Cardinem, a mufidl carcSne nominarwit^ 
Many other divifions they u&d, cafting ihgm as near as^ 
they could to follow the courfes of the fun, as the. Linearii 
and Nonarii : and of the moon, as ScuteU9th, Umfara^s, 
&c. They houuded their fields ibmetim^ whh ^rees, whkh 
they called notaias arbores / with flakes o£ wood fooie* 
time ; and fometime with heaps of (tonea, which the^ 
called S^orpiona ; but moA with h^uks tdxmmkst^ whicJ^ 




litere made into divers figures, fome werecalled Ortbogonip. 
PiramideSf Rhombic f^tirfuH, arctfinii^ Jignati aad femi^ 
tatif and fuch like ; the laft being always eredled in reli* 
gioa of Pan, Hercules, ot Ceres. The other, ^gnaiuf, 
ffi cali^« bcc^Hfe it had on it fome fign or pid^ore fignifi- 
cant for the diredion of the limits : thefe ftones have beeo 
found in fome places of this land, and under them grear 
ftore of afhes aad coals ;'..thffrflupoa» faith ^iculus Flaccus, 
is that before they fet down any of thefe meare-ftones, they 
nfed in the placQ to mtke a facrificc of fome' bea^> and 
I^uriog ia the h\oc4 mingled 'irith wine, Arankincenfe, 
li0rbs, hopey'CombSy h&^ag after anointed the fame with 
ointments, and crowne^ it with giiriaods, and then plac^* 
log h^ra eaUaU^ reliquias. - {a latter thne here ia £ng<^ 
land thqr ^^vided their iaod iati^ hides, ufvally taken for 
fisfcpre icrc9, camcate, and acres ; and s&er, for I findi 
•oae ot them meniiooed in Domefday, into virgaias or 
foiioncs, htVBjg uncertaiQ accordiag to the cuftom of the 
Cfiuatry. Our fens ave ih record moafured by Lew^ CaT 
i^rentma^ and divided witl| Giufta hm, by a law made 
hy paoutus^ and ea^ecuted by Barl ol tbe^ 

•aft Ar^knpn^ who gave 10 #very fen-bordering town 

fmum Jk mar^a ^anhm 4e ficca firra. Thus much ia 


I Id Of tbt Antiquity of Mails 


Of the antiquity of Motts and Words, with 
Arms of Noblemen and Gentlemen of 

By Sir Robert Cotton. 

IF I ftralt this quefiion to the common acceptance, my 
difcourfe mail be to yoii, ias the queflion is to me; (len- 
der and ftrait. But if I take liberty to wreft it, whether 
the letter will lead me, as to imprefles, of which nature 

^ arms with their words are, it will grow more tedioDs than 
the time^ wherein fo many muft deliver their opiniorf; will 
perinit. And therefore to faihion the one to the other, and 
both to my own ignorance, I (hall lit the time though not 
the queAion. And (irft, I.muft intreat you to allow for 
antiquity of arms, which is the (upportatioh of our mote 
or word, that all figniiicant portraitures painted in fhields 

' were and are accounted arms and infignia. The original 
doubtlefs whereof, firft grew from the Egyptian hiero-^ 
glyphics, by which means, purpofes were delivered by na- 
tural charaAers : as in writing fortitude, they formed a. 
. lion ; luft, a goat ; watchfulnefs, an owl. Hence men to 
depidlure their virtuous aifeflions ufed on their (hields 
fome of thefe fignificant figures, addiog no mott nor word 
at the firft, in that fo loog as the tradition of that natural 
learning lived in mens praAice, it was needlefs ; but after 
the fecret myfleries of thofe bodies (for fo Jovius termeth 
the painted forms) were worn from their true underfland-^ 
ing, to ferve only for a diftindlion of perfon or families, for 
fo now arms are, they were allured to add thereunto a 
foul, to that fenfelefs body ; for fo he intituleth the mott 
or word ; concluding it now neceilary that the one muft 
accoit^pahy the other under certain limitation, as that the 
one muft^not be above three words, the other not charged 
with many differing (igns or colours, which we ^old ftill a 


and Words J with Arms^ 13 c^ iii 

fecret of good heraldry, Thefe arms or imprcffes are 
either to private perfons, or families 5 the firfl: more ancient, 
for he that did formerly perfonate a king, bore in his fhield 
as note of fovereignty fome beaft or bird royal. So did ♦ 
Agamemnon at Troy a lion ; the like did Fergufius f the 
Scot, ftncc received by the kings of that country. Caefar 
an eagle as emperor, fince appropered to the empire, to 
this clay. Amongft all our Englifti kings, Arthur is by 
Vincentius f faid to bear in fign of fan<Sity and religion^ 
the figure of our lady upon his (hield. Cadwalador for 
his fierccnefs, a dragon. Divers of our Saxon kings for 
their devotion, a crofs ; as St. Edward. And fome for 
their principality and rule; leopards and lions ; as our * 

kings jiqce the Norman conqueft. But for a word annexed 
to any iniprefs or arms, I cannot remember any here, be- 
fore H. 2. who is by fome writers obferved to bear a 
fword and olive branch together, wreathed with this word 
utrumque. Such alike in regard of the connexity, though 
not in like fenfe, was that Dolphin twifted upon an anchor 
on Vefpafian's coin, with this word, fejlina knte, Richard 
the firft ufed a maled arm holding a ihivered lance, the 
word, Labor uiris convcnit. E. 4. his white rofe clofed la 
an imperial crown, the word, rofa Jine Jpina. E. 6. a fun 
(hining, the word, idem per diverfa. Queen Mary a fword 
ereftcd upon an altar, pro ara fcf regni cuJlodia\ but more 
fubtle than any of thefe, was that of the laft Scotch queea 
Mary, who, after her French marriage, ftamped a coin 
where on the one fide was the impalled arms of Scotland 
and France, on the other between two iflands and a ftarry 
heaven, two crowns imperial, the word aliamque mdratur. 
Thus much for imprefles perfonal and not hereditary. For 
fuch as follow families, I think they cannot prove very an-' 
cient, fince Paulus Jovius plainly delivereth, that the firft* 
that annexed that note of dignity to a Amily, was Frederick- 
BarbaroiEi to his befft'deferving foldiers, which iaileth to 
t)e in anm ^1^2* and the 17. of our king Stephen : from 

* Piiaiaoi^^i 

" ^ , t Bocftiui," ., • ' 

,;: ~ 1' Tmcea^ttfL :i, 

pp, 16. 

f • 



112 Of thi jiniiftiily 0f Arm in Englemi. 

M^hkh grouftd it may fetm our kings aflbmed it near that 
. titne^ for I find no badge of any family ontil king Johni no 
not of any of our king^ up6n thdr feals before Richard the 
£rft ; and for any mott or word ufed to any ftich arms^ i 
note none before that of Edward 3. Honyfoit qui tnalepenji, 
proper only to his order^ until Henry the 8. time ; from 
whence as I take it, we borrow thofe fentenc^s or words which 
T pafs to remember, in regard of their muhitudey finice thej 
fall fitter to thofe better ftudeDti di AtrhB to obferve. 


. Of the Antiquity •£ Arms in England. 

By Mr. Jame? Ley. 

IN confldering of Engliih arms, it is not improper to re- 
fped thre^ things ; fir A, the diverfity of nations that 
have conquered this kingdom, and the variable ufage of 
armfi and tokens by them. AaK>ng whom^ the Brhains 
being firfly were a nation in the beginning and long after, 
barbarous and ignorant both of arms and military, orna- 
inents. For Caefar teflifieth, * that Britanni pellibus funt 
ve/iiti, wnnes verp fe luteo inficiunt^ quod cxruleum efficit 
cohrem^ atqui hoc horribiliore funt in pugna afpeHu* The 
Rootans were the fecond nation that governed this land,, 
and the firft that ufed any knowledge or e^ercife of arms,, 
who, mingled with the Britains, tempered the fiercenefs of 
their natures, and taught them martial difcipline* Neither 
can I find any occafioa to fufpef^, that arms were borne in 
this ifland until the entrance of Julius C«far, of which 
time I may not doubt, bat that fuch martial tokens were 
regarded, fiaee Caefar fpeaking. of his fiift landifig herey 
faith, t at n^ri^^.fjfilifibus^cunffantibusjf maxime propter 

.* JCarfb ;iiB:ife4. Oali* lib, 5. M.f9^ : ' f Caef. Jc bd&r GalL fib. 


. ^ ^ • 1 • 

Of the Anttquiiy of Arms in England. 113 

altitudinem maris, qui decima legionis aquilam ferebat (con* 
teftatus Deos, ut ea res legioni feliciter eveniret) deftlite^ 
inquit, militeSy niji vultis aquilam hqftibus prodere, isc. 
Out of which a twofold obfervation doth proceed, one 
touching the bearing of arms, in that the Roman aquila or 
eagle was their enfign : the other concerning the law of* 
arms, that the not feconding the enfign was to betray the 
fame to the enemy. But whereas fome dp attribute unto 
the Roman eftate the bearing of a (hield of azure, and 
therein the letters S. P. Q^ R. in bend argent, whether 
that were borne for arms, or elfe an abbreviation of the 
name of the Roman commonwealth, Senatus popiihifque 
Romdnus, I leave to others to decide. As the Romans 
advanced their enfign of the eagle as proper to their nation 
in that age, to the end their legions might thereby be 
known, fo Caefar himfelf accuftomed to wear an upper 
garment of a fpecial colour, thereby to be difcerned from 
others. For writing of himfelf he faith *, accelerat Cafar 
ut proelio interjit, ejus adventu ex colore vejiitus cognrto, 
quo injigni in proeliis uti confueverat, ire. Which garment, 
although being but of one colour, may neverihelefs de- 
ferve the name of a coat armour. After Caefar's time, the 
Chriftian faith being brought into Britain by Jofeph of Are- . 
mathea in the time of Lucius, the fame nation (as it is by 
moft men admitted) took the crofsrgules, in a filver field, 
with a crofs of torment, in a camp of mercy ; which crofs 
might more aptly be a plain crofs, in refpefb that kingdom 
received Chriftianity in a time of the plainnefs and fince- 
rityof the preaching thereof; and Conftantine the Great 
alfo ufed a crofs in his ftandard. But when the regiment 
of the Romans became quailed, and Aurel Ambros the 
Britifti king was in the _way between life and death, there 
appeared a ftar of marvellous greatnefs and brightncfs, 
having only one beam, in which was feen a fiery fubftance 
after the fimilitude of a dragon, which Merlin expounded 
to fignify Uther Pendragon, who, after his brother's 
death, obtaining the crown in remembrance of that ftar, 

♦ Caefar dc bcUo Gall. lib. 7. € is8. 
Vol. L P JuJ/ii 

11+ Of the JniiquUy of Arms in England, 

jujfit * fabricari duos Dracones ex auro^ ad Draconis fm^i* 
tudinem^ quern ad radium Jiella injpexerat^ qui ut mira arte 

fahricati fuerunt obtulit unum in Ecclefia prima fe£s Gvin" 
ioni/t, alterum vero ftbi ad ferendum in proslio detinuit^ ab 
UIo ergo die vocatus eft Uther pen dragon, quod Britannica 
lingua caput Draconis appcUamus ; whom in like fort the 
Saxons called for the fame caufe *bpak Hered, and this Dra- 
gon was ufcd prB vexillo per Regem vfque hodie, as faith t 
Mathew WeAmonaftenenfis, who lived in the time of 
K, Edward the firfl, and this dragon, or not much uniike, 
is one of the regal fupporters at this prefent. Kiug Arthur 
the fon of Uther forgot not his father's enfign, but in the 
battle of Laihes-hill wore his helm adorned with a dragon 
. for his cTrcft, as Monumetenfis writeth % • W^ ^^ro Jrtu- 
ruSf lorica tanio Rege digna indutus, auream galeam JimU" 
lachro Draconis infculptam capiti adaptavit^ bumeris quoque 

fuis elypeum vocabido priwen, in quo imago Sandfa Maria 
Dei genetricis impi&a ip/am in memoriam ipjius fapijfime in* 
vocabat : and in another place he faith, Ipfe (Arthurus) 
elegit ftbi i; legioni uni quam fibi adejfe affeEiaveraty locum 
qiiendam^ quo aureum Draconem infixit, quern pro vexillo 
babibat^ quo vulnerati diffugerent. By which it is evident, 
that king Arthur bore for arms in his (hield the image of 
our Lady, and for his creft and in his flandard a golden 
dragon : and when the Britons, opprefled by the Pifts, 
invited the Saxons or ancient Weftphalians to their aid, 
Ilengift and Horfe being their leaders, acknowledged none 
other enfigns but pidlum \\ equinum atrum, qua fuerunt 
vetuftijftma Saxonia armas not without a manifeft allufion 
tinto their name of Weflphali, Valen or phalen^ or (as we 
in Englifh have made it) foal^ fignifying a colt, and 'tvejl 
importing thofe that dwelt on the wefl-fide of the river 
Vifurgis or Wefer : which arms their kindred that remained 
in Germany changed into contrary colours, and their polle- 

• Gcff. Mon. lib. 8. c. 14. f Matt. Weft. p. 180. | Gai. 

JMonum. lib. 9. cap. 4. Matt. Wcfti f. i99, || Albertus Crantzius <ie 



Of iht Antiquity of Arms in England. 1 1 i 

rltj, which encreafed in England, forfook, for other diile- 
rcnt arms, uppn their firll reducing unto Chriftianity. For 
I find that in bello * apud Beorford in vexillo Aethelbaldi 
erat aureus Draco^ which is not unlikely to have been 
borro\yed by imitation, or challenged by conqueil from the 
Britons. I cannot well affirm the bearing of arms by 
them, qui t fupparum^ id eft, camijiam Dei genetricis 
(quam Carotus magnus de Hierofolyma veniens^ apud Carnu- 
ten/em urbem in monqjierio ejufdem Firginis pofuerat) in 
edition comitatus loco pro vexillo Jlatuerunt* But it is 
plain, that the golden dragon continued until the time of 
Edmond Ironfide, fince it is fet down that in the battle 
between him and Knute the Dane, Regius % locus fuit inter 
Draconum iff Jiandardum ; which dragon was rather the 
ofiicial enfign than the corporal arms, the fame being (after 
the baptifm received and difperfed) a crofs patee, gold, in a 
field of azure, as may appear by the reverfe of divers of 
their coins ; and as the fame badge of baptifm profpered, 
fp in procefs of time the ends of this crofs alfo AomKhed, 
and in coocUiCon was contented to yield room for four or 
five martelets in the field, until , the Norman acqutfition; 
when as fecurity was fubjefted to conqueft, and Englifh * 
inhabitants gave way to Norman chivalry, fo the azure 
was changed into a fanguinean field, and the crofs removed 
place unto the two lions or leopards, though furioufly paf- 
fant, yet advifedly gardant. The fecond obfenation is, 
that in thofe elder times, in which ornaments of honour 
had more reputation than perfeftion, it oftentimes hap- 
pened, that the portraiture and figure was more refpefted 
than the colour, infomuch that fometimes one thing was 
ufed by one man, at feveral times, in feveral colours, of 
which I will only cite two authorities or precedents. It is 
Icnown to all men, that the eagle fable is and always was 
the imperial enfign of the Romans, and yet one Lucius 
Tiberius a Roman captain in a battle againft king Arthur,* 
auream || j^quilam^ quam pro vexillo duxerat, ji*J[it in 

* Matt. WeftiB. p. X7S. t ^<^™ 354» % I*^^™ P* 39^* 

. I Gal. Monumct. lib. lo. cap. 8. 

P 2 medi9 

1 1 6 panjia. 

medio Jirmlter poni. So that either the colours were not 
then exaftly obferved, or elfe Geffrey Monmouth is not al- 
ways to be credited. Casfar alfo writing of the battle and 
viftory againft Pompey affirmeth thus,^^;?a militaria ex prxHo 
ad Cafarem funt relata CLXXX. 6" Jquila novem : which 
could not be without confufion, that fo many eagles ibould 
be borne in one camp, but that fome of them did at leaft 
differ in colours from the others ; and it were ftrange that 
nine legions fhould feverally follow the like number of 
Aquilas, and yet the colour of them all fliould be black. 


By James Lee. 

THE \yord foreji is derived of fcr is Jlare, which 
doth lignify to (land or be abroad, and fore/larit^s 
is he that hath the charge of all things that are abroad, 
and neither domeftical nor demean ; wherefore forefia m 
old time did extend unto woods, waftes, and waters,* and 
did contain -not only verf and venifon, but alfo mineral^ 
and maritimal revenues. For proof whereof the words of 
♦J-ib. I. Johannes Tilius * are thus, Gubematores is cufiodes flan- 
dria ante Baldwirium, qui a brachio ferreo di3us ejiy erant 
c^ciales arbitrio Regum Gallorum mutabiles, £s^c. turn autem 
dicebantur foreftarii, id eji^ faltuarii ; non quod ipfirum 
munus agrttm tantiim fpedlarety qui turn confertiis erat 
fylva c'arbonaria^ fed etiam ad maris cvjlodiam pertinebat ; 
nam vocabulum iliud foreft; pri/co fermone inferioris German 
nia aque aquas ac fylvas fpeElabat. And to this effeft the 
fame author doth cite divers precedents of charters granted 
,by the kings of France. So that it appeareth by this an4 
divers other authorities, that the governor of Flanders, 
wn^er tjie nafue jfnd title of the Fqrei^er of Fianders, had 

the charge both by land and by fea, and of the gcfieral re* 
venues of the fame country. Neither is the eftate of forefts 
in England unlike unto that in Flanders, infomuch as the 
fcharge ^nd articles which are to hp inquired of in the court, 
called The feat of the jufiices itinerants of the foreft, do 
pot only tend to the preferyation of the game, but alfo 
jextend to fee a juft furvey, and to call a full account of 
divers kinds of profits, ifluing and happening: as the fermes 
pf aderts, purpreftures and improvenaents, the wood and 
timber called Grccnhawgh, herbarge for cattle> paynaige 
for fwine, mines of metals and coals, quarries of ftones 

and wrecks upon the fea-coafts. But whea 

forefts were firft ufed here in England, for my part I find 
po certain time of the beginning thereof. Yet, I think, 
the name of Foreft was known in England, though not in . 
fuch fenfe as now it is taken : and although, that ever fince 
the conqueft (as the readers upon the ftatutes de forejia do 
hold) it hath been lawful for the king to make any man's 
land (whom it pleafed him) to be foreft, yet there are cer- 
tain rules and circumftances appointed for the doing thereofl 
For, firft, there muft iflue out of the chancery a writ of 
perambulation, directed unto certain difcreet men, com- 
manding them to call before them xxiiii. knights and 
principal freeholders, and to caufe them, in the prefence 
of the officers of the foreft, to walk or perambulate fo much 
ground as they fhall think to be fit and convenient for the 
breeding, feeding, and fuccouring of the king*s deer, and 
to put the fame in writing, and to certify the fame under 
the feals of the fattie commiflioners and jurors into ttie 
chancery ; after the full execution of which writ, a writ 
of proclamation is to be fent into that fhire to the fherifT 
thereof, commanding him to proclaim the fame to be 
foreft : upon the making of which proclamation, the fame 
ground becometh prefendy foreft, although it be the land 
of any fubjeft, or of the king. And as there are prefcribed 
circumftances to the making of a foreft, fo there are fet 
down divers laws and ordinances by the ftatutes of Charta 
^e^ForeJiay and oiArticuU de Forejia^ and other ordinances, 

7 for 

jiS Fvrefta. 

for the prefervation thereof, which, in truth, may be 
more rightly accounted qualifications of the rigorous lawg 
of William the Conqueror, qui * proferis homines muiilavitf 
exheredavit, incarceravity trucidavit, eb Ji quis cerviim 
vet aprtim caperet, oculis privabatur. Moreover, notwlth- 
ftanding K. Henry the third by the great charter of forefl « 
chap. 3. had granted that all woods, which were made 
foreft by king Richard his uncle, or by K. John his father 
UBtil bis coronation^ fhould be forthwith difaforefted, 
iinkfs it were the king's demean wood ; yet the fame 
charter took no great efiecl, but the officers of the foreft 
not only continually grieved the fubje£ls by claiming liberty 
of foreft in their lands, but alfo king Edward* the firft in 
an. 7. of his reign, caufed feveral perambulations to be 
siade througho¥it all England, by which he made forefts, 
as much or more of the fubjeAs lands, than his own de- 
means of the foreft aaK>unted unto ; but the fubje£ls, find- 
ing ihemfeives greatly opprefTcd thereby, did make earneft 
{pit to the king for redrefs; who, firft, by divers afts 
coftfirmed the great charter, and afterwards in dnno 28. 
caufed a new perambulation to be made by commiflioners 
ibrough all England, by which the greateft part of the 
fubjefts lands taken in before, were then clearly left out 
acid freed, and afterwards in con^fideration of a fifteenth 
granted unto him by the fttbjeAs of the fam^ king in amto 
xxix. confirmed the faid laft perambulation by aft of 
parliament ; which laft perambulations and none elfe, do 
fiand good at this prefeat, as it was ruled in a cafe before 
the judges in the King's Bench in Hillary term, an. xxxiir. 
Eliz. R, upon the traverfe of an indiftment between the 
fervants of Edward Earle of Hertford and the queen's ma- 
jtcfty, in behalf of Henry Earl of Pembroke, concerning 
the bounds of the foreft of Groveley in the county rf 
Wilts ; as concerning fuch ground as being taken in by 
the firft perambulation, were afterwards left out by the 
laft, the fame be at this day called Purle, not of pur luy^ 
id eft, for himfclf, not of pur la ley^ id eft, for the law 

* Matt. Weft. p. 9. 

Of the AntiquHy vf the Offia of Chanullor. i i 9 

<as men commonly think) nor of f>ur le purrail^- i. e. for 
the poor commoners (as the readers do fuppofe) but of the 
word pur aller^ or per aller^ which is the French word to 
walk or perambulate, in refpeft they were firft perambulated 
and walked, and fo retain the name of terres pur alUr^ or 
perambulated and walked ground, and yet no forefl. 


Of the Antiquity of the Office of the 
Chancellor of England • 

By Mr. Ley. 

. Etymology, 

THE name Chancellor is by fome faid to be derived i 
cancellandoy becaufe he may cancel or fruftrate fuch 
things as are brought to the great feal, and cancel and 
make vacat of fuch records as are furrendered or acknow* 
ledged to be fatisfied ; to which opinion I do not allent, be- 
caufe all names of offices are derived of the moA ancient^ 
ordinary, and frequent fun£liohs thereof; but the chao* 
cellor hath longer ufed rather to make, expedite, and feal 
writs and patents, and to receive and preferve records, 
than to Aay or to deface them. Others think, that the 
power judicial whereby he mitigateth the rigour of the 
common law, and, as it were, includeth the extremities 
thereof within the limits of a good confcience, hath given 
that appellation ; from which opinion I muft differ, iince 
the name of chancellor is much more ancient than that 
power ; for, that caufes were ufually determined in the 
higher houfe of parliament by committees for that purpofe, 
as appeareth by the infinite number of petitions in parlia*^ 
xnenty filed in bundles and remaining in the parliament, 
and by .a book, which I have feen, containing the fame, 
as alfo t>y the fcarcity^of decrees and bills in chancery in 


i 20 0/ the Antiqutty of the Office of Cbmcellor: 

former ages, and none to be found before the xx, year of 
H. 6. I rather conjefture, that other courts being publiclc 
for the accefs of all men, and being quafi inforo for hear- 
ing and ending of civil an4 criminal caufes^ the chancery 
v^as a more private and fequeftered place, and inclofed 
from thd prefs of people, where the chancellor might fit 
and obfcrve the fealing of writs ; and as the clergy (as 
Matthew Weftminfter writeth) were by pope Felix fepa- 
rated from the people who fat before intermixed, and 
placed in a place peculiar called The Chancel ; fo it is 
likely, that the chancel had his precinft, of which by de- 
rivation he is called Cancellarius^ which if it had been de- 
duced of the funftion, would rather have been CanceUator 
than Cancellarius^ 


The firfl: chancellor that I find was Dunjlanus, who is 
faid to be Cancellarius Regius^ who lived in the Saxons 
time, both in and before the time of K. Edgar. 


The chancellor hath two powers, the one mi^iifterial, the 
other judicial : the minifterial, as the making of original 
writs, commiffiofls, and fixing the feal, and fach like. 
The judicial power is of two forts ; the firft is poteflas srdi- 
vat a, which is the holding of pleas in fcire facias y writs of 
privilege, execution of ftatutes, and fuch like, in which 
the order of the common law is dDferved ; the fecond, 
inordinata, by which he heareth and determineth according 
to a certain law, whofe matter is the law of nature, and 
V/hofe form is the law of God. 


r'" Of KpitapUs, \ :i21 


Of Epitaphs. 
By Mr. JamesLet, 

IN examining of this queftion concerning Epitaphs, there 
are many circunaftances to be perufed, of which if wc 
behold the eftate of the perfon it (heweth unto us, that 
learning and civility had their beginning in the lefler num- 
ber of the better fort of people, by whofe example and 
inilrudlion it received an increafe in the purfuant age, and 
in the l-itter tiroes became more plentiful ; and it is likely 
that epitaphs, whofe forms tafte of knowledge, and whofe 
matter confifleth of experience, were firft appropriated 
unto kings, commanders, captains, and officers of ftate, 
for rare virtues or viftories, to which not many could at- 
tain ; and in procefs of time the ufeof fuch remembrances 
becaine communicated to all noble perfons, who aflTumed 
the fame i^i right of their calling, and not of their defert ; 
and, laftly, all men endeavouring to imitate the beft, have 
by cuftom made that which was peculiac to fome, commoa 
unto all. Secondly, -refpe^ling the diverfities of nations^ 
ignorance in the time of the Britains hath yielded no fuch 
memorials, and that, which the wit of the Romans hath 
yielded, time hath for the moft part obliterated. Neither 
had the Saxons or Danes any fuch fettled nobility, as that 
they could apply themfelves to private tokens, being always 
in danger of foreign and domeftical depopulations, unlefs I 
may be licenfed to call that an Epitaph, which was found, 
notifying the place of the burial of Kenelm called the 
Martyr *j 

3m clenc itau batlje !&ettelttt ikpnebearne 
iit^ Vixa^ni^im^ Ijeauen bpreauen. 

• Matt. Weft. apS. 30. 

VoJL. I. * Q^ Thirdly, 

wa Of Epitaphs] 

Thirdly, the language: the Britifli language I3 fcarcc 
known to epitaphs ; the Latin mofl familiar unto them ; 
the Saxon and Danifh unfrequented in them ; the French 
not unacquainted ; the Engliih converfant with them. 
Fourthly, the matter which is ftoney timber, brafs, lead. 
Fifthly, the place, one fort fubterraneal, which was either 
by the Romans according to their cuftom fub tumults^ or 
clfe in the beginning of Chriftianlty by the martyrs, for 
itSiV of profanation *yfub cumulis ; another is fuperterraneal, 
ad now the mod part are. Sixthly, the time, commonly 
after the death of the party, fometime in his life-time, and 
tarely in his life-time with mention that he is living ; as 
that of Robert Hungerford in the church of Hungerford in 
Berkfhire : 

lilt ^wc monCpre Uoliert ae ^ttitgetfo;Bi 
tant comnte el Cott en bie p^eo^a^ 
Ct pour fou ante, apje? (a mo^t, tivik ttuvi 
cinqtuant; lour? lie paroonn a))era» 

Seventhly, the form, fome are declaratory, as hie jacef, 
^c. others dedicatory, as colendiffimo, ifc* others petitory, 
as orate pro ifc. 

Eighthly, tlie contents material, viz. the name and addi-^ 
tion, the day and year of the death ; accidental, the dwell- 
ing place, his children, his virtues and commendation. 

* Mttt. Weft. ipj). io* ' 


vj .; m ii*xtii. 

, ' Of Metts, Ut 


* • 

pf Motts, 

By Mr. L^y. 

WHETHER they are called Motts of the Freoch, 
becaufe they are fliort and compendious, and as it 
were expreflfed in one word ; /or elfe of the Saxon Gemote 
becaufe the fentence doth meet or concur with the nature 
or quality of fome thing depiAed ; or elfe becaufe they 
are motives of a Jthing, in part exprefled by .word, and in, 
part left unto conceit, I will not difpute ; but tti^ugh 
neither of tbefe is the original caufe or reafon, yet the jfame 
IS accompanied witJti them all. The antiquity of them is 
^ual with wars and wit; wars to minifter matter, and 
wit to frame it into form ; in which there are divers 
properties commendable. Firft, in a word to contain a 
world. Secondly, when thereby a dumb beaft, or bird, 
or dead creature doth, as it were, fpeak, and bewray 
his own primary quality. Thirdly, when the fimple 
cannot undcrftand it. and yet the wif<» cannot but under- 
/land %. ,> 


i f 4 The Etymology and Original of Barons. 



The Etymology and Origirtal of Barons. 


« By Mr. Camden. 

Traofcribcd from his Jdverfarui in pofleiGon of the 

Lord Hat ton. 

: ' T. $• 


IHAtE elfewhcre faid fomewhat of Bar ones, therefore 
if now I Idc (horter, it may be more pardonable. Di- 
vers opinions have been hatched by divers wits, as con- 
cerning the etymology. Some deduce Barones from the 
French Parhommes, as men of equal authority ; others a 
belli rohore ; the German Civilians from Bannerheir, as 
'Lords bearing banners ; Alciatus in his parergis juris from 
Berones, an ancient people of Spain, which were mercenary 
foldiers in that time, as the Germans are now. And Ifi- 
dore, as probably as the other, deriveth them from the 
Greek word Bci^Uy becaufe they were valorous and of ^ 


Whatfoever the etymology is, it feemeth to be one of 

thofe words, which time (that hath abfolute authority in 
words) hath mollified in iignification. For in Tully it 
feemeth to fignify a man of fimple and (lender conceit, "as 
alfo in Perfius, whofe old Scholiaft writeth. Lingua Gal-- 
lorurn Barones V el Varones dicuntur fervi militum, qui uti- 
aue Jiultijfmi funt, fervi videlicet Jiultorum. But in the 
fourth book de Hello Civilly they which were of Caflius 
his guard, are plainly termed ^^row^j; and Alciatus can- 
not be induced to think, that they were any other, than 
extraoidiuary foldiers. Neverthelefs the old gloffary tranf- ' 
ktc':h Bare by a\>.^^ a man, and in the laws of the Lom- 
b-uvlcs, Alivuiap.c-, and Ripuariii Baro and Boro are ufed 

•* '\ f- o '>-\ T ; • 


The Etymehgy and Original ef Barons^ 125 

When this name of Barones came firft into this iflc, I 
ddai^ not determine. In the Saxon laws I do not remem- 
ber it. And Alfric the SaKon grammarian^ and archbt(hop 
of Canterbury, doth not fpecify it, where he reciteth the 
names of dignity in that tongue : but inftead tl^rcof hath 
Lhaj'ofib for Dominus, 

The Danes then ufed and do flill retain Thane ^ (tt 

Andr. Velleius teftifieth ;) yet I have read in a fragment of 

K Cn. laws : Collicij>iiimy quod efi fitmma cenfus diverfa 

div erf arum ^tatum, Ji minoris Fironis, i. Baronisy 2. libra^ 

fi majoriSy quatitor. 

Neither have I any pregnant proof, that the name 
was in any great ufe at the entry of the Sormans ;. for fuch 
as were afterward called Barones, were then named Thani^ 
Sixxdi Valv a/ores ; which latter name the Normans in my 
opinion borrowed from the form of government, which 
Otho the emperor not long before inflituted in Italy. For, \ 

as Sigonius teftifiech, after Duces , MarchiottcSy and Comi' 
t€Sy he placeth, ValvaJhreSy and the Civilians, which 
write de Feiidis, affirm, Valvafores mnjores to be BaroneSn 
In the fucceeding age after the conqueft, the name was 
moft common, but of jio great honour; for the citizeofil 
of London, the inhabitants of , the Cinque ports, were ftiled 
Barones ; and I have heaced, that fome earls have wr ittea 
.... Omnibus Baronibus <b hominibus ineis, tarn Francis;, 
quam Jnglis. Whereupon I remember, that I have read 
in the old couflitution of France, that 10. barons were 
under every Comes ^ and 10. Capitanei under every baron« 
Shortly after it grew, higher, and feemed to be t 
ftate with jurifdi<ftion in his own territories, as may ap- 
pear by court Barones : and the very multitude of Barones 
doth partly perfuade me, that they were but fuch free 
lords within themfelves, as the Germans call Freeheren^ 
efpeciaiiy fuch as held cadles : for then they were anfwer- 
abic to the definition of Baldus * the lawyer, which de*- 
fineth him a bar<Hi, which hath merum mijiumque imperium 
in aliquo caflro conceffione Principis* But iince K. £dt 

* Bald, innotuit de £lo^« 


125 Mr. Taie^s ^efiions about ancient Britons. 

ward I. and other E. K. fele^ed (bme out of the great 
number, and fummoned them to parlianients, they odIj 
vitb other, whom the kings advanced to the ftate of a ba- 
rony i>y creattoOy were properly accounted barons, and 
they have been honoured with fundry privil^es, where- 
with if I ftiould intermeddle, (being ignorant-of the laws) 
{ might feem a very Baro in the moll ancient llgntfication. 


JVIr^ Tate's Qucftions about tlxc anplcnt 


• * 

Tlie Cotton ^'"D^ ^'^^^ names were they called by the Britons, 
ry.VitelHus -^-^ which the Latins call Drtdda and Druides ? 
£»j.p.5tf» 2. Whether the Druydes and Flamines were all one, and 

the difTerence between them, how Flamims were called in 

Britifh, and their antiquity and habits ? 

3. What degrees were given to th©i;r profeflbrs pf Leam^ 
ing, where and by whom, and their habits or apparel I 

4. Whether the Barih had any office in war aofweriog 
our heralds, their garments and enfigns, and whether they 
iifed the Caduceum, many fetching the original thereof 
from the Britons charming of ferpents ? 

5. What judges and lawyers had the Britons that fol- 
lowed the king, and what are Trianhepcoz Brenhin^ and 
their ufe ? 

6. What judges and lawyers were there refident in the 
country, their number, what judges were there per dtgni- 
latem terra, and what was their duty, and how were they 
aflembled to do the fame ? 

7. It appeareth there were always many kings and 
princes in this realm before the coming in of the Saxons, 
were their countries divided in TalaitltSy as all betwee9 
Severn aj)d the Sea was after their coming i 

Mr. iatis ^ejiions about ancient Britons. 12^ 

8. Was there any divifioQ into (hires before the Saxons 
coming, and what difference betwixt a Jhire and fwydb f 
There were anciently with you maenors, commods, can- 
trebhs, anfwerable whereto are our manors, tythings, 
hundreds, and that maketh me to incline that Swydh 
ihould be like our (hire, as Sivy^ Caer Bhyr^in, Swy^ 
jlmwythig, Swy^ Caer awrangorij and the general ofEcers 
of them were called Swy^ogion, under whom were maer 
Gnybellawe Ringhil^ Ophiriat, and Brawdur tyngr S'wy'^^ 
^except all bear the name of SwPfogion. I find in an an- 
cient book of LandafFGluiguis or Glivifus king of Deme- 
tia, which of this king is called GieaguifTig, of whom It 
is (aid, feptem pae^os rexit^ whereof Glamorgan, now a 
fliire, was one, and pagus is ufed for a Ihire, 

9. Whether the Britons had noblemen bearing the name 
of Duces^ Comites^ BaroneSy and what they were called in 
Briiifli ? In the book of LandafF I find it thus written, 
Cundeleius rex totam regionem fuatn Cadoco Jilio fuo com^ 
fnendavit, prhnlegiumque concejfit quatenus a fonte Fennun 
heri donee ad ingrejfum fiuminis Nadavan pervenitur^ amncf 
reges 6" Comites, optimates, tribuni atque domeftici in 
C(enobii fui ccemiterio de Lancarvan fepeliantur. And 
king Ed. i. enquiring of the laws of the Britons, demand- 
eth how the Wel(h barons did adminifler juflice, and fo 
tliftingui/hed them Lords Marchers. 

10. What is the fignilication of the word Ajfacbf A fta- 
tute of king H. fixth faith, fome offered to excufe them- 
felves by an Affach after the cuftom of Wales, that is to 
fay, by an oath of 300. men. 

11. What officer is he that in the laws of Hoel Da, is 
called Difiein, and the flgnification of the word ? 

12. What do you think of this place of P. Ramus in his 
book de moribus veterum Gallorum, If a civitates Brutos 
fuos habebant, & a Cafare nominantur Senatus Eburonicum, 
Lerobiorum, Venetorum ; was there any counfels or fenates 
in the Britifh government, and by what name were they 

N^ XLV; 

i-f ft Mr. Jems' s Anfwers to Mr. ^aU\ ^efimt^ 

N* XLV. 

Mr. Joacs his Anfwers to. Mr. Tate's 


1^0 the firft I fay, that Druides or Dntida is a word 
that is derived from the Britifh word Druclic/i, being 
the name of certain wife, difcreet, learned, and i;eUgious 
perfons amongfl: tlie Britons. 

Drudion is the plural number oF tl/is primitive word 
(Drud:) by adding (ion) to the fingular number you 
make the plural of it, ftcundum formam Britannorum fic, 
Drud I ion. 

This primitive word (Drud J hath many fignifications, 
one fignification is (diahurj that is a revenger, or one ibit 
redreffeth wrong, for fo the Jufticers, which are called 
Drudion, did fupply the place of magiftrates. 

Another interpretation is (krevlouj and that Jfignifieth 
(cruel) and mercilefs, for they did execute juftice moft 
righteoufly, and punifLa offenders moft feverely. Drud 
fignifieth 2X^0 gleiv and peidy that is valiant and hardy. 

Drud alfo is dear and precious, wide venit (drudanieth) 
which is, dearth. 

This (Drudion) amongft the Britons by their office did 
determine all kind of matters, as well private as publick, 
and were Jufticers as well in religious matters and contro- 
verfies, as law matters and con trover fies for offences of 
death and title of lands: this did the facrifices to the hea- 
then gods, and the facrifices could not be made without 
them, and they did forbid facrifices to be done by any man 
that did not obey their decree and fentencc : all the arts,, 
fciences, learning, philofophy, and divinity, that was 
taught in the land was taught by them, and they taught 
by memory, and never would that , their knowledge and 
learning ihould be put iii writing, whereby, when they 
were fuppreffed by the emperor of Rome in the beginning 


ifr. Jms's Anfwers to Mr. tateU S^uejimsl 129 

bf Chriftianity, their learning, art9, law^, facrifices, and 
governments, were loft and extinguifhed here in this land, 
fo that I can find no more mention of any of their deeds 
In our tongue than I have fet downe, but that they dwelt 
in rocks and woods and dark places; >and fome places in our 
land had their names from them, and are called after their 
names to this day ; and the ifland of Mone or Anglice is 
taken to be one of tlieir chiefeft feats in Britain, becaufe it 
was a folitary idand full of Wood, fo that it was fo dark by 
teafon of that wood, and not inhabited of any but them- 
felves, and then the ifle of Mone, which is called Anglice, 
was called (Ur Ynys Dewy II J that is The Dark I/land : 
and after that the Drudion were fupprefled, the huge, 
groves, which they favoured and kept a foot, were rooted 
up, and that ground tilted, then that ifland did yield fuch 
abundance and plenty of cord, that it might -fuftain and 
keep all Wales with bread ; and therefore there arofe then 
a proverb, and yet is to this day, viz. ,Mon Mam Glymbru, 
that is, Mon the Mother of Wales. Some do term the 
prov^erb thus, Mon Mam Wyuedd^ that is, Mon the Mother 
tf North Wales ^ that is, that Mon was able to nourifh and 
fofter upon bread all Wales or North Wales. After ihat 
this dark ifland had caft out for many years fuch abundance 
of corn, where the dlfclofed woods and groves were, it fur- 
ceafed to yield corn, and yielded fuch plenty of grafs for 
cattle, that the countrymen left off their great tilling, and 
turned it togfafing and breeding of cattle, and that did con- 
tinue amongft them wonderful plentiful, fo that it was an 
admirable thing to be h^i^rd, how fo little a plat of ground 
jQiould breed fuch great number of cattle ; and now the in- 
habitants do till a great part of it, and breed a great num- 
ber of cattle on the other part. 

2. As for the fecond queftion, I do refer the expofition Flamins, 
of it to thofe that have Written of the Flamins in Latin. 
The Drudion in Britain, according to their manner add 
cuflom, did execute the office and funftion of the Flamines 
beyond the fea; and as for their habits I cannot well tell 
yon how nor what manner they were of, 

VoL.L ' 9. 3/T0 


Degrees. J. To the third queflion, there were four (everal kibd 

of degrees that >yere given to the profeflbrs of learniog^ 
The firft was, DifgiblyJhaSj and that .was giwen him after 
three years judging ia the ^rt of poetry and nrufic, if he by 
Jiis capacity did deferve it. The fecofid degree was Dif- 
•gibldifgybliaidd^ and that was given to the profeflbr of 
Jearning after fix years ftudying, if he did deferve it : and the 
third d(greee was Difgiblpenkerddiaidd, and that was given tO' 
the profeflTor of learning after nine year&ftudying, if hedid de- 
ferve it: and the fourth degree was /^^/2^<?ni/, or AthrOy and 
Jthro is thehighcft degree of Jearningamot^ft us, and in Latia 
is called Doifori> AU rhefe degrees were glren to men of 
•leammg, as well poets as muficiat^s. All thefe forefaid 
degrees of learning were given by the king or in his pre- 
lence in his palace at every three years end, or -by a liceBce 
from him inr fome fit place thereunto, upon. an open ^difpn* 
tation had befoie the king oralis deputy in that behalf, and 
then they were to have their reward according to their degrees. 
Alfa there were tJirce kind« of poets, the one was 
Prududiy the other was Teuhror^ the third was Klermr, 
Ail thefe three kinds had three feyeral matters to treat of. 
The Prududd was to treat of laftds and praife of prince^ 
.nobles, and gentlemen, and had his.circtiitiinrangF: them.. 
.And the Teuluror did treat of merry jefts^ and doraefticaV 
padimes £^nd afFairs, and had his circuk aniongft the 
countrymen^ and \m reward according to his csdlrng, iai>d 
the Klerwr did treat of inve^ivc and. Fuftkri poeCry^ dif- 
fering from yho, Prududd ^xA Teulur<^^ aQd4iis ciixruit n^aa- 
amongft the yeomen of the country. As for *hei^ habits^ 
they were certain long appgrel- do^a to the calf of thtar 
. legs or foniewhat lower, and t^iey had divers kinda of cb* 
lours in their appai^l. 

4. Ta the fourth queflion, I fay the Bardd wa» a herald 
to record all the a6ts of the princes and ttobJ«Si /and to give 
arms according to the forts^. . They were alfo poets, atid 
could prognoflic^te certain things and gave them out in 
jmeters. And further there were three kinds of Beirdd,^ Pri- 
varddy Pofvardd, and Arroyddvard. The Priveirdd were 
' Merlin Silveller, Merlin AmbroCuS| and Talioilin $ and 

3 the 

Mr. Jcnes^s Anfwtrs to Mr. Tau^s ^^ons. 131 

the reafon they were called Priveirdd was, becaufe they 
invented, found out, and taught fuch philofophy and learn* 
ing, as was never heard of or read by any men before, 
and the interpretation of the word Prlvairdd is prince or 
firft learner or learned man. For this word Barill was 
attributed to all kind of learned men, and profeflbrs of 
learning and propheciers, as Privardd, Po/vardd, Arroydd- 
vard^ bard telyriy and as they call Merlin Ambrofius hy 
the name of Bardd Gortheyrn^ that is, Ck)rtheyrn or Vorti- 
ger his philofopher or learned man or prophecier ; Batd 
Tdyn is he that is doftor of the Muficians of the harp, aqd 
is the chief harper in the land, having his abode in tb€ 
Ivipg's palace ; and note, no man may be called Privardd^ 
l)ut he that inventeth fuch karaing ^nd arts ac fcience, as 
were never taught before. % 

The fecond kind of Bardd is Pofvarddy and'thofe were 
Afterward called Prydiddion, for they did but iniitatc, fal- 
low, and teach that which the Priveirdd had fet forth, 
and mufl take their author from one of them. For th^y 
themfelves are no authors but learpers, regifters, a^d 
teacl^ers of the arts and learning firft fet forth by the ^ri- 
veirdd. The third kind was Jrrcyddvardd^ that i§ by ia- 
terpretatipn an enjive Bardd or learned man^ and in^Jeed is 
a herald at arms, and his duty was to declare the genea- 
logy and blaze the arms of nobles and princes, and to keep 
the record of them, and to alter their arms according to 
their dignities and deferts. Thefe were with the kings and 
. priqces i?i ^U battles and fights : as for their garments I 
think they were Ipng garments, fuch as the Prydiddion had; 
for they challengp the name of Beirdd^ ut fupra. Where- 
as. fome writers, and, for the moft part, all iforeign writer© 
that make mention of Beirdd, ^o write, that Bardd had his 
name given him from one Bardus, a ipan's name, that was 
the firft inventor of Bdrddonietb, and fome fay that he was 
tjie fourth king of Britain : I fay, that it is a moft falfe, 
erroneous, and fab^lov»? furmife of foreign writers. For 
there never was any of that qame, that ever .was either 
|dng or king's fon of Britain. But there w^ a great fcho- 

132 Mr. Joneses jinfwirs to Mr. XaU^s ^ueftiofff. 

lar, and aa inventor of both poetical verfes and mafol 
leflbns, that was fometimes the king of Britain, and his 
name was Blegywryd ap Celfyllty and he was the 56. fupe- 
rior king of Great Biitain, and died in the 2067. year after 
the deluge, of whom it is written that he was the fa- 
moufeft mufician that ever was in Britain. Tjicre is no 
writer that can (hew that Bardd had his name from Bardus, 
but that it is a primitive Britifh word which hajh theafore- 
faid fignifications and interpretations : and Barddometh, 
which is the art, funftion, or profeifion of the Bardd, is 
nfcd for prophecy and the interpretation of prophecy, and 
alfo for all kind of learning amongft us that the Beirdd 
were authors of. 

5. As for the fifth queftion, the king had always a chief 

' judge refident in his court ready to decide all controveriies 
that then happened, and he was called Egnat llys. He 
had fome privilege given him by the king's houfliold 

' officers, and thereforef he was to determine their caufes 
gratis; and as for the tri anhibkor if renin, I think it fuper- 
fluous to fet it here, feeing you have it in my book of laws 
more perfeft than I can remember it at this time. Look 
for it in the t^ble ajnongft the trioedd Kyfraith, and thofe 

' are fet down in two or three feveral places of the book, and ' 
if you cannot find it there, fee in the office of E^nat llys, 
or Pen teidii, or Yffeiriaid llys, and you fhall be fure to find 
It in fome of thofe places. I do not find in iny book of 
Jax^'s that her« were any officers for the law that did dwell 
jn the king's palace, but only his Egnat llys that was of 
any name, or bore any great office, for he was one of the 
7/"j anhebkor brenin^ 
Kgnat -As for the fixth queftion, I fay that there were refident 

Comdt. in the country but Egnat Comot, that I can underftand By 
the law. But when an aflembly met together for the title 
of lands, then the king in his own perfon came upon the 
land, and if the king could not then come, he appointed 
fome deputy for him, and there came with the king his 
chief judge, and called unto him his Egnat Komot or coun- 
try judge, together with fome of his council th^t di<J dwdl 


jM^. Jone^s Jnfwers to Mr. Tate^s ^leftions. %%% 

.^in the Kamot where the lands lay that were in controverfy^ 
aad the freeholders olfo of the fame place, and there came 
A prieft or prelate, two counfellors, and two Rhingill or 
jerjeants, and two chaqipions, one for the plaintiff, and 
another for the defendant ; and W»hen all ihefe were aflem- 
;)bled together, the king or hisdepaty viewed the land, and 
>ind then wheo they had viewed it, they caufed a round 
mount .to be caft up, and upon the fame was the judgment 
feat placed, having his back jtoward the fun or the weathen 
-Some of thefe mounts were made fquare, and fome round, 
J and both round and fquare beai' the name of Corfedde vy 
dahky that is, the mount of pleading. Some alfo have the 
name of him that was chief judge or deputy to the king in 
that judicial feat, and it was not lawful to make an aflembly 
any where for title of lands, but upon the lands that were ia 
controverfy. Thefe Gorfedde are in our country, and many 
other places .to be feen to this day, and will be ever, if they 
J)e not taken down by mens hands. They had two forts of 
witnefles, the one was Civybyddyeid^ and the other Amhi" 
niogeu. The Cwyhyddyeid were fuch men as were born 
in the Komot where the lands that were in controverfy lay, 
and pf their own perfeft knowledge did know that it was 
the defendants right, and j4mhimogeu were fuch men as 
had their lands mereing on the lands that were in contro- 
verfy, and hemmed at thofe lands; and the oath of one of 
thofe Jpibiniogeu otherwife called Keidweid, was better 
.than the oath of twain that were but Cwyhyddyeid. Look 
in the table of my book of Jaws for the definition of Keid^ 
weid, Jmbiniogeu, and Cvjybyddyeid^ and how the king 
did try his caufes, and that will manifefl it more at large. 
The Mayer and the Kangelloivr had no authority amongft 
the Britons for any lands but the king's lands, and they 
were to fet it and let it, and to have their circuit amongft 
the king's tenants, and they did decide all controverfies 
that happened amongft them. Vide in the table of my 
book of laws for the definition oi Mayers and Kangellowr. 

7. To the feventh queftion I fay, that there were in this 
}and aboiit zoa. fuperial kings that governed this land 


IJ4 Mr. Joneses Anfwers ia Mr. ^ate^s ^tfilons. 

fucceffivcly, and that were of the Britifli blood, yet notr 
withftandiog there were under them divers other princcj 
that had the names of kings, and did ferve, obey, and be- 
long to the fuperial king, as the king of Jlbariy or Prydyriy 
or Scotland, the king of Kymhcry or IVales^ the king of 
Gwynedd or Fenedotiay yet notwithftanding» the fame law 
and government yras ufed in every prince or king's dominioii 
as was in the fuperiai king's proper dominion, unlefs it 
were that fome cuftom or privilege did belong to fome 
place of the kingdom niore than to another : and every in- 
ferior king was to execute the law upon all traafgreflbrs 
'that ofieaded in their dominion. 

In the time of Kajfibelanros there arofe fome controverfy 
between the fuperial king KafwallawM and Ao^rwyd 
king of London, one of his Inferior kings, about a murder 
comixlitced. The cafe is thus. The fuperial king keeping 
his cdurt within the dominion of one of the inferior kings, 
a controverfy falling between twain within the coort, 
theVe and then one was flain. The queAion is^ whether 
the murderer ought to be tried by the officers and privir 
lege of the fuperior king, or of the inferior king ? I think 
that the murder ought to be tried by the law and cuftom 
of the inferior king's court; becaufe it \% more feemly that 
the fuperior king's court, which did indure in that country 
but a week or twain, or fuch like time, fhould lofe his pri- 
vilege there for that time,, than the inferior king's court 
(hould lofe it for ever. Vide in Ubro meo de legibuf. It 
may feem to thofe that have judgment in hiAories, that 
this wte the Very caufe that Averwyd would not have his 
kinfmaa tried by the judges and laws or privilege of Kaf- 
^allatDftef whofe court did remain in the dominion of 
Jverwyd but a little while ; but WQuld have the fellow 
tried by his Judges and his court. There is no mentioq 
made of Talaith any where amongft the Britons before the 
deftrudltbn of Britain, but that there were in Britain but 
one fuperial crown, and Teleiih or coronets oc prince 
crowns, one for the Alban^ another for Waks^ and. the 
ibtrd for K^rniw or Cornwale. . There wece divers others 


Mr, jonis^s Anfwers to Mr* taU^s ^eflhns. 1 J5 

tailed kings of Dyved in South Wales, the kings of Kre* 
digion, and fnch : and yet were called kings, and their 
countries were divided as you Ihall fee m the next 

8. To the eighth queftion I fay, that according to the 
primitive law of this land that Dyfiiwal Moel Mvd made, 
for before the laws of Dyfnival Moel Mvd^ the Trojan 
laws and eiirtoms were ufed in this land, we cannot 
tell what divifion of lands they had, nor what officer but 
the Druclioh. He divided all this land according to this 
manner, thus I Trihud j y \ gronin haidd \ or thrice the Hydcs. 
length of one barley corn, maketh a Modved, or inch, 3 | i^^h. 
Modvedd or inches rtiaketh a Pdlfo, or a paira Palfo, a hand breadth* 
of the hand, 3. Palfo or palm raaketh a Troed- Twedvcdd/afoot. 
vedd or foot, 5. feet or Troedvedd maketh a 
kant, or pace, or a ftride, 3. Kam or ftrides to ^am, aftridc. 
the naidot leap, 3. Naid or leap to the Crwnn^ Grwnn, a but-brcadth. 
that is, the bread A of a but of land, or tir^ ^tndmUof 
thofe tir maketh Mii tir, that is, a thoufatid fir or mile, ^I'j'*^''' * 
and that was his meafure for length, which hath been ufed 
from that time to thl^ day, and yet : and for fuperficial 
meafuring he made 3. hid^ gronin, haid, or barley corn 
length to the Modvedd or inch, 3. Modvedd or inch to the 
Palf ox hand breadth, 3.i^ft^to the Troedvedd or foot, 
4. Troedvedd OT foot to the yeriav or the Aort yoke, 
8. Troedifedd or foot to the NeidaVy and 11. Troedvedd or 
foot in th6 (resfiiliavr, and 16. Troedvedd in the Hiriav, 
A poJe or rod (o long, that is 16. feet long, is .the 
breadth of an iicre of land,' and 30. poles or rods of that 
fcogth, IS the lehgth of an Erw or acre by the £*"*'• Akcr. %. akcr or j. 
law, and four Ertv ot acre maketh a TydJyn or c«fto'm ofpiacel ^^ ^^^ 
meflTaage, and four of that Tyddyn or mefltiage tyddyn, 

maketh a Rhandir, and foo'r of thofe Rhandiredd R^andir. 

maketh ti' Gafel oc tenement or hoult, and four d^el oafc*. 
makerh a Tref or towoftiip,' and Four Tref or townihips Trcf. 
maketh "a Maenol or Maenor^ and 12. Maenol or Maenor Macnot. 
znd droy ihf\ or two lowndiips maketh a Kivmivd ov 
Comoti tod ttro fOwm-wd or tomot maketh a Kantref or Ka-itref, 



Mr. Joneses Jnfivcrs to Mr. TaU^s ^ejltm: 

Cantredy that is, a hundred towns or townfhips. Bj* 
this reckoning, every Tyddyn containeth 4. Erw, every Rhan» 
dir containeth 16. Erujy and every Gafel containeth 64. 
Erwy every town or townfhip containeth 256. Erw or 
acres ; thefe Erws were fertile arable land^ and neither 
ineadow nor pafture nor woods, for there was nothing 
ineafured but fertile arable ground, and all others were 
termed wafles. Every Maenol containeth four of thefe 
toWn(hips, and every Kwrnivt containeth 50* of thefe' 
townfhips, and every Cantred 200. of thefe townfhips, 
whereof it hath his name, and all the countries and lords 
dominions were divided by Cantrjfiy or Cantre, and to 
every of thefe Cantr^ds, ComotSy Maenors, Townes, and , 
Cafelsy were given fome proper names : Civlad or Cuntrey 
•was the dominion of one lord or prince, whether the 
Cwiad were one Cantred, or 2, or 3, or 4, or more ; fo 
that when I fay he is gone from Gwkd to Cwlad, that is, 
from country to country, it is meant that he is gone from 
one lord or prince's dominion to another prince*s dominion : 
as for example, when a man commltteth'an offence la 
Cwynedd or North Wales, which containeth 20. Cantreis^ , 
and fleeth or goeth to Powys, which is the name of ano- 
ther country and princess dominion, which containeth 20. 
other Cantredsy he is gone from one country or dominionf 
to another, and the law cannot be executed upon him, iot 
he is gone out of the country. 

Teginges is a country, and containeth but one Centred^ 
and Dyfrvn Clwyd was a country, and did contain but oncf 
Cantred \ and when any did go out of Tegenges to Dyfrvn 
KIwyd, for to flee from the law, he went- put from one 
country to another, ^nd fo every prince or lord's dominipn 
was Givlad or country to that lord or prince. So that 
Cwlad is Pagus in my judgment. Sometimes a Kantred 
doth contain 2* Comots, fometimes 3, or 4, or 5. as the 
Cantrefe of Glamorgan or Morganwy containeth 5 Comots : 
After that the Normans had won fome parts of the 
country, as one lord's dominion, they conftituted in that 

fame place a Senefcall or a Steward, and that was called ia 


Jl/r. Jmes^s Anfvms to Mr. Tatt^s ^efiim. 137 

the Briti(h tongue S^wyddogy that is^ an officer,, and xhc 
lordfhip that he was fteward of, was called Swydd or offiire, . 
and of thefe Swyddev were ipade ihires ; and Swydd ip an 
o£ce be it great or foudl^ and Swyddog is an. officer : lik<- 
wiie of all plates, as a (heriffis n,Sivydd(fg^ and his fherifT- 
ihip or office, ^nd tb^ fliire whereof he is flierifT, is called 
Swyddy fo that Swydd doth contain as well the jQiire as the 
office <rf a (hcx'iff, as Swydd y^nnoytbig is the (hire or <)ffice 
of the fteward, iisQefcall, oriberifTof Salop, t^c. 

p. As for the ninth queflion : the greatefl and higbefjl: 
degree was Brenin or Teyen^ that is, a king ; and next to '• Brenhia 
him was s^ X'^ybgy that is, a duke; and next to bim was ».Twyiog. 
n JarUt that is, an earl; and next to him was an 3, Jarll. 
^rgtwydd, that is, a lord ; and next to him was ^* Arglwydd. 
a BarwHy and that I read leaft of ; and next to 5. Barwn. 
that is the Breir.QxVchelwr, which .may be called £wbcm1Lw^5* 
a fqjuire ; next to this is a Cwreangs^ th^t is^ ^ #. Breir Uchciwr. 
yeoman ; and next to that is an 'Alltud^ and e!-Su!S"^*' 
next to that z.-Kaeth, which is a flave, and that 9- Kaeth. 
is the meaneft amongft theie nine ijpv.eral degrcjes: and theie 
9. Degrees bad 3. fevesal tenures of lands, as Maerdir^ 
Uchelordirt Priodordir, There be alfo other names ^nd 
degrees, which be gotten by birth, by office, ^nd by ,dig- 
nity, but they all arecoatained under the nine aforefaid de- 
grees. ■ * . 

lo. As for the tenth qucftVm, I d^ not find, por have Aflich^ 
not read neither to my knowledge in any chronicle, law, 
hiftory or poetry and dictionary, any fuch word, but I find 
in the laws and chronicles,, and in many other places this 
word Rhaith (obe ufed for the oath of zoo. men, gr 200. 
jnen, or 3.00. or fiich like number, for to excnfe fome 
heinous £a^, and the more heinous was the faA the more 
men mud be had in the Rhaith to excufe it, and one muf): 
be a chief man to excufe it amongfl them, and that is called 
Penrhaithf as it were the foreman of the jury, and he muft 
be the befl, wi(eft, and difcreetefl of all the others ; and 
Xo tpy remembrance the Rheithwyry that is, the men of 
the Rhaith^ muft be of thofe that are next of kio, and beflc 
Vo2«. L S known 

13? Mr. Joneses Anfwers tp Mr. Taie^s ^eftions. 

|cnown to the fuppofed offenders to excufe him for the 

11. As for the eleventh queflion, I fay, that I find a 
Ac ward and a contrpuler tp be ufed for z dtftain in my die? 
tionary. I cannot find any greater definition given it any 
"Where, than is given it in my book of laws. Vide Diftain 
in the table of my book pf la\vs. 

12. To the twelfth queftion, I iky that the Britons had 
many councils, and had their (tounfellors fcattered in all 
the lordflilps of the land, and ^hen any controverfy or oc- 
cafion of council happened in Swynedd^ the king called hi$ 
founfellors that had' their abode there, for to counfel for 
matters depending there, together with thofe that were 
there of his court or guard ; for the king had his chief 
judge, and certain of his council always in his company, 
and when the king had any occafion of counfel for matters 
depending in Demetia, or PowySy or Cornwally he called 
thofe of his council that dwelled in thofe coafts for to coun- 
fel with them^ and they went to a certain private houfe or 
tower on the top of a hill, or fome fblitary place of council 
-far diftant from any dwelling, and there tpok their advice 
unknown to any man but to thecounfellors thcmfelves, and 
Jf any great alteration or need of counfel were that did per- 
tain to all the land, then the king af&fted unto him all his 
counfellors to fome convenient place, for to take their a4r 
vice, and that happened but very fcldqm. 


Tbt Duiy and Offia of an Herald of Arms. 139 



A Difcourfe of the Duty and Office of ari 
Herald of Arms, written by Francis 
Thynne, Lancafter Herald, the Third 
liay of March, Anno 1605. 

My ver^ good Lord, 

THAT cruel tyrant the uBmerciful ^out, which 
triumphetb over all thofe that are fubjcA to hiiti of 
what eflate foever, taking on him, in that part to be a god^ 
becaufe he refpefteth too perfon, hath fo paiofulljr irnpri-* 
foned me in my bed, maniiacled niy hands, and fettered my 
feet to the Iheets, that I came not out therecff fince I faW 

, * ( 

your lordlhip oh ChriAma^ Eve; But having by mere 
force at length fhaken off. the inatinacles froih my hands, 
(although I am ftill tied by the feet) I have now at the laft 
(which I pray God may be the laft troubling my hand with 
the gout) attempted the performance of my promife fib 
your iordfhip, and db hj&re fend you a chabs add c;onfufed 
rhapfody of notes, which your lordihip, as ati expert 
alchymift, muft fublinie and redtify. But' though it be 
plain bigurur or a cdat of divers colour^, I doubt not but 
this variety of matter (hall in fome fort be pieafing to your ' 
judgment, as variety of colours aye pleafing t;o the eye- 
But of this/i/ij fupetqwe^ praying you to pardon my pre- 
fumptuous follies (if they be follies) which hereenfue. 

lii the height of the Roman government, and pride of riiciccoft^ 
their glory, the fetiator which had confumed his poflcffions, JJ^q^^^''^ 
(whereby he was to maihtain the ftate l^d upon him) was 
removed from the fenate, whereof Roilhusiirff ^^riyz^/Vufi* 
bus Roma ^ lib. 7.- tap. 5. but of Ci.cero his Epiftle ni ^ 
Valerium thus writeth : Laudatur autem cenfus in Senati^^ 
fie fplendor Atnpliffimi Ordinis Ret famlliarii angujiiis ^bfcu- 
retuf Geterum autemangu/bum Cinfum Sfnatorium SrJ^ 
tcrti6m 800. millia fuiffcj eumqne ab Augufio ampliatum 

S 7, docent 



Tbe Duty and Office of an Herald cf Arms. 

decent Suetonius ' ^ Dio : tteque folum ftquis Senatorium 
Cenfum non haheret^ Senator Ugi non poterat s fed Ji pofi" 
quam eleSius ejfet^ Cenfum labeftiSidffet^ ordinem amittebat. . 
For the baftslrds bearing of antts, there is no queftion^ 
htkt of What kind foever they be, tbc^ CftntK)t by the law of 
England bear any arms. For no man can inherit things 
annexed to the bloody but fuch as are interefted in the 
blood, which baftards are not. For they are not any man's 
children, but^/« popuii, eSr concepti ex prohibito coitu. 
Yet cuftom following the example of nations, doth by cur- 
tefy of fbe law of arms caft upon them fome pre-eminence 
to be adorned with the enfigns of his reputed father, if 
he carry his father's name : if not, but that he be invefted 
With his mother's name, (though the world take notice of 
his reputed father) yet (hall he ha^e nothing to do with his 
arms, tmlefs he aflhmeth the name of his father, and then 
ihall he bear the arms with a baftard difference, according 
to his difference of bailardy, whereof there are xii. 
kinds, as foUoweth s 

1. He that is born of unmarried parties, that never after 

2. He that is born of a married father^ and a woman 

3^ Of a father married, bat having iio lawful children. 

4. Of a married father, but hath children. 

5. Of an unmarried father, and a widow. 

6. Of an unmarried father, and a married woman* 

7. Of a religious man, and an unmarried woman. 

8. Of a religious man,, and a married woman. 7. 
-.9. Of an unmarried fadier and his kinfwomao, between 

Wh^m martfegc is forbidden* by fhcrlawc. '-^ 

to. Of a married father and his kinfwoman in any de* 

gree of MConftDguinity^ / 

II. He that is begotten of a. known woman, and an un* 

kkown father. 
' ' 12^ He that is born of unmarried perfons, which after 

Dlarfjr^' being baftards in our law, though sot in the civil. 


^ ^.i-l*- 

:4« f 



^e Duty dnd Offict ofnn BeraU ^f Arm. 141 

All which ia bearing of arms, muft obfenre their peca* 
liar differences well known {or at the lead, that ou^t ta 
\k well known) to the heralds, although I foppofe few ac 
none of us know it. For thefc arc Arcana knperii Heralds 
rum, and muft be kept as fecret as the ceremonies of the 
Eleufine goddefs, or Cabala of the Jews, the divulgii^ of 
which and fuch like matters, with the printed books of 
arms and -armory, (which fhould be locked within the 
walls of the heralds office, and not publifhed to the ce&fiuie 
of each man) maketh every man as cunning as themlelves, 
and bringeth the heralds place into fmall cre(fit. For I 
End (I will only give inftance of myfeif ) that I am of lets 
efteem, fince I came into that office, than I was before. 
For I feel the office bath fomewhat difgraced me, in ib 
much, that now by the lewd demeanor of fome, the name 
of herald is become odious, atid will fall to the ground if 
your lordfhip, whofe honourable mind and painful endea* 
Tour do tie all the heralds to acknowledge them your nevr 
framed, or at leaft revived creatures, do not put to yonr^ 
helping hand, and continue the credit of the office, and of 
fuch officers as fhall deferve wdi. 

Arms cannot be alienated, as long as any of the family t^ sfie- 
is living; that is, fo long as any of the male line hath natin^^rf 
being* For the males are only of the line and family of 
argnation, and not the females, being called forores, quafi, 
feorfum nata, and as it were bom out of the right way, or 
lines, fo that the Jlirps agnafhnisy which is the male, isdifie* 
lent itomflirps cognatioms, which is the fine feminine, as I 
have hitherto conceived it. And therefore fo long as any of 
the male line is living (for they have all intereft in the arms» 
as they have in the blood) none can fell the arms of his fa- 
mily. For, as CafTanaeus faith i|bi& Traftate of arms, tfi 
quoddamjus port are arma Jpe6lar^mnicutque de agnations ir 
,/amilid, quod nm vidHur tranjire extra Ulam, ^uum Jint 
Arma invent a ad cognofcendas agnathnes, Jamilias^ (sf «&* 
mus noffllium, funt nomina ad cognofcendas tfyfnines. And 
Bartolus addeth, ftcut per tejlamentum^ fi effet aliquid re* 

Uaum (familueX ini£ftinQe non mmnando perjonas familia, 

- illad 

J,, .^ - • -'• 


I4i Sl&f Duty and Office of ah Her aid of Arms. 

Ubid tranfiret adeos defamilia gradatim, ita quod non poffit 
per Ulud alienari : jic Arma' alicui famUia data non nomi^ 
nando perfonas familia difiin&a, ad eos tamen dk fdmilia 
tran/eant, ita quod non poffit dlUnari: who further \^riteth^ 
^uod Jlarite aliqua de agnations, familia, vel domo, habeh' 
fes aliqua Arma, h tempore cujus initii memoria non extat 
in contrarium, quod talia Arma non poffunt vendi, aut alie- 
nari, quocunque titulo in prejudicium illorum de familia^ 
domo aut agnatione. 

According to which, it feemeth the law of arms was in 
England in times paft ; for that he which bad but only 
daughters, or one daughter to fucceed him, might have 
licence of the king to alien his name or arms to any other 
for the prefervation of the memory of them both, as ap* 
peared in the cafe of the lord Deincourt in the time of Ed- 
ward the fecond, whereof the record is thus in the patent 
rolls 10. E. 2, part 2. mem. 13. Hex ^c. f^lutem* 
Sciatis quod quum pro eo quod dile^us isc, Jidelis nojler Ed^ 
mUndus Deincourt advertebat dr conje^lurabat, quod Cogno- 
men fuum, if ejus arma poji mortem fuam in perfona Jfu" 
bella^Jilia Edmundi Deincourt heredis ejus npparentis, i 
memoria delerentur, ac corditer affeBavit^ quod Cognomen^ 
is Armafuay pojl mortem ejus in memoria in pqflerum habe*- 
rentur, ad requijitionem pradiEii Edmundi, ^ ob grata, if 
laudabilia fervitia, qua bona memoria domino Edwardo^ 
quondam Regi Anglia, patri nojlro, is nobis impendit, per 
literas nojlras Patentes conceffimusy if licentiam dederimus^ 
pro nobis if heredibus nqfiris, eidem Edmundo, quod ipfe de 
omnibus maneriis ifc. qua de nobis tenet in capite feoff are 
poffit quemcunque velit ifc. Out of the preamble of which 
deed, we gather (as before is faid) that, becaufe he had a 
daughter which could not preferve his memory, that h? 
might alien his name and arms according to the law, be*^ 
caufe none dejlirpe agnationis was living to forbid the fame* 
But withal it is gathered, that he could not alien the famef 
without licence^ of the prince, (who might difpenfe with 
the law) * but becaufe the law and cuftonv had permitted! 

• sic. Bed but forfan dtltri dcitU 

.7 that 

7'be Duty and Office of an Herald of Armsl 143 

that women fhould inherit with us, both lands, honour, 
name, and arms, and quod confuetudo Jat, homo tolUre non 

On this point there be divers opinions repugnant each to How the 
other ; whereof one is, that of the reverend herald of our u*"*?'?^' 

' ' heir to her 

age Robert Glover Somerfet, who in his book, de differeu': mothcr,the 
tiis Armorum, faith, that ibe during her own life fliall ^"a^^feScr 
bear.her father's coat quartered with her piother*s. His father's 
words be thefe : In hoc cafu quo quis Viri noiifis Jlliam i^ hcTfathcr* 
heredem uxorem duxerit^ fcf ex ea unicam fufcfperit fiUam^ ^ * fo» 
Materrii cenfus^ is bereditatis heredem futuram i if per cond wife. 
aliam uxorem genuerit filium patema bereditatis. heredem^ 
diSIa jilia heredis pradxEia durante vita Jua^ tanquam filter 
legitima tf naturalis utriufque parentis^ eorum portabtt 
Arma quateriatim feu quadrifarie incorporata^ fed liberif 
ab eo progenitis permittifuf' tantummodo delatio Armorvm - 
bereditarie iliis ab, eorum Avia defcendentibus : fed in contrar 
riumftepe vidimus ah imperitis, nuHnratigne proptereafaSa 
fulcire valefitibus. 

But faving correction, I cannot as yet be induced to per- 
mit the daughter during her life to bear her father and 
mother's arms quartered ; becaufe quartering denotetji a 
fettled inheritance of the arms of both thefe boufes 10 that 
pcrfon that beareth them fo quartered ; which cannot be 
in her, becaufe the^brpther muft carry the )arms of the fa- 
ther from her. Beiides; (he in that doth wrong to the 
heir male, in the father's arms, becaufe it wholly belongeth 
to him. Wherpfore, for my part, I rather incline to the 
opinion of othef ; and amongft others to Gerarde X^eigh, 
who in his accidence of armory doth write, that if (he will 
needs carry her father's coat (to (hew from whence (he is 
dcfcended) (he muft carry them in the chief of her arms, 
as he there fetteth do^n the example. But howfoever, 
(he may bear the coat of her father during her life, dther 
quartered, with her own, as Somerfet hatb Tatd; or in 
chief of her own, as Leigh hath ; or in canton, ^s other? 
^old (and that not improbable) : yet they all agree, that 

144 72r HiOj md Office of an Herald of Arm. 

ha iflTac cao no way have to do with the arms of the 
graodfathcr, hut only with the arms of the. grandmother : 
and therefore the lord marquis cannot by any opinion bear 
the arms of Howard ia aoy wbatibevcr order, notwith- 
ibfidiog his mother fliould bear them in any of theie three 
VknUs* Thefe men being called by divers names were men of 

great efteem in former ages, beiog ibmetime named, bvt 
by fome part of their fuaAion. But now in this word 
Herald (which fignifieth the old lord or mafier, and is calW 
ia L^atia, veteranusj of his years and experience) are con- 
tained all the other names, and fuo^ions, which do ex* 
frefs feme part of hk office* For he is called Fvcialisy a 
Thettvenl f<xdert faciendo^ in denouncing wars or making peace ; he 
^fjt ^^'^ is called Nuncius Stgh^ becaufe of one part of his office, 
coPtiUsg tf> which is to go on the king's meflage. So that, he which ia 
fartf«#** the Saxons time went on the king's meflage, was the fame 
^carfiincw tnat OUT CKiw herald is, and held the fame place of a great 
SacdS°" perfon. He is called Caduceator of one part of his ofBce, 
«nciiame which IS to deal in matters of peace, and therefore h^th 
hrs Cdthtcetis or white Bq/lon (omitted now, as many other 
thhigs are in his creation) » The difference of which Fosci* 
aUs and CaduceaUr^ is fet down by Francifcus Philelphus 
in his epiftles in this fort : ITu fcire quid interfit inter fgp- 
iiales if Caduceatores ; Foeciales eos fuijfe apudpri/coSy qui 
eerio Juris foktrmitate BeUum bqftibus indicekant, ^ Cadu* 
eeat§rei ejjfe pacis Legates di^os a Caduceo quern nu^nus gejia-- 
hat : whkh Caduceus Apollo gave to Mercury the herald 
of the gods to bear, when he went on their meflage. 
This herald is alfo called Prg^o ; becaufe he is to denounce 
ills lords proclamation and meflageSi the praifes of valiant men, 
in peace ; and therefore, in blazon of the arms of any, b^ 
flinft blaze rhem to the honour and praife of the bes^rer^ iinpe 
HeraldttSf as one writetb, ^ Praeo virtutpm^ pgn vifloriar 
rwn hominum. And yet I find the name Heraldus ip Latin Qot 
anctenter than ^neas Sylvias, and no ancienter mentioned 
^ongft us than ihe ftatute of £. i. wh^ri^ o^utiqa \% 


^ie Dutj and Office of an Herald of Arms. ^ %4S 

ia^ade, de Roy des heraz. But I fuppofe I (hall find the 
officer, though dot the name, in the time of Henry the 3**. 
if I miftake it not. • 

What their place, Credit, and worth have been in for- 
mer ages, (when honour was refpe6led more than now) is 
declared in the honourable ceremonies at their creation. 
For The fame ought to be by the prince only, (or by com- 
miflion efpeci;il from him, for that purpofe ;) for fo had' 
the laft duke of NorfF, always a warrant from queen Eliza- 
beth, and upon fome feftival days ; the order whereof Ge- 
rard Leighe fetteth down then in this fort. The prince Thecrca-^ 
then afketh the herald whether ht be a gentleman of herald. "All 
blood, or of a fecond coat armour. If he be not, the ^l*«^cralds 

' ' muft be 

king.endueth him with lands or fees, and ailigneth to him gentlemen, 
and to* his heirs congruent arms. Then like as the mefTen- "^^ j^'J^* 
ger is brought in by the herald of his province, fo is the arms given 
purfuivant brought by the eldeft herald, who, at the com- ha*v*c*aoae.^ 
mandment of the prince, doth all the folemnities, as to re- 
turn the coat of arms, fetting the maunches thereof on the 
arms of the faid purfuivant, and putting about his neck a 
collar of SSSS. the one S.' being arg-^vz/, the other fable, *r|j« ^? 
and when he IS named, the prince himfelf taketh the cup ofsss. for 
from the herald, which cup is all gilt, and poureth the ^**c herald. 
water and wine upon the head of the faid purfuivant, 
creating him by the name of our herald : and the king 
when the oath is miniftered, givcth the fame cup to the 
pew herald, of whofe creation fpeaketh alfo Upton. For 
the kings of heralds the collars ought to be one S. of gold 
aad one other of filver, and fo (hall your lordftiip find ii^ 
aB their iftonuments where they are buried, that their pic-^ 
tnrcs ai:e adorned n^ith fuch collars, as appeareth £^lfo io the 
funeral obfequies of William Aukflowe Clarencieulx^ 
whereof I fiad this remembered in writing at that time, 
fist down. 

*^ MetMrandam jinm Domini 1476. the viith of May ifcland 
*.* were the funerals of William Aukflow, otherwife called- ^^^^^ 
** Ciarencteulx king at arms, whom was right worftiipful* 
<* afw his degree ; his crown offered by treland king at 

Vol. I. T " arms ; 



at arms . 
•wtfrc ma(?c 

The heralds 
office. He- 
ralds are to 
make pur- 

Every he- 
rald is to 
wear his 
coat armour 

Tb£ Duty and Office cf an Herald of Arms. 

** arms ; his own coat by Windfor herald ; his collar by 
" Fawlcon herald, the king's coat remaining always upon 
" the hearfc : and when mafs was done, his wife ordained 
" a right wor'^ dinner, where were all the officers of arms, 
** with their \vi\es, that would come, and divers citizens." 

For the cup there needs no further proof, than thei re- 
cords of the king's houfe, where 1 have fcen it fet d<Twn, 
although I now remember not in what place, that the he- 
cald had his cup given unto him. 

In fuch eftimation were the heralds in times paft, in the 
reign of Hen. 5. and Hen. 6. that purfuivants might be 
created knights 5 and therefore Upton de militari officio lib* 
I. cap, ii. writeth; Et eft fciendurriy quod titmcii pro/ecutores 
pqffiint effe Milites^ d5f militaribus gaudere injigniis^ feT 
deauratis uti Velvet, eb dliis pannis aureis indui ; non ta- 
men funt nobiles, Hf tales vocatitur Milites LviguareSf quia 
eorum pracipuus honor eft in cuftodia Lingua. And how the 
heralds and purfuivants ftould weat the arms of their matter, 
is exprefled in thefe four verfes : 

Cin&orio Scutum dicas deferre Pedintmt, 
Sic equitis dignum fert fcapula dexter a Signuniy 
Sed humero leva detulit profecutor ab avo^ 
^JJi Heraldorumjiat pe6lore fons titulbrum. 

Their office is alfo by Upton lib. i. fdr. xi i*. partly de- 
clared thus : Sunt alii Nuntii Viaiores qui Heraldi Artriorum 
nunpuppLntur^ quorum officium eft minores Nuncios creare^ 
utfuperius didiwn eji ; multitudinem populi faciHter nume* 
TAre ; TraBatus inter Principes Matrimoniales if pacis in* 
choare i diverfa regna is Regiones vijitare s Mititiam' hdno* 
tarcy if Jingulis ABibus Militaribus intereffe ; defiderare 
clamores pubHco'tW. proclamationes in Torneamentis, 6 Jin* 
gulis A^bus Militaribus drdinare ; fideUm negotioYian rela^ 
tionem inter hoftes deferre^ if niutrifavere parti in A&ibut 
Bctticisy out, in pugna qu,a inter duu aiiquaridonobihs geri" 
tvr inclufos : fed omnia per fuperiorem parti, vel partibut 
mandata^ feu a parte, parti fideliter if fine palliatione tun- 
dare, if ifti debent portare tunicam Armorum dominorum 

* fuorum. 

The D^y and Office of an Herald of Arms. I4jr 

fitorurHy ir eifdem indui eodem modoy Jicut Domini fui cum in J*^ battle, 

confli^ibus fuerint vel Torncamentis^ cut aliis periculis beU neys. ^ 

. licis, vel cUm per alias Regiones extraneas equitaverint, when he- - 

Item in ConvivUsy maritagiis^ ac Regum fff Reginarum Cp' "Ids arc 

ronationibus, isf Principum, Ducum, ^ aliorum Magnorum wear their 

.Dominernm folempnitatibus, Dominorum fuomm Tunicis uti ^^^^^ ®^ 
pojfttntf ^ tenentur in Regionibus 6" Regnis licet extraneis^ 
ad honorem fuorum <3 magnificentiam Dominorum. Some 
things in thi$ difcourfe I think worthy to touch. 

Firft, that heralds might create inferior officers ; as Lion Obfcrva- 

king of arms of Scotland doth at this day make his infe- upton an 

rior officers. ancient hc- 

Secondiy, Aat he be at all tornements^ tyltes, &fc. And -^1 x:^ * '* 
therefore (as I note in other cuftoms) they ought to have 
whatfoever of their furniture falleth from any of them that 
torney. But now will not they which newly begin to 
torney pay their fees, but further bring with them fo many 
pag^ and {ervants into the tilt, that they take the heralds 
fees of whatfoever falleth from their mailers, with oppro- 
brious fpeech to the heralds, againfl all reafon, order, and 
cuftom. For why fhould men ferve, if they may not have 
the due of their fervice ? Next, in this place I obferve, 
that the heralds were and ought to be at all marriages of 
the nobility, whereunto they are now never called, becaufe 
they ought to have the garment of the bride. And thus 
being gelded of their due fees, they cannot maintain the 
port of their calling ; or that the now garter, fiiould equal Thcfivpur. 
the garter of H. 5. his time, when garter entertained the o^/^^^^"^* 
emperor Sigifmond at hi^ houfe in Kentifti Town. For re- to heralds. 
paratioQ whereof fome have in fome fort fought to relieve 
them : and therefore king Edward 6. did by his letters pa- 
tents free them of all Ibbfidies, taxes, watches, and other 
charges of fervice ; and king R. 3. (if my memory deceive 
me not) gave them Cold harbarde houfe ; which I cannot ede bar- 
fee bow, why, or when they parted from it. Queen Mary ^"^* 
(I take it) made them, (or at-leatt confirmed them) a cor- 
^ratlon by the help, and procurement of your honourable 
brother the duke of HotS. whp alfo procured them Derby- 

T 2 Ifopfe, 

r48 T'bi Duty and Office cf an Herald 0/ Arms. 

houfe, which the^ hold at this day : and queen Ellzaberh 
gave them privileges, which I have fecn imprinted, fiib- 
fcribedy per privatum Sigillum. M4Jch more I could fay 
for the heralds, but I (hall be too tedious ; and therefore 
defire your lordfhip once more to look over the plot of the^ 
defaults of the heralds office, which I gave before to your 
lordfhip, digeAed into a brief or table. 
Fees of he- If heralds, my good lord, might truly have fees of 
t'.mcof K. every one, which gave them fees in tiroes paft, they might 
R. i. & fi. live in reafonable fort, and keep their eAate anfvverable tQ 
their place. But now (whether it be our own default, or 
the overmuch parlimony of otherSj^ or fault of the heavenSj^ 
fince by their revolutions things decay when they have 
been at the higheft, I know not) the heralds are not 
cftcemed, every one withdraweth his favour from them, 
and denieth the accuftomed dutie^ belonging unto them. 
And therefore hoping your lordihip will repair this ruined 
ilate of ours, I will fet down whatbelonged unto us in th< 
timr of K. R. 2, oqt of an old written roll which came tq 
my hands, . 

** Ces font les droits & largefTes, appurtenants & dc. 
".aunciente accuftomez aux JRoys des Armes, folouuc 
** le ufance en Roilme de Angleterre. 

At the coronation of « gt primcren^ quaju le Roy eft corone, pri- 

kiogs, this C. 1. fee hath ^, ^ , . ^^ -^ 

continued, as I have feen mermeni eft de aijnciect accuftomez a.ux Roy§ 
the privy reals of H. 7. «^ de Armes & Herotdes appertient notable & 

ztta Q. Mary. . 1^./,' 

" plentereufc LargelTe, cotne de C. 1. &c 
The fee at the king's dif- «' Item, quaut le Roy fait primercnt lever & 

pjayiii<; of his banner, *< j r t d • / 1 l ' 

** *' del poller ces Banniers |ur les phanges, apper- 

** tient iori, ditz Rpyes des Armes & as ^utre^ 
> *' Haroldes, que y fonte prefente pur lour droit 
f* C. marc. 

A fee a^ thp knighting of . *' gt quftnt le fervice de fon fitz eft.fait Chi' 
the king's eldeft Ton. . « vakr, 40, marc. 

The fee when a prince, '« Itcm, femblablemeut, quant le prince, & 
ron^oT^iTnnWcrWu " vm Duc fait Icvcr & defplaier fon Banniers, 
difpiay his banner, tf euprimet fois appcrtieot aux dits Royes de Ar- 

f mes 

Tht Duty and 0$Cd fl/ an Herald of Arms. , 149 

^-* mes & Heraulx prefeotes xx. 1. Et fi c'eft un MarqnefTe, 
^' vint markes; S'il eft Counle 10. 1. S*il eft Baron cinqde 
^* nrarks d'argeat croyns ou 15. nobles ; & s'il eft un Chi- 
** valer Bachder qui novelment foit fait Banneret; aux 
'* diiz Royes de Armes, & Heraldes prefcntes apperti'ent 
^* pf. lour droit cinque markes ou x. nobles. 

** Item, quant le Roy eft novelment efpoufe, apcrtient as The f«c«t 
'Vditz Royes Hes Armes & Henildes prefents' notable & ^l^^^ 
f^ pienteux Lairgefle 50. 1. 

" Parelliement, quant efl novelment corone, afpertient 
^' aux ditz Royes de Armes, & HeraldeSs notable Largefle, 
#* &o. 

"Item, touts & chefcune fois, que le Roync a enfant. The fees « 
" & Uenfant pcroient aux fantz fonz de Baptifme, & eft ^hiuln^at' 
^* regenere, appertient auxi a ceux Royes d'Arme^ pur churching 
^* etix & ies autres- Heraldes prefens, & devoient aver 
f* LargelTe notable foionc le trefnoblc vaieure & plefure de 
.**' h Rbyne ou des Meffeigneiirs de fon couceile : Et ont 
••* aecuftom€ avoir un fois C. 1. auter fois C. markes; 
»" autre foife plus ou rooine : & pareillement quaiK eft pu- 
^* rifle leur appertient Largefle, come defus. 

•* Item, femblablement quant le autres Princefles,' The £ccs at 
f DuchefTes, MarquefTes, & CountefTes, & BaroneflTes ont ^"h^llich'/ 
** enfens & parvienent aux fantz fontz de Baptifme & in^af 
f* fount regenerez, yceulX Royes d * armes 8c Heraldes douient a^d^mar- 
•* aver Largcfle. Et parelleraent, quant elles fon purifie, quifes, &c 
." dovicnt avoir Largefle felonc leur noble valcurc, & 


Item, toute & chefcun fcMs que le Roy porte Gorone when the 
f* k tiente eftate Royall.; en efpeciall aux quarter baut kingwcar- 
** feaftes; Ceftafcavoir NocU, Pafches, Pentecoft & toutz crown, the 
•' Saintz, dovient & appertient a chefcun des ditz Royes ^^"S* o^ 

arms arc to 

V d'Armes qui feront prefentz en la prefence du Roy allant- wear their 
" a la Meffe, a la Chappell, revenant, & auxi toutz temps ^^^^^^^^^alfo. 
** desdiffuer ; & fi dovient aver Largefle feloocque le 
f* trefnoblc plefure du Royc. 

" Item, toutz le fois qui un vierge ou Pucelle Princefle, Fees at the 
f* ou file de Due, Marquefle^ Counte^ ou Baron efte efpoufe, theao^iiity 

*' aux 


Fees at 
combats or 


New years 
ifts to the 



Tie Duty and Office of an Herald of Arm, 

*^ aux dit2 Royes des Armes .appertient le Surcoit eD quay 
'* elle avera eAe efpoufe, sllz font prefentz ; et /i Qoa aux 
** foit dame vefne appertient ou defufditz la Mantel en'quoy 
" elle fera efpoufe. 

" Item, touiz fois, & quantz fois que champ de Battayle 
" en Liftes foit a oultrancc ou autrement eft juge enter- 
'* prins & ordonne au deux Champions Ics joures que le^ 
** ditz Champions fe prefentmcnt ; & que ils font mis de- 
'' dans le Champe ordonie &'eftabili pur faire & accomplier 
*^ leure fairs d*armes> aux ditz Roys des Armes fe prefens 
•* font, & fi non aux autres Heroldes qui prefentz feront, & 
** devoiement aver le garde de fecrettz & neceffaries, que 
afcun fois furmendunt aux diiz Champions,. & pur ceo 
leure appertient et devoient avoir, fes Pavilions lefquelles 
** y ceux Champions font mis, dedans les ditz Liftes, ,Et li 
•' Tun des ditz Champions foit vanqis decjans . le dita 
" Champe, aux ditz Royes 4e Armes & Heraldes, que.pre* 
** fente feront, appertient toutz les Harnefle du ditt vanqu 
** avccque tante Tautre Harnefle que a terre foit chent: 
** Et en cas que ce ne feroit que Champe au plaifure ou 
" Juftes, appertient aux ditz Heroldes prefentz les trape 
" revers de Chuvills des ditz Champions, avecque toutes 
** les Lances rompues. 

*' Item, quant il advient, que afcune des Sqbjeiles f© 
mettons fur le Champe per manner de Rebellions contre 
le Majeftie Royal & &c. fortificnt champes ou 

*' plate ou enteocione deliverer & donner bataile, & apres 
** advient. que per appointment, ou pur paoure & orainte, 
** ou autrement ilz fe departicnt du doit Camp fortifie, ou 
*• fue ftiit fans faire afcune Battaile ; aux ditz Royes des 
** Armes, ou Heroldes qui prefens. feront, appertient & de* 
** voient avoire toute les voyis & meiifme & Jtoutz les Cha- 
" rotz Champe, tant pur le fortificacions come autrement/* 
Further at New years tide, all the noblemen and knights 
of the court did give new years gifts to the heralds, and 
out of that liberality the heralds did (and to this day do) 
give moft of the officers of thq king's houfe new years 
gifts, although thofe new years gifts. are not half fo mueh 




fbe Duty and Office of an Herald of jirms. 15 ^ 

to VIS now as they were then, when filver was but in j. 
iiii. d, and every thing prized under the third patt, that it 
is now, whereof I here fet down one inftance in the time of 
Edward the iiii***. as I find is regiftered at that time. 

Memorandum, That on the year of our Lord 148 1. the 
king our leige lord kept his Chriftmas at Windfor, and the 
queen alfo accompanied with my lord prince, firft begottea 
fon of the king : he was prince of Wales, Duke of Corn- 
wall, Counte de Marche et Flinte, et de Pembrooke, 
Of the King , vi /. 

Of the Queen iii/. vix. viii^. 

Of the Prince iii/. 

Of the duke of York the king's fecond 

ion hiiis*imd. 

Of the earl of Lincoln xx/. 

Of the marquis Doric t xxvx. 

Of the earl Rivers XL /. 

Of the lord Stanlyc great mailer of the 

houfhold XXX. 

Of the lord Hadings lord chamberlain XL x* 
Of the Bp. of Norwich xiii x. iiii d. 

Of the Bp. of Chichefter ^ xiii x. iiii d. 

Of the Bp. of Rochefter. x x. 

Of the Lord Souche xiii x. Iiii d. 

Of the lord Dacres Chamberlain to the 

••• •••• ■ 

queen xni x. nn a. 

Of the lord Gray, vi. x. viii d. 

Of Sir Edward Widvill knight XL x. 

Of Sir W". Aparre Comptroller of the 

kiBg'« houfe xxx. 

Of Sir John Elrington Treafurer of the 

king's houfe xxx. 

Befides the gifts of many other knights there named, 
whereof fome gave more, and fome lefs, as bed liked thetn. 

Beiidfes r find it regifteredin one other book of heralds 
tfaea liritig^ that in anno Domini 1477, which was about 
die x^'^ of £d;4. the king made mariy knights of the 
Jlatfa> at the marriage of his fofi Richard duke of'York to ^ 


15? The Duly and Office of an Herald of Arms. 

Anne daughter and fole heir to John Mowbray duke of 

Norff. which, not coanfelled to their moft honoiir, denied 3 

The lord great part of the duties (of old prefidents) given to their 

chamber- officers of arms, and referred them to the lord chamber^* 

Jain IS ap- ' 

pointed to • lain, who well underftandine of ancient noble cuftoms, 
iSds fees" ^^^^ and Ihewed it to tiie king and to the duke of GJou- 
bepaid. cefter conftable of Englan^i, which is jud^c of every 
ftableis officcr of arms, who went in his own ptrfon, and com-r 
Iffifcrs of"^ manded William Griffith, one of the marfhalls of the kipg'a 
trms, hall, to charge eyery man of the aforefaid company, be-* 

ing under their jurifdiftion, to pay their duties to the 

officers of arms, cSxc. Thus far that note. 
With what Our anceftors were in times paft fo careful of their ho-» 
troop of nour, and that every man (hould be furniflied according to 
ambailadors his degree, that they left not undetermined, with what 
"IJ^^^^V'r troops of horfes every one fhould be furnifhed when he 
that go out went ambaflador : and how every meflenger fent from a 
ofEngland. {Q^tign king into England (hould be received, as I have 

noted out of ancient books in thisi fort. 

A duke of the blood royal as near as 

coufln -germane 400. horfe* 

A duke of the blood royal 300. horfe* 

A duke 300. hor{e or more. 

An earl of the blood royal aoo. horfe or more- 

An earl 100^ horfe. 

A Baron of great blood 40. or 50. horfe. 

A baron 30. horfe. 

A knight for fhe body xo. or 15. horfe. > 

A banner^tt 15. or ao. horfe. ; 

A knight 8. or 10. horfe. : 

A fquire for the body after his ppf- 
feffions 6. horfes. , 

A fquire 3- or 4. borfe. • 

Agentkgaan . a. horfe. • 

Howfo^ ifikj^wife if any foreign pdntce or king do ftDd'to.dur 

?i^° Tof ^v^r^gn ^ny mcffengeis ;/if iid be a knight/ xfxmi<a lack 
every de- ^^ a t^^on y if he be an efquire^ receive him. as a> knigte ;: tfi 
S'^iSdvcd, ^^ ^ ^ y^Qwen, receive him as an efquice ; if he h6 a 


Tie D^fy 4«rf Offi(( ef an Herald of Jrf^. |5| 

groooi) reireive l^im as a yeomany ifc. Aq4 fp every 
ellate mqft be received as the degree ae:^t above |iim dotfi 
require. • 

It fliall tiot be pnpleafaot, I hopcj tinio your lofd(h|p tq '^^^^^^^^ . 

know what the authority of a king of arms is in his ^xo*, arms in hU 

vince ; and for that caijfe, I have here fet them (iown. provmcci 

Firft, as nigh as he can, he (ball take knowledge, and '^°.^^*P^ 

ji n J • J. andrpgiftcf 

record the arms, crefts, and cognizances, and aticient tjc arms 

Words ; as alfo of the line and dfcfccnt, or pedigree of ^^^ ^^' 
every gentleman within his province of what cftate ot* de- 
gree foever he be, 

Jtem^ he fliall enter Into all churches, chapels, oratorii?$, '^° rcgiflcr 

*• arms and 

caftles, hopfes, or ancient buildings, to take knowledge pf monu- 

their foundations ; and of the noble eftates buried in them ; ^^^rchcs 
as alfo of their arms, and arms of the places, their heads 
and ancient records 

Item, he fholl prohibit ariy gcotleman to bear thie arm^ bi°bca°rii' 

of any otl^er or fuch as be not true armory, and ^s he .ought the arms of 

according to the law of arms. Sfc tmoJy 

He fliall prohibit any merchant, or any other to put Toprohi- 

their nances, marks, or devlfes in efcutcheons or (liiejds ; chantsTQ 

which belong and only appertain to gentlemen bearing puttheirdc- 

• « vices in ef- 

9rm$, and to none other. cutcheons. 

Iteniy he fliall make diligent fe^rch, if any bear arms Bearing of 

V^ithowt authority, or good right ; and finding fueh^ al- ^^^^J^'^* 

[ thojugh tfeey h^ true blazon, he jhall prohibi^t them. rity. 

TlVB faid kipg 9f .arms \n ,his province hath fi^ll power Qanfirnwd* 

^ad a^tbority by the King's grant, to give confirmation to on^rfawai* 
^U^obiemen o^id gej?.tJlemen ignorant of their arms, for the 
Xvbich Kc oiigbt to have tbefee bel<?ngin^ thprc^p. 

, fle hath authority to give arms and crefts to jterfpnp of living of 

ability deferving well of the prince and commonweakh, by fuSl*;^\car 

j^eafpa qf .otfice^ aiitj^iority^ wifdotoj, kyjiung^ ^09^ ^ijian- office* 
fl^s, j9^dL fttb^ gpverp«pe9,t. They ^9 haf,e f^ich grft^s 
i^y mm P^dfiT ^ i^ of the ofike ,of the k^q^' pf .at:n?s^ 
au4 tp JW^y lh€re(oi;e tj;^ fees^^cc^ftom^cj. 

^lem,$ vo jgefttle^^jp^ pr ftth<^ fiijiy ereA .or /et up in ^arao 

m Qbp«;ca;,.«.j5u^ls,4g{l^b^r hs^iwvpr^, ,A?ft^*^^, ,<Wis of n^^^o^aw 
.. 2Kp#v/. U arms. 


in churches, 
without the 
of the king 
of arms; 

of "^oungcr 
houfcs arc 
to be by the 
dirctftion of 
the king of 

IfJonc to 
bear the , 
arms o^ kis 

Change of 
arms for 
fuch as are 


granted the 
ought not 
to defcend 
to U cir 

irhe Duty and Office of an Herald of Arm f. 

arms, helms, crefts, fwords, or any other hatchment^ 
without the licence of the faid king of arms of the province, 
or by allowance or permifEon of his marflial or deputy r 
becaufe the arms of the noble eftate dcceafed, the day of 
his death, the place of his burial, his marriage and ifTues, 
ought to be taken and recorded in the ofRce of that king. 

Further, no gentlefcen ought to bear their difference in 
armory otherwife than the office of armory requireth ; and 
when younger brethren do marry, ereft and eftablifh new 
houfes, and accordingly to bear their arms with fuch dif- 
tinftions and differences that they may be known from their 
elder families out of which they are defcended, the king 
of arms of the province is to be confulte J withal, and fuch 
differences of houfes are to be afligned and eftablifhed by 
fiis privity and confent, that fo he may advife them to the 
bell, and keep record thereof ; otherwife gentlemen may 
iurt themfelves by taking fuch a difference, as fhall 
prejudice the chief houfe from whence they are defcended. 

The king of arms of the province is to have an efpecial 
regard, that no man bear arms by his mother, be (he ne- 
ver fo good a gentlewomatii, or never fo great an inheritrisr, 
imlefs he bear arms alfo by his father's ftock and fiving, 
properly belonging to his lirname ; ^ia apudjus in ^nglia 
partus nonfequitur vent rein. 

Likewife he is to fee, that no getitteman defcended of a 
noble race, and bearing arms, do alter or change thofe armi 
without his knowledge, allowance, and confent. If any 
do ufe the arms of others, or fuCh as they ought not, arid 
.will hot be reftrained, he is under certain pain, and at a 
certain day, to warn fuch offenders to appear before the 
earl marftial of England, or his deputy, before whoiii th» 
feme is to be ordered and reftrained. 

Arms appointed for bifhops ought not to defcend to their 
children, for they are not' within the compafs of the la\ilrs 
of arnis, which only taketh notice of bifhops as officers of 
the cjhurch, and riot as military men or perfons to be irK- 
ployed in offices or affairs of laymen, though fome of 
^hera have been very gtbr foldiefs. For both eaflons and 

/ example* 

^e Duty and Office of an Herald of Arms. igs 

examples do forbid the fame^ iince ia temporal aAions* in 
time pad It was alledged againil them. For it was objefled 
to Hubert Walter archbifliop of Canterbury, being chief 
juftice and chancellor in the time of king John, that he in- 
termeddled in by caufesy and dealt in blood : as alfo the 
fame was laid againd other clergy men, for having of 
offices in the exchequer, and the kbg's houfe, when fome ' 
of them were clerks of the kitchen, fome treafurer of tlic 
houfehold, &c. Yea, fo much did our anceftors derogate 
from the arms of bilhops, as that the bifhops, which were 
interefted in the arms of their anceAors, might not bear 
the arms of his houfe without fome notorious difference^ 
not anfwerable to the difference of other younger brethren ; 
as did the biftiop of Lincoln, Heniy Borgherflie ; the arch- 
biihop of Cainterbary, Thomas Arundell ; the archbifliop 
rf York, Richard Scroope ; the bifliop of Norwich^ 
Heory Spencer ; and many others, who did not bear the 
common differences of arms of younger fons, but great and 
notorious differences, as borders, fome* engrailed, fome 
with mitres, or fuch like, whereof I can fliew your lord- 
fhip many forms. And that it was not, before the time of When ch^ 
Bariolus the lawyer in the government of Charles the i^gfn g^ 
fourth, eniperor, permitted to gown-^en (or, as the French ^° ^^^^ 
termeth them, of the long robe, for under that name were 
learned men, clergymen, and fcholar€ comprehended) to 
bear armories ; or elfe why fliouid that great lawyer Bar- 
tolus argue the matter, whether it were convenient that he 
fhould take arms (the peculiar reward and lK>nouf of mili- 
tary fervice in ancient time) or whether he fliould refufe 
them at the emperor's hands ? For if it had been then ufed, 
that, the long robe fliould have enjoyed th? honour of arms, 
Bartolus would never have doubted thereof. But Unce it 
was not then accuftomed, he made queAion whether he 
Aiould take tbofe arms or not ; but in the end concluded, 
that the fa<^ of the prince was neither to be difputed nor 
rejefted, and therefore was willing to affume the armfj 
yfbich the emperor had given him, 

' V 3 Although 


The mar- 
fhall hath 
power of j 
jncpt. . 

m huty mid tJ^jfice 0f an Ihfdtd tf Armts. 

Although theittarthfdl in limes paft was but the x:onftable*ii 
deputy, yfet washeaffiilant to the couftaWe in all judgments, 
j^br by his advice mottly, and fomciraie with his, and the 
reft of the court military, the conftable gave fentence. 
And although in ifbtne cs^fe? the marfhal was to execute thf 
precept olf the conftable, yet wai he ^Ifo to hear, and in 
* fome fort to determine? caufes, efpecially ia the abfence of 
the conftable, which thofe matfhaJs toore oft^n and with 
piorc authority exeixlfed fmcc thfe xiii°. H. S. in whit:h 
Edward Stafford (or Bohdli) the laft conftable of England, 
ik^is beheaded, fimre ifrom that time there hath not bceq 
any more conftables, whereby the marfhal hath always 
aft^ fupplW the conftable's office, and fentenced aH mili- 
tary nratters. Then if the marftial dp the conftabje'3 offic?, 
fee hath ^he femte privilege the coftftafcte had : and if the 
CK^nftafble might imprifen^ thtm (as 1 think will be wdtl 
)!)r6ved)' the ^ms^fliM may do the Ta^e, fepplying th^icoa- 
ftable'S bffice ; and by coAfequence-, aSl f«ch deputy b»^- 
fhal commiffioners, as have amhoi'lty fronfi the prince, tq 
ftrppiy thp marfliars office, daring the intcrta, or vacancy 
of an earl tofirt-lhal. 

Moreover, \l they (hould nfot \\pt ^autfeority to idiprifonj, 
in vain were it rhen to determine any Ching. ^4x if the 
parties condemned will not. obey, and they have no power 
to compel then) thereto (which in the end muft be otoly by 
tmpnfoament) in vain it is for them (as I faid) to decree 
any thing.; but becaufetheir judgment fhould be eftabii&ed, 
and the offenders compelled to perfoi'm fuch law,, there 
was {TJlpwed to the marihal his prifon, whlcb to this day 
is cfllkd The Marftxalfea, a thing fiiperfiuous and mere 
frivoloiQS, that they ihall have a prifon, and not commit 
df&nders to it. But.that prifon was not appcunted to them 
\xi vain. For whiqh c^ufe it feeineth to me, th^t^fa^ aoMf 
iliarfbars dispudes have, jm incarcerandL And if any of 
your lordftiips (hduld commit one offender to that prifofi> 
\ woold gladly learn, what remedy he hath either by 
^flion of falf9 imprifol^ment^ or ot^^ife. fioce do maoft 
* » I Aiak, 

^ki Duty and O^rt of ^n Herald of Jrms. t^j 

I think, will bail him without your confents, or any other 
judge by ffahds corpus enlarge him. And then foolery 
and ncedlefs it were for him to fue an a£tion of falTe im- 
prifoniHent againft thofe that (hall commit him. And 
therefore I fee not, but that he may remain in prifon AiU 
upon commandment of the marfhal ormarflial's deputy, or 
upon judgment in the marfbal's court, which in a book Thcconfta-t 
c^fe of XIII®. H. 4. is faid to be all one with the confta- marfhal's 
ble's court : which partly alfo is to be gathered out of an- «>.^^ ^rc 
other book cafe in the law books of 37. H. 6. where one ione. 
brings an a^ion at the common law of alFault and mena- 
cing. The defendant jrfeaded that the plaintiff did (* In* * siq. 
tutiri in Capite) and that if the plaintiff would charge 
the defendant with tregfon, as he did, he faid to the plain- 
tiff, that he would defend him by his body during the life 
of one of them ; which was the fame menacing. The conftable and mar- 
Whercnpon it was faid. that foch aftion for ap- *[;J^«- » 'Z 'ilZ 
pealing of treafon, or calling traitor, lieth not law is to take notice 
at the common law. But (to ufe the words of ^f^^l,*tw wLch""^ 
the book) gift devant le coneftable i; mareJhdU^ iowcth and ufcth impri- 
b la ferd determine par Ley civtlle : whereupon """^ ' 
juftice Needham, Le conien Ley prendcra conizance de Ley 
de le Coneftable if Marjball\ car en appelle de morte efi bone 
Juftificacione que le mprte^ luy appelle de^Treafone devant 
le Conejlable eSr Marjbal^ par qui Us combateront la, eSr & 
defendant vanquijbt le morte al mort ; 6* c*^ bone Juft^ca-' ^ 
Clone al comen Ley : ^ Jjbton i; Moyle concefferunt, que co- 
men Ley prendra notice del Ley del Conejlable , ^ Marjbath 
Tamen Prifott contra; Mes puis ques les trois difont, ut/u* 
pra; Prifott non negavit : whereby it apppareth, that all 
the four judices agreed, that the conftable and marthal had 
a law by themfelves ; whereof the common law doth take 
notice, as well as it doth of the eccleCaftical law, bdtig Si 
law of itfelf from the common. 

Then if they have a law by themfelves, (and tht mar- 
(hall, as I gather otft of ihefe cafes, is as far Iflfter^fted 
therein as the cooftable, becatufe the common law here in 
this cafe^ and In all Other pl^e^s^^ talletb it the conftable and 



ilbne ont of 
tiie realm 
are to be 
tned before 
the mar- 

VpoiT what 
«Ktcanoa cf- 
««age IS to 

laMs m di- 

fflfer Duty and Office cf an Herald cf /irms. 

tt^flial's court, flill joining them together as it were in equal 
pourer) it muft neeflls follow, that they oaght to have means 
tojexecute the judgmtsntsof that law; which cannot in theend 
be any other courfe, bat by n^flraint : and tmpt ifonment being 
the laft coertion that can be ufed^ as we fee in the contemners 
and refiflcrs of the common law, which further affirnaeth, 
that things of war done out of the realm (hall be deter r 
nined by the conftable and marfhal ; where I alfo obfcrve^ 
that the marfhal is always joined with the conftable, as I 
before touched, and as appeareth alfo in a book cafe of 48. 
£. 3. fo. 3. And Stamfford in his Fleas of the crown fo« 
65. As is alfo proved 10 the xiii^h. Hen. 4^*>- fo. xiii«>. 
where it is d^elivered, that ^ woman (hall havp an appeal ia 
the conftable and niarfhars court of tiie de^h of her huf^ 
band (lain in Scotland : and Littleton putteth ^e like cafe ; 
that if the king make a voyage into Scotland, and Efcuage 
be a/Teffed in parliament, if the lord diflrain his tenant tha( 
holdjcth by knights fervice of one entire knight's fee, for 
efcuage fo aflefled, and the tenant plead and aver, that he 
was with the king in 3€otland, by xl. d.ays, it (hall be 
tried by the certificate of the njarftjal (of the hoft of the 
tJng) in Meriting under his feal, which ihall be fent to the 
juflices. But this marfhal of tlie hoft is always intendedt 
the marfhal of England, who. is to ferve in thofe wars, 
which is called the Marfhal of tlie army, as J can upon 
fome ftudy fufEciently prove by record, 

4 hope your lordlfhip will not be oSended that I pefler 
you with rhapfodical things, and therefore prefuming of the 
fame, I will fet down what heralds I have obferved to be 
in divers princes times, by fcyeral names, in which your 
lordfhip may behold the flourifhing ftare of that degree, 
when it is fiirnifhed with kings, heralds^ and pyrfuivants 
of the prince, and heralds and purfuivants of divers iioble- 
men ; for they had alfo heralds and purfuivants, who went 
with the king's heralds to the chapel before their lords, 
which attended on the king/ of which noblemens heralds, 
(bme of them dealt in arms, and gave authority to beat 
pi^t differences which they bear. Ecfides, I (ball fhe^ 

7 therein 

The But) and Office of an Gerald of Armi. 155 

therein the firft inAitutioDS of fome heralds, which I think 
fliall not be dillaftefui to your lordfliip to read* 

In the beginning of Edward the 3^ Andrew Windfor 
Norroy. Befides, thefe heralds of his children ; Claren- 
ceaux belonging to the dokeof Clarence. Lancafter belong- 
ing to the duke of that name, who, when the houfe of 
Lancafter obtained the crown, was a king of heralds; 
which fo continued, until the houfe of York got the gar- 
land, and brought him back to an herald. 
Gloucefter the herald of that duke. 
Windfor whom the king created upon this occaGon, as 
hath Bcrtrande Argentyne in his hiftory of Little Britain, Argtutrr, 
Henr. 5. ca. 46. After the battle of Auraye in the year 
1364, which fell in the 38. E. 3. in whidi Charles le Blois 
wag (lain, and' John Mountforde (affiled by the king) had 
the vidtory through the Engliih, the news thereof was 
brought to king Edward ; whereupon (to ufc Btrtrand's 
words) Le Roy de Angleterre tftoit a Dauiters, qui enfcente 
U Novelle en trois jours ^ que luy fut port ie par un Purfcie* 
pante d*Armes de Britaigne en voye du Counte (which was 
John de Mountforde) Lequelle le Roye de Angleterre Jis fo» 
Heratdte foui le no/me de Windefir L. &c. where the matter 
is fet out more at large. 

The heralds I read of in records, in other princes times, 
(although they be not all, and whereof fome have now be- 
ing, and fome have not) are thefe : 
Firft, in the time of king R. 2. 
Norrey king of arms« 
March herald. 
Burdeux herald. 

Bardolfe herald. Who had power of arms (virtute 
officii) whereof the record of 22. R. 2. faith. Bar- 
dolfe Hdraldus Armorwn virtute officii conceffit Roberto 
Baynardey ut liceat Jibi if heredibus fuis impreffionem 
^ Jila, ^ Lambeaux in Scut is Armorum fuorum 6mit' ♦ Sic. 
In the time of king Henry the lllith. were, 
LancaAer king of arms. 


t6Q 9%# i)iUy (hid Offict c/m Herald of Atmi. 

Percys herald. 

Libarde herald, with maoy more. 
' In the time of king Henry the vtb. were« 

Garter, by him firft infiitoted. 

Cadram, herald to the earl of Dorfett^ 
In the time of king Henry the vith. 

CuyefT herald. 

SulFolke herald. 

Mowbray herald, with others. 
In the t-eign of king Edward the fourth the Aate of the 
office for heralds ftood in this fort, as appeareth by a roll 
written about the beginning of kibg Henry the viuth. 
wherein is (hewed both what number of heralds were ia 
that king's reign of Edward the iiiith. and alfo how they the time of king Henry the viith* in this fort. 

I Garter. 

Norrey. . , . 

Marche. > '"'«»* 



Windeforc* ^ 

Lancailre. I t. u^ 

Fawcone. f '^"^'^^• 

Chefter. J 

Blewmantell. •% 

Roug€cro(Ie. f 

Calleys. \ .t>urfuifaQts. 

Barewicke. I 

Rofe- blanche. J 

The duke of Gioucefter had> 

Gloucefter herald* 

Blanke-Sanglier, purfukailLt^ 
The duke of Clarence had, 

Richemont herald* 

Noyre-Tauren, purfuiyaiif. 
The duke of Buckingham had^ 

Hereforde herald. 
The earl of Warwick bad^ 

Warwick herald, » 


rU Duty Mi Ogici tiftm H^rM^Armi. 

The earl of Northamberland had, 
Northumberland herald. 
Efperaunce purfuivaat. 
The earl Rivers had, 
Rivers purfuivant. 
The earl of Worcefter had, 
WciteAer herald. 
Marenceu purfuivant. 
The lord Mountjoye had, 

Chdrien Rewe puffrtvatff. 
Now the king's grace hath but three kittgs, garter, 
Richemond, and Norroy, and one herald, that Is, Somer- 
fett; Lancafter, York, Windfore, and Falcon be voyde, 
and all the purfuivants, Rongecrofl^, Roug^ragon, Callys, 
Barwicke, Guynes, Hampnes, Rifebank, liifoimtorguill, 
Portcullis, and Rafyne, and no eftate hath txxj but only 
the \<y. marquw, that haih Grobie purfuivant ; and the earl 
of Norchttmberhnd^ that hath Nor<humt)erIand herald. 

This was in the time of king Henry the viith. 
Godf^ve king Henry the viiith. Thus far that roll, 
shewing the time of king Henry the viith. Alfo 
as that of Edwiird the ivth. in which it feemeth, 
that Ulfter now kii^ of heralds in Ireland, had then no 
life, but was called only Ireland. 

In the time of king Edward the vith. there were only 
thefe officers of a;rms, as is proved out of the letters patents 
of that kuig, wheretfi he ^teteth to us to be freed from 
all fubfidies, and other taxes, fiiewing the honour and 
immunities we have amongft all nations, emperors, and 






^ Yorke. 


' Ricbemond. 
Vol; I.* 




king of 
arms in the 
time of H. 
7. being 
now but an 
herald of 


i6a Tbi Dufjf and Office of an HetaU of Atmsk 








Ryfe bancke. 

Tn this third year of king Jimes^ thus fiaadeth the (tat* 
of this office of arms, (viz.) 

Clarenflieux. ^ kii^s, befide Ulfter king of Ireland^ 
Somerfett. I . ^ .4 

Lancaften > ^^'•^'^*- 

Windfor, . 

ouge ragon. t purfuitrants, arid one othef ^i*« 
Bkwma'ntle.' f ^"''''^.' extraordinary called Ponef- 
Potteconoys. ) ^^^^^^ 
Thus as abruptly concluding, as I have dilbrderly de- 
livered thefe things in this hinfpot (or, as Mre corruptly 
call it, Hochepott) I befeech your lordftiip to accept them 
Vith that good mind, With which you have received other 
things from me, and fo to your Lordfhip mbft humbly 
commending lUyfelf, that may with Ovid fay, 

Jamjam felicior at as terga dedit, tremuloqy grcdu 
Venit erga fine6luf ; 

1 huihbly take toy leave, as one wholly devoted to your 
lordbip, and in you to your honourable family, furtheif 
craving pardon for this gouty fcribiing, dlAilled frpm the 
pen guided by a late gouty hatid. 

Your lord (hip's in what he may 
Clerken well Greea . F R if. T H y n n e^ 

2^* March i6o5« Lancaftcr* 

vcttrijlih. ^ 


Of the Office mi Ikfty of Heralds in ^n^lanii 163, 


A Confideration of the Office ^nd Duty of 
the Heralds in England, drawn. Qut of 
fundry Obfervations, 

Py John Doddridge the King's Solicitor General, at 
the Inftaoce of Hea. E* of Northampton, in Aug. 1609, 

11 HE word Herald h,z Saxon word yet in ufe among 
the Germans, and by Kilianus Duffleus in DiEiionariq 
fijto Teuicnico Latirup, interpreted thus; ( Facialis ^ pater 
PatratuSy internmciuSf vel pafis, v^l belU feriendi publiciis 
frosco) derived from the word, Her, id efi^ Publicus, and 
ihe word Alte^ or, otdd^ antique, or, as feme deduce it» 
Jenex in Jrmis. For the word Her^ or Heire^ fignifietl) 
alfo an Amy^t ox\Multitud^ Armed. 
. Their chief and fpedal ufe aix:iently was in the Roman 
flate, where they were of grcjit acpount. Theiy dfity and 
o£Sce in that ftate are fully deCcribed by Dionyfius Halicar* 
saflus, in the Second book of his hifiory, and xleduced by 
bim into vli. feveral beads, or fpecial points. But the 
office and U& of our heralds may be drawn into thefe 

Firft, They are jcnedengers by the laws of arms, between 

potentates, for matter of honour and arms. And, a^ 

Tuily in his fecbnd book de legibus affirmeth out of an old 

Roaian la\y, Feodorum pacify helli ^ InduciarumOraiares 

feciales Judicesfunt. 

Secondly, They are Caranoniatum miniftri^ as io the 2* 
coronation of king^ and queens^ in the creation of qoble 
dignities, of honour in the inltallaiipns of the honourable 
knights, of orders in triumphs, jufts, combats, marriages, 
chriftehinjgs, interments, and funerals, and to attend iq all 
jokmn aflemblks oi Aate and honour. And by iome of 



i64 0/ thi Ojffkt md Duly of Heralds in England, 

them ought the proclamations of great matters of ftate to 
be promulged. 

3. Thirdly, The caufes of chivalry and geatility are com* 
mitted to their care,^ as in the right of bearing of arms in 
fhields, efcutcheons, targets, banners, pennants, coats, and 
fuch like ; corre£lioo of arms in their vifitaiftoos, and in 
the obfervation of pedigrees, and defcenu of nobleaien and 

4. . Foprthly, They are the prothonotaries, grifiiers, and re- 
gifters of all adls and proceedings in the courts of the con- 
Aable and ntarlhal of England, or by fuch as have their 
authority ; and in their books, and records, they ought to 
preferve to perpetual memory, all faAs and noceabie de- 
fignments of honour and arms. 

The heralds of England have been anciently iiKorporated 
by the kings of this realm, and reduced in Ctnrfvs Corpora- 
turn ^ Collegium^ as namely among others in the fecond 
)rear of king Richard the third ; alfo by king Edward the 
fixih, and queen Mary. ' 

They are divided :nto three fcveral coclipan'^s; into 
kings, whereof there be »ow thiiecj Garter, ClarencieM, and 
Norrey : (In times part there have been intof. kings ;) he- 
ralds, whereof there be now fix, York, Richemond, So- 
merfett, Lancafter, Chefttr, and Windfor ; and purfui- 
vahtf, whereof there now be four, ^^ougpdragon, Blewe* 
mantfe. Portcullis, and Rougecrofle. By the charter of 
king Edward the fixth, made in th^ third year of his rcign^ 
they are difvharged ahd made firce of all taxes, charges, 
abd fubfidies, granted in parliamept. 

As touching the kings of arms, Garter is the principal, 
beh)g alfp thir fp^cial officer of thf noble order of the gar* 
ter. For in the book, commonly called the Black Boojc of 
the Order of the Garter, I find this ordinance, expreffing 
ihe place of garter, and what manner of pe:fon he o^ghi 
tp be, and what ftipend and falary hie is to have. He is ; 
Accfddt Rex Armmun unux^ qui GariervsRix Armormn 
Anglut vocabitury quern Jupremus if Cemiktones ob dignita' 
tpn 9fdiiiif pirifv; Cfnctoftfanguinis^ hoiiiJli^miM ifi/ignia 


Of the Office and Duty of Heralds in Engkndl SliS^ 

gerenUm. infr^ Regnum JngHx natum, if ceteris offifiali'- 

by St qui nobUi Corona Anglic fubjeSi Junt, fuperiorem ejfe 

vobint. Habebit hie a fupremo fii^ndium 4nmntm XL. £• ^^*^ *^'^* 

brarum moaeta kgalis jingUa. Praifrea unuf<piifque feor- Brooke' 

Jum profidJlAtus bonore Jkigulis arms dombit ei Dux 4. //- f^^^t^L^ 
bras-, Marchio 5. ntarcas ; comes 4. marcas ; Bora 40. ^* 
lidoSf 6 Eqiies Bachalarius ordinis xxYu/oJidoSf 6 yiii. 

denarios^ut tanto hnqrificentius ad decus Ordinis vitam 
agaty U qfficium adminifiret. ^u&ties autem Creatio Prin^^ 
cifiSf Ducis^ MarcUonis, Qflutis^ f^icecomitiSt out ^aronis 
obtiskgitj idem Garterus veftes ejus vendicabif, quibus utetur 
friujq^am Togam iUius dignitatis^ ^ prachri acd^* 

Which former order I find alfo recit^ and ooofiraied by 
vl conAUttiioa wriiteh in French, made at Windfor in the 
chapter of the confraternity of the faid noble order in the 
fead of St. George in the yestr of our Lord 1422. bdng the ▼^<ic stowe 
firft year of king Henry the ¥1*^. in thcfe worda fpeaktng ^^^ ^^** 
of king Henry the v^^. Conftitua in encreifament de nofnu 
du dit noble order ^ if pur ejire entendant^ al fervice de la 
dit Conipani £? de tmt genteUffe vn Servant de jirmes fur 
touts les Jut res Servaunts des Armes le quel per la dignite, 
de dit order wyle, qui il fiit Soveraigne de dance t^e de 
Armes ^ fur touts les autres Servaunts des Armes^ de Tref 

• nobk Roylme de Engleterre & luy nojme Gertyer Roy des 
Armes de Angloys if il oujer done unfee all dit officer. 

For the better government of the office of arms there 
have been from time to time fundry Qrdff^ncp$ made, fomc-^ 
time by the lord high conftable of England, as by Thomas 
of Lancafter, duke of Clarence, lord high fteward of Eng- 
land, in the lime of king Henry the v^h, Alfo of latter 
time by Thomai duke of Norfolk earl marihal of England ; 
by the which fundry abufes of the faid officers were re^ 
formed touching fundry of the feveral heads and points 

The vifitations of heralds have always been by commif- Armacon- 
lion, and warrant under the privy fignet, of which war- ^^ P«^ »' 
rants there have been lately many in the office of arms ex- fSi^' *^ 
tant tQ be feen, both pf king Henry the viith. and of ^*^- 

king "^ 

'^GS Of the^ Office and Duty of Heralds in Enghnd^ 

king H. VIII. As touching the giving of arms, often-* 
times the kings of this realm have given arms themfelves ta 
perfons, for their worthy deeds, or have approved the 
arms given by the officers of arms in that behalf, whereof 
thefe following are precedents : Le Roy a touts Ceux Ceries 
Letters veindront Salute Saches qui come vne Chivaller 
Francois a ceojue nous fumus informes ad Challenge vne nrT 
Leige John de Kingjlon, Afayre Cert aine fait s iy points du 
Jfrmes ouefque le dit Chiualier nous a fine que le dxt nrT 
Leige feit le melius honcfrablement receive rf fayre puijfet, 
6f performer les dits faitSy eSr points de Armes kty anouns 
re/ceyve in le State- de Centlehome 6 luy fait Efquyor^ <y 
Vdumus que He fott comis per Armes fe^ Porter a de fere 
euauant fcefia fauoire dargent ouun Chappen de Azure ou? 
fyue un plume de oflriche de Gules i^ no a touts* ceux a queux 
apertint nous ncttfamus per ceux prefentes. In tejlimony de 
quel chos nous anoums fait nreT Letters Pattents de foubs. 
nrT grande fceaee a nrT Pallace de Weftm le primer iour 
de Auofi &c. 
Out of a There was one Jame^ Parker, a fen^atit in cotirt to king 

Jsce of'^'* Henry the viith. that had accufed Hugh Vaughan (one of 
arms a«>. (. the gent, uftiers of the faid king) unta the king of Tome 
* '* undutiful words, fpoken by him of the faid king. Where- 

upon the perfoB accufed 'challenged combat with his accu* 
fer : and becanfe he was not a gentleman of coat armor, Sir 
John Wriotheflye, then principal king at arms, gaVe unto 
(be faid Hugh Vaughan a coat armor with helm and timber 
the 14^1*. of Oftober 1490 anno 6®. H. 7. Whereupon the 
feid king fent for the fliid garter, and demanded of him, 
whether he had made any fuch patent, or no? who an- 
^vered, that he had made fueh arms. Whereupon the 
king's highnefs in his moft royal perfon, -in open jaflice, at 
RichmoiKJ, before all his lords, allowed; and admitted thq 
faid grants made by garter, and likewifc allowed the faid* 
Hugh Vaughan to run with the faid James Parker, who wa§ 
at the fame time (lain by the faid Vaughan in the faid jufls. 
Jt!rifdi^;ia ? Carter king of arms hath challenged to give arms to men 
Prhlfcipa% 9^ Worthy dd'eit J naal«^y by an erdinancc in the book pf 
' • th« 

0/ tit 0$n and putj 6f UeraUs in England. i6y 

the order of the garter in thefe words: M eundem perti- Reff»Ar. 
nvit CorrtBio Armorum, atque inftgniorwn, quorumcunqui 
qua ufurfiantur, aut geftantur injufle. Autoritas infuper 
& patejim Arma hujufmsdi atque injignia concedendi talibui, 
qui per ABa fortia laudabilia virluiejque hanores fiatus is 
digmtatti n^rebuntur, juxt* fintiquam cap/u/tudmepi, lit' 
terafque paitentes fuper ea refaciencti &c. 

Alfo Thomas Hallye, alias Norry, wai the firft that 
got tbefe words into his patent, dated xix. Mail lULriii. 
Hen VI nth. . Litteras Patmtet Armorum elarit viris do* 
nandi iiC. ■; 

cCt Of the Antiftity tf Atms /# Bt^tand. 




By Mr. Tatb. 
2* Nov^ 1 598, 

FOR as mnch as oar hiftoryes doe recorde of five fev^- 
rail conquefts of this coaatrye wherein there have 
bine maney greate bateles foaght, it Cannot bee bat there 
were markes and fignes ufed in banners»flanderdes, and foch 
like, whereby everjfe companye might knowe their owne 
generalles and leaders; amongaft the which there is men- 
tion that kiage ikrthiir (fid change his'sMMs three tymes : 
the firft beings two dngpnes indoHedf^ trhich were his fa- 
there's armei 1 the feeottd 3 crowneti or. l^afilyy when hee 
became a ChriAktt he b^e veri a crqfe ar^juit, on the firft 
qoarter oar ladlye with ChrOI la fair fltvme^ or; thefe armes 
were after him borM by d^ jMNittes t)f GIaftenbur)e. 
Although fome authores wri^hTdoutefnlly of kii^e Arthor, 
yet our hiftoryes doe agree ttet his bodey was fownd boryed 
at Glaftenbury, in the tyme of kinge Henrye the fecond, 
with a Crole of leade whereon was writen his name. And 
at Winchefter there doth remayne at this daye^ a great 
rownde table, whereon are writen the names of divers 
knightes, which are taken to bee the knightes of the 
rounde table inftitated by king Arthur. I have a Frenche 
booke wherein, king Arthur beinge fet downe to bee one of 
the nyne worthyes, there is alfo printed the arms <^ his 

t)ivers anciente pedegrees do fett downe the armes of the 
feven kiogedomes of the Saxons. 


Thufe fare I have noted hriffely for matter of hiftorys. 
Bat fince the ufe of feales came into EDglande, it is growne 
uQto a belttep perfefUoo. ' And yet I fia^ grcata <Uffereace 
in the arms of St. Edward the Confeflbr. by reafone there 
are not any arms to be fene uppoa the feales of his charter, 
whereof I have a coppye^ Thus rn Weftminfter church 
<heFe ar^ gr^^ft Ift ftpft«, ^ crofli t^vweft? V birdei \^th 

^eg»A ^ViSt^y^xH^^^ cJwfcbf W9^cw^ aft* ?B 
Ti^ffftp^ft^er IJfiiU, a ^o(f^ betw^Pfj V n^rifelf je^ m\^9^\ 

t^QSi tll9y 9m r^prvftgtf^ «$ b^pg a criKflibi betvcAe foi^ 
birdf iNtth l«gg^» 

Th^dr-ft ftplA vMtH 9rei(»k tlut I haite, is the fe«Ic of 
fci^ lUcbacd tN^ iuftx: F0P QA WiUvtffi the Comquereuc^ 
i^ md tiiofeof Qlfaer kni^ft-cim him down to R. i . thevo 
is Mjfim9 JQ te difoei»<d ; tiod I lisdo (hat Lucy cbefib 
j^ct of Sx^l^ftR^ tsA tW^tymft of K. £L c. did reprehend 9 
aHHil}l9AP fef' P^RgS 4 privat f^^ of arms, becauie, a^ bq 
%4> Ji^ ws p^niHar. ^10 |h^ klnge and Hobilityc. Go 
t^^ SlfutUl tb^ tpaoof £• t. podj/^ iho kioga and the nobi^ 
If t7» dM ttfe f^viio^iof annQ$« Bua aftsr* hia tyme th^ vXk 
of tjMMH gvejATQ tftbe ordiaarye. 

. Th^mfmmsS^.iaA that I base is of Qpocye earle 06 
WifKkdl^r in.tbi.tjqne of H. 3. 

Tbe ioakiuaft fupporters ate daofit of Mortlm^ learle oS 
])fon5h;ia.rbe tymccf &..X. 

Audi thr aecieolftft of aoyo ladyesfaak In blbnge is that of 
^l^jMm qC CiQQiiltf^iii the tymt of' king Richard cte 

t • ' 

I ^ i« 

VOfc.l. y £ N'SLIX. 

170 Of the Jhf^qtuty of Arm in England* 

N» XLIX. ' . , 

I Of the Antlquityc of Armes in England, , 

. . . By Anokymus. 

' . a. Nov^ 15.9,?. 

ARMES, in their generAllligflificatioft for cnfigi^ of 
honor borne in banners and (hklds, have been as 
flunciently ufed i« this rcalmc, as tit ifly other. For as ne- 

ceflity, among other nations, bred the life of them in ma- 
naging of miiuaryeaflfayres, for brd^r and dlftiiiftton botW 

of whole companies, and particular perfonncs, that ihtts 
%'aloiir might be therby more confjitoidtjs/ fo likewife, with- 
out doubr,^ it did among the* inhabitants of this yfle^ wha 
alwayes have beene as martial a$ atifjrS^her people ^Wfo^ 
ever, and confequehdy ks refp^ftWe of difi^ndiofi and de-^ 
cency in their ferriccs.. It may not be }*ertineht ta this. 
piirpofe, to note here out of thd feei^d fcriptures, thajt 
evfery tribe of the children of Ifrtteir pitched under theip 
owne ftaodards, or oiite of profane ^fttrthors, that^be €a* 
rians, who were the firft mercenary foldiers, were Alfo tW 
firft that bare marks in their fhields ; l)ut1tt$-aQt-imJ3ib#*> 
tinedt to note, th^t Coafladti»e tfaeXG^reat^ who was aiia- 
live of ^this yfle, bore in his labJaromor'ffaifadard, 'a ^tier 
hui^^tt transfixed with tike charafler, of the Gredc letter 
Bio, and which was accounted £Dr. -his^ arms. Afterwavd^ 
as you toay fee in Ubtitia Provtnoiarum the- BHtafitnci 
bane 'in their jQiiiald/in ai<arbuiicla;:a'|ilar:partie, per fakierl- 
The {lablefiani a plate within an annulet, and the tt^it^ 
dani, an annulett \3p0n a crofle, which were companies 
ferving in this countrie under the CoOies Britanniarum in 
the declination of the Romane empire. For particular 
perfons, as among the Giecians, Ulifles bare a dolphin; 
among the Romans Julius Cxfar the head of Venus; 
among the Gauls, Chixus, a captaine, a man wayeng 
gf>\d ; among the Spaniards, one mentioned by Silius, aa 
hundred fnakes; fo among the Britannes I only remember 
the vidlorious Arthur, who bare the Virgine Marie in his 


Of tie Anii^ty cfArms^ in England. jji 

(hieldy as Nennius, who lived 900 years lince, rccordeth. 
la the SaxoD Heptarchie, I find little noted of armes, albeyt 
the GermaneSj of whom they defceaded, ufed (hields, as 
Tacirus fayeth, Colore fncato, which! know not whether 
I may call armes, or no ; neythcr know I, whether I may 
icferre hither oute of Beda, how Edwin K. of Northum- 
berland had allwayes an enCgne caried before him^ in Eng* 
li(h a tunf, which Vegetius .reckoneth among military en- 
iigneSy or how'K. Oifwald had a bannerol! of gold an4 
purple fett over his tombe at Beardney ; or how Cuthfed 
K. of Weftfex bare in his banner a dragon, or, at the 
battaile of Bureford, as Hoveden noteth; and how the 
Danes bare in their Ijanner a raven, as Aflerius reporteth^ 
omitting the croflc between t^ie martletts in the coyne of 
K. Edward the Confeflbr. 

Now of arms in the reflrift fignification, as we define 
or rather defcribe them, viz. that arms are enfignes of ho- 
nor borne in banners, fhields, coats for notice and diflinc: 
tion of families, and defcendable to the families. Albeyt 
the Germanes write, that according to this definition, 
arms beganne to be in ufe among them in the tyme of Ca- 
rolus Magnus, yet I have not obferved that they werie in 
like ufe in England in the tyme of the Conqueft, or fome 
yeares after. For no armes do appeare in the feales of th^ 
firft Norman kings; but fliortly after the Conqueft, the efti- 
mation of armes beganne in the expeditions to the Holy 
Land, and afterwards, by little and little became hereditary, 
when it was accounted an efpecial honor to poftcrity to 
reteyne thofe armes, which had been difplayed in the Holy 
Land in that holy fervice againft the profcfled enemies of 
ChrilVianitye. To this ticnc do the learned Frenchmen re- 
ferr the originall of hereditary armes in Fraunce, and in 
myne opinion, without prejudice to others, we alfo then 
receavcd the hereditary ufe of them ; which was not fullye, 
eftabliflied until the time X)f K, H. the third. For in the 
inflances of the laft earles of Chefter, the two Quincies^ 
earles of Winchefter, and the two Lacies, earles of Lin-. 
coin, the arms of the father ftill varied from thofe of the 
iottt as every niaa here knoweth better than myfelfe. 

Y 2 N» L. . 

N«» L. 

Oif the Aatiqulty of Arn^s in ^^igkad. 

TbCfrlN^ ttife atf tiqtiitifc '^f tfrmcs ih Ch^imf; 'tbb 
fecdrdes, whcr I ferve, give lytftel 7j^t, kofi 'irit 
ft!fe Vherfbrc -cabnot fay mtrch. 

teirt *€ntcrfng o*et*wyfe Imo tSfc ooiifedewtfoh ^herrf, 
. «fWby *tlft etimoleigy of flie wWd, or irfe df thfc ^Wog, ! 
tof^fxi^e 'the faWe tiatctirally, ^fl drrgthally fo dfep^n^e ot 
apperteine efpecially unto forrign "stnd 'military fervicein the 
feeld ; wher'men of greateft v&lc'w bring appointed leaders 
8r 'comm3[ndet*s of larger or lefler companies attiincRng tip- 
f>bn thetn, and tfdaet- their direftion-; 'cbmmddyite fif tffe, 
tind <eafon, thought it '^eqtjif?te ^hrit eVfery <^f '^hefe fc^flers 
AouTd e^ber ih 'cbltfr dr ?rhprt!fsx:arye *fticlfe (JMcffertce as 
Blight difKngtrltefe and miake •him knoivn fjRfm aH^c^her, 
xvh^rby his fol6Wei*s ^m^ht tWe-Mttcr be^dpt'4dfe difoi'der 
ktid ddnfnfion; wTiWh -bbt'es or irifigSes of af/hies fipft 
fchofen dr tiflof^d Hfnt'o theih fdr^the tyfaife dnd'hfe fef'fli"«r 
fcrvlce, Was afterward rctdiried^By thi^ra ifa t5^ttte oY peace 
. jttid Tit home, tts a ndre^nd teftiftodlfy df 'thfeir Jlhde and 
ffreferrrient rntyme of 'terviee,%i^fo1t tl^e coMttidn'forr,«nd 
l^^harby they ^efe Yeptited as -men df 'ttft>i«e botfe (iV^ is) 
feore Rotable, ^^nB t>y -cdntraftfon 6f »f^€tHe imdfe \idble 
ihah dtH^s. "ffr^heruppon, happdy l^s9 tliHifc, csfine the 
tvord "NMHs, being -the 'fame as ndtnMis^ afad i^eupon 
ihe -fevci^al m^arkfes <fernd devifcs, ivHich ^e tjajl ^/&Enes<}B 
Englifh, are aptljr'^tJd^Tua))' in Laltti^yfed 7/7/i^>tfAi ^miU- 

•Hei^c^IthaH it h^y tfe affo >fh^«ght, ^<hfe(; 'Ajch perfeiis 

and ther IflWfs i^efeyiirng tWe -fkytj rtdte^^f »ti^WlitJ^, Wdie 

iN^euftdmi^d irridMftllosvbi >he Hife ^f ^hcfii^^l t^n^ ^er, 

■ iheBy'tyWfe^dftollit^i*yfci*?We. Hiid -ahlidi^tfe «iey-had 


«Bt thdr or their tasceAors Kormer plates in the &iM of 
kadens, jet (did cfaey AaAl, bedSng now -fto ^h ^itni o^peii 
fa%n» ia iisUd as «foreA^ can-y tipoo chcr (heMs dier 
ftimci^ft aiMBs >airA nates oi ttheir ^aobGiijTite. WJvoriaiffiOQ^ 
as fttithis 4a[f^ <fiu:]!i ipenfoas, iether <tppoa tfaexmoies aflfore* 
f^, or otherwj^ek f or ^y dtber ftoftabk fervke peFfermei 
i)7 them to drercouDiry orxsonmMnrwdtbe, are nowicalkd 
^rm^rif fo -weJ^ they in did tjUDC^ afi- aipperethft fey 4«* 
<»rd, cauled Scutum ia the faint feoite ;a6 v(rt tiow lift 
knfnigffri. Aiidfo^lo J siseade ki tbe itcords (of fC. £d. 
the 3d. that that &id king ia a graunt made *o Joffi^ 
Chatrdet •ettuletih hym ^Scutifer. 


Of the Antiquity of Arms in England. 

fey Mr. AgaIrto. 
2. Nov. 15.98* 

ALTMOXJ^Gti this propofition is ^ fach^cjualiQrika 
I am altcgether ignorante of, asbelogemot able xm 
blaze 'any ^uraiesy yet bscaufeut .is requiDed, ^hat il fiioulde 
brioge fomewhat toth^ boyidinge, JttetTethDught^gcsxl^to 
afoiMie i!hat.ftna]e msiteBr which IconceyvertheFCoF. Ifoppoie 
the firfte^o-^dtne-chtefiy from' the Nonmns, bein^ brought 
in by Edwarde the Confeflbr ; aad^aftdr Aiore pleixtyfailye 
praAiced by^the'Codqneror, ^and the mobles that ^cam hi 
with him. For I Made in ^an olde dironycle 6i ihe lyvea 
of the dukes of Normansdye in IFrendte ivrytf^ tiaQde, 
that WilliiSm Ctee Goaqiiertfr befe^ingXXutifront:; GeefTrey 
JkEarteO, duke of ^^ajoWe c^ne m its jtelu^f. WhersdiP 
W-ilUam underftandinge, ifent Wililum ^te :Fytz 'Olborn, 
Hiegbaalt*de<%Doiitgdt!i«ry, and GdillniiniB JieF-ifitZ'idierry, 
^U wbicb >dam iuso Hj^laiid '4tf»#ij(Mvds fv^Kh !bik>») co 


I ?4 ^ '*' jintiquiiy of Arms in England. 

viewc Gcoffrcycs forces, and to tell him, that on the mor- 
rowe the faid Geoffrey (hould findc him kcapinge the 
gates of D upfront. Which meflage, when Mountgomerye 
had delyvered, Geoffrcye annfwered, Tell duke William 
that to-morrowe I wil be at the gate and will enter if 1 can; 
and becaufe I would have duke William know me, I will 
be mounted upon a whyte courfer, and will beare my 
fliielde all goulde without a deference. To whom Mount* 
gomerye annfwered, Sir, take no thought for that, for to* 
morowe mominge you (hall finde duke William mounted 
heere upon a baye courfer, and bearinge his (hield all 
vermelle ; and becau(e you (hall the better knowe him, be 
will carye on the ende of his launce a ladyes handcarchef to 
wipe your face withalh 

Now after the Conqueror was entered England, in everyc 
place where himfelfe and his nobles buylt eyther theyre 
caftles or theyre abbayes, theye fett forth theyre armes in- 
graveo. Whereas there is not to be feene in anyc old 
buildinges before the Conqueft that any armes weere fet 
up. As for example, the neyther parte of Saint Paules, 
which was Templum Dianae, and built longe before the 
Conqueft, hathe not anye« 

I have perufed Domcfday, and the pleadings in the 
Kinge's Bench and Common Pleas in the Reigns of R. i. 
king J. H. 3. E. i, E. 2. E 3. R. 2. H. 4. H. 5. and in 
none of all thefe Kinges tymes is mencyoned anye contro- 
verfye betwixt partye and partye fbr matters of armes. 
Therefore, as I fuppofe, thofe matters weer handled in a 
peculyer forte by themfelves. And I am the ntther in- 
duced fo to think, for that I finde in a parliament role de 
anno xxiij«>. E. i. in a controverfye betwyxte Refeye and 
Fytz Thomas, about approbryous wordcs, which Fyti 
Thomas charged Refey (hoalde fpeake againfte the kinge,> 
that the fayd Refey gevinge hitn the lye and chalenginge 
the fayd Fytz Thomas^ the fayd chalenge was returned 
out of Ireland into the Kinge's Benche by Walter Hayes 
chyef juftyce in Irelande, and fo was adjorned from daye 
to daye bothe in the Common Pleas and Exchequier, an4 


Of the 4fitq&ky of ^ms in England. 175 

fo at Unigtli: to the pjirliament* The kinge geveth judg- 
inent in this matter, that there were errors foundrye wayes 
in the manner of the proceedings, by theis words, Et non 
fit vjitatumin Rigno ijlo ptacitare in Curia Regis ^ Placita 
de Difamacimihus ; out inter fartes aliquns Duellum cdnfide* 
rare in placitis in quibus ad Curiam Regiam non peftinet^ 
<Syr. ... - ' 

Agayne, Et in hoc erratum efi^ quod ijdem Walterus ij^ 
ali/ diem:Diielli eorum eis ajftgndtum ajfignarent coram' ipjb 
Domino Rege quod fimiliter fuit omnino contra Legem if 
cot^astvsiiniemRegniy ^c, 

, 'And of what great accompte, the fame Normans and 
other Angevyns made of theyre armes of aniiquytle appear- 
eth in a rqie- of the pe^egre of the howfe of earle Warren, 
which is inthc Q^Majefty's'threafaurye, wherein it rs faid 
thatHamelinuS) brother to kinge H. 2<*. after he had 
macyedlfabell^ the daughter and onely heyre of Hie fayd 
howfe. of :W?irren, affumpfii arma Uxorisfu^, et arma pa- 
tris/ui dimifit is heredes fuipofl ip/um, efteminge yt great-* 
tcr "honor to carrye the iuncyent armes of his wiiFes aun- 
ceflors, than his vfathefs, which was a firaungcr. Vobis 
cogentibus feci quod potuk - 

. " / f Arthure Agard. 



.... < 

Of the Antiquity of Arms. 

By Doctor Dotlye. 

IN a queftion which cannot be proved by authorltie, 
probabilites and conjeftures are to be ufed. 
It is very likely that warrs and weapons are almofl coe- 
tanea, as the canfe befor the effeA ; one precedent, the 
other coafequent) and fo are bellum, et arma. 

T ^ 





and aQiCk)uity |^ but aU, wtc!^ Ucgt«. and «|ti ^ recea^rar 

fipm CQk>w> %Q0tw^« and di0erc9Cii, vib^rof cau^ 

the Q«qx« oC /)ia^<2«i» Met the mas voeA notedfiQMF bilB 

valoudT W% termed b^niu 
Warrs at the firft were but rapine, non Hofpes ab H^ft 

fiSi ttaus, wUcb i):>iiebt be properly tennol BelismM)^' 
pmi, but whea cWUi^y produced d^pliae^ uam. v^« 
initialed by difoipU^* 

Then virtue was rewarded with hotjor^ Stnd- CQvaniiitft 
with ihaxne» wbereuppot^ tii# geoerQfiQr of fone ifirits 
defyrous to eii^^eU aod (o bt? w^, did mako thq^: fliiekfa^ 
buGklerQ> or urgats, to b^ve {qf^ fpocwU aotay .whersbjF 
they might be infign^s. J thf rforc by coriofturB conclude 
that tbe aatiquitie of ar(ue$ ^rf anfwcmble iq thoaBtlqaidb 
of warre : ^nd as v^un ^yer« dcTciplioed and martialed* fo 
wore armes alfo poti;d aod reg^fVr«4 wi tbe perfo&ibii of 
tbe ooe did prodace tbo perfe^o«i of tbe o&itu 

Nowe therforo wbeu warrs in SagllAd ^r£t faegao^. cfpo* 
cially by the iovt/ion gf tbe^^onadod ftrapgers^ tfaso af 
warrs, fo armes wear difciplined* 

Armea aQd,£9al«^ wear not coetanea by many delcents^ 
for there is no mention made of feales befor Edward the 
Confeflbry and thea bii iJMkl wm ft arofs drawen uppon 
parchment by his chancelon 

* Scutis protedli corpora longis, Virg^ 8. iEneados. 

Enfe levis nuJl0 F^rmaa^ ln|^9fiq9 41»9« Virg/ . 

Clypeis ante Roman! uuTunt, deinde poft^uam ftipepdiarii fa£H iixQt, 
Scuta pro Clypeis fcccre. I«).viw$« 4. 


6/ the Anttqmtj tf Dukes in England^ tyj 

N<> LflL 

Of the Antiquity of the Name of Dilkc iri 


IBy AJTONtMous. 

a5th Noyember 1598?. 

WE have receaved this Worde duh (vtm the Frenches 
and from the Latine worde dux, which, derived 
from dt4ca, doth comprife in fignification not only guides/ 
fcut alfo leaders in warr6, as well thofe of particular com- 
panies, as the generall of whole armies. And in no other 
fence is that pafTage in Tacitds to be underffode, where he 
fays, that the Germans onr progenitours Reges ex nobili' 
iaie, duces ex virtute fumunt- 

Under the Roman emperours aboiit the tymfi of iElius' 
Verus, as I gather out of Spartianus, not only leader^ m* 
warre, but alfo governors of marches, and outmbft borders, 
beganne firft to be called Duces. And in that notable re- . 
corde of the Romane Empire,' Notitia ProVinciarum, there 
arefpecified 12 duces, which had charge of tfie limits in' 
the weft empire, amonge whom dux Britanniarum was 
one. Yet if I fliould tranflate,* i would not tratillate dust 
Sritanrtiarum, duke of Britayne\ for it appeareth oute of 
fiufebius, where he flieweth how Conftantioc the Create in- 
tented new degrees of dignities, that dux was inferior to* 
cbmeSy and the fam6 appeareth alfo in Caffiodorus. 

After the fall of the Romane Empire, this worde dux was 
ftill retained by the Lombards in Italy for a governor^ as is' 
ftianifeft by Paulas Diaconus, where he flieweth how after 
the death of Clephus, diverfc duce$ were appointed to go- 
vern the territories. That it was then a name of a judicigll 
office rather than of honor, I gather by the patents, whereby 
they were made ducesy the tenor wherof is this taken out of 

Vol* I. Z Marculphusy 

1 78 0/ the Antiquity of Dukes in England. 

Marculphus, who gathered a book of prefidents about 
the year of Chnft 600. 

Pracipue regalis in hoc perfeEla collaudatur dementia^ 

ut inter vniverfum populum bonitas if vigilantia 

reqiiiratur perfonarum^ nee facile cuilibet judiciariam 

, convenit comittere dignitatem^ niji prius Jides^ five 

Jlreiiuitas videatur probata. Ergo cnm W jftdem 
et ut Hit at em tuam videmur habere compertam, ideo 
tibi adiionem Ducatus Comitatus Patriciatus in 
Pago illo quern Anteceffor ttius ufque nunc vifus eft 
egijfe^ tibi agendum^ regendumque commiffimus^ ita 
femper ut erga regimen noftrum fidem illibatam cvf 
todiaSy ire, 

Otho the great about the year 970, as Sigonius ob- 
ferved', to afTure himfelf the better of ferviceable men, 
gave them in feodo, dignitates, which were to be duces, 
marchiones, comites, capitanei, valuafores, and valuaflni ; 
or praedia, mannours, lordfhippes, and landes ; henceforth 
they beganne to be hereditary, and patrimonjall in Italic. 
' Alfo about the fame time in Germanic, dutchies and coun- 
ties were given in Germanye to certaine men and their 
heirs, with the proprieties and regalities.. For before that 
time there were no titles of honour amonge thcGermanes, 
but principesy and Sempfrien, which are thought to have 
teen Barones, 

As yet the name of duke came nott into England, for al- 
beit, we find in Latine hiftorians, that manye duces were 
flayne in the Danifh invafion, yet they were not dukes but 
governors of provinces. For in the Saxon chronicles 
wherout the Latine was tranflatcd, thofe are called Ealdor* 
'men or EorleSy which in the Latine are named Duces. 
And although many in that age fubfcribed their names to 
Latine charters,* with the addition of duXy yet I have ob- 
ferved in the book of Worceftcr, that they which are 
named in fome charters Duces ^ are in other charters of the 
fame yeare called Pr/«n/^x ^nd Comites. And fo we fee 
' that William the Conqueror, whom we commonly called 


Of the AntiquUy of Dukes in England. 

Diike of Normandy, is in the ould Saxon chronicle called 
Eorlcy and every where in Malmefbury, Willhelmus Comes 
Normania. And Alan of Britaine, whom all men do call 
Duke of Britainne, which is thought to^ be the moft aun- 
cient hereditary dukedome, is in that authentic record 
Domefday Booke named Comes Aianiis, and not Dux. His 
fucceflbrs in their charters lliled themfelves fometymes 
Duces, fometimeS Comites : until Philipp the Freqch king 
in the year 1297 confirmed to them the title of Duke of 
Britaine^ Shortly after, tha«ltle of duke was firft brought 
into England by K. Edward the third when he created 
Jiis eldeft fonne Duke of Cornwall. 



N<» LIV. 

Of the Antiquity of Dukes in England. 

By Joseph Holland, 
24***. Nov\ 1598, 

IT appeareth in GefFerey of Monmoutji, that in Cefar*s * 
tyme there were dukes, earles, and barons ; and that 
in order to incouragc them to fight againft the Britons, - 
he gave them greate guiftes of gold and fylver. And Cefar 
beinge drii^en to retyer out of Brytane was the laft man 
himfelf that entered into his (hippes ; alfo in the fame book, ; 
Cador duke of Cornwall is mentioned as having had 
delivered unto him by king Arthur ; 600 knightes and 
4000 efquiers and others men to fight agaynft the Saxons ; 
and Mr. Stowe in his abridgement fayth, that Conftantyne, 
kinfman of Arthur and fonne of Cador duke of CornwalJe, 
was ordanyd king of Erytoilye. 

I have an auncient Saxon charter made by kinge Eadgar^ 
whereunto amongeft divers others, there are fix dukes 
witneiles ; their names are Aelf here dux Aelf heaeh dux : 
Ordgar dux: Ae]?clftan dux: Aefei;^nie dux: Brihtnod 

Z X duxs 

X 8o Of the Antiquiiy •f Dukes in England. 

dux : alfo it is to be noted that in this fame charter, tbjc 
names of the archbyfhops, byihops, aod abbptts, are 
wrirten before thofe of the dukes, 

Hollingftied in his chronicle, fo. 235, recordeth that 
kingc Edgar's fecond wiffe was called Alfreda ; being the 
daughter of Orgar duke of Devon ; by ^yhome hee had 
yfTne Egelthred, that was aftei^ kinge of this landCi and i^ 
buryed in Powtes. 

Duke Wade reyfed warre agaynfl: Ardulfe kii^ of 
Northumberland, and there istmeation of duke Chprihr 
mo^d and- of duke Aldred (HoUingihed fo. 201 .} 

But whether it was hereditary, or but nomen officii 
before the conqueft, I refer it unto them that are better 
Audied therein then myfelfe. 

The firft duke that I finde fence the Conqueft was made 
'by king. Edward the thirde xj» regni fui ; where hee 
made of the earledome of Cprnwayle a dutchye, and created 
the blacke prince his eldeft fonne prince of Wales, duke of 
Cornwalle and earle of Chefter (HoHing(hed, To. 900.) 
And I have a ded made by the fayd black prince, wherein 
his ftile is Edward Difne Fitz de Roy Dengleter and dc 
France, prince de Aquitonie et de Cales, due de Cornwall, 
countc de Chefter, and fegoior de Bifcane. 

Alfo I hiSi-e a letter written by the duke of BockioghaiQ 
UQto the duke ol Yeorke in the tym^ ci king H. 6. the 
faperlcription whereof is. To the He}'gh and myghty 
1^1 kce, the Right Worftiipful, and with all my hatte ay 
iotirely beloved brother the Duke of Yeorke. 

Joseph HoLiND, 

• ■^'■- ' r 


Of$h Anti^uHjf cf Duiis in Mnglini. 281 

N^ LV. 

Of the Antiquity of the Name of Duke in 


By A N o N y M o u s, 
%y, Novcmbris 1590. 

THE name of dux, or duke fignifying a captayneor 
leader, cannot be of kfd antiquity m England then 
ciher civil or forreign warrs, wWch inforceth meft of lefs 
knowledge or experience to range themfelves, and to march 
jinder the condufle of men of grcteft marke for their mar(^ 
tiall featee ; for I take this name rather to importe the * 
office of leading an army, then any note of further dignity 
then belongeth to a captainc. Therefore in Crofius and 
Beda," they are called h^pctosar, and fometyme labwopar or 


The Cronicles fpeke of many duks in tyme of the Brittons, 
as Glorio duke of'Demetia, Coill duke of Kaercolym or 
Colchefter, Cadwanus duke of Venedotia. The Saxons 
often fubfcribed their names to charters by the name of 
duces, as in the charter of Edgar to Weftminfter, Alfere, 
Marchere, Ofluc, and fix other dukes. The like in divers 
charters before and after his tyme. 

Before the conqueft, I fugpofe no further eftate be- 
longed to thefe dukes and leaders then to earles, for 
the condufte of the men of cache fliire belonged 
to the earles of the (here, which are commonly called 
al'eojuneii, that IS princes, though the word be derived from 
aide or olde, as we now fpeke for aldoplicnerr& iignifieth 
authority, and al&epbome, fuperiority and primacy; and 
orphans, that are deftitute of fuccour, arc termed 
alDopleara. And feldome in the Saxon cronicles are they 
termed hepetojar, for that the name of Alderman implied 
more then heretoge, or captiayne, yet an. domj. 1003. yt 
is feid, that iElfric, alderman, having the condufl: of Wilt- 
fiiere men againft the Danes, detraftcd the battel fayn- 


til Of the Antiquiiy of Dukes in England. 

CroB. Sax. Jng himfelf fick, fo that his people returned back for 

(onne fe hijieto^a taca^ |:onRe bi^ eall r* lifrjw^ fP^ jehjnbpat. 

if the captayne fayle, the whole hofte is hyndred. This 
proveth the name Alderman to comprehend heretoge within 
yty confiderlng that both in this and al other places of the 
Cronicle, fuch as have the leading of the forces of each 
ihere have no other addition, but only aldojimen. But 
the Danifti captains are called Eorles, as an. 871. Atbei- 
wulfe fought with ij. eorles at Englefeld, and flew one 
of them called Sidroc, but iiij. nights after about Readings 
Athelwulfe aldorman was flayne, and fowre nights after 
that king Aethered and Alfred his brother fought with 
them at Aefeefdune, there the Danes divided their battel 
i% two, Bacgfeg and Healfdene lead the one, and their 
eorles the other : king Aethered fought with the com- 
pany that the hethen kings lead and flew Bacgfeg 

ealpfieb peahv pi^ |;ajia eojila jetpuman •] j^aefi peapi pbpoc eopift 

orr^^x-n r&eaba*7 o/beafin cople. This IS the firfl place wher- 
in I read the name of eorle, and long after this I find no 
Saxons called Eorles. In the charter of. Edgar made to 
the abby of Weftminfter, dated the xvij. yere of his raigne, 
an. dom. 974, I find thefe witnefies, Elfere dux, Ethel- 
wine dux, Britnode dux, Oflac dux, Ethelbardus dux; 
but the Saxon Cronicle calleth the aldormen, an. dom. 983. 

Alfhepe eal&opman i:op5f»pbc, an. dom. 992. A|?clpme ealbopman 
jejrop, an. 991. BpihtnoS ealbopman fa^ ofr.lejen. Where 

Aethclwarde writeth that Herblthus dux a Danis in loco 
Merfe Undarum trunoitus fuit. The Saxon Cronicle faith 

an. dom, 838. HepebjviS cahopman paep oprlejen ppom hej«num man-* 
rium *) monijc mcnn mib h;m on piepfc-p apurn^ St. Edward V**. 

Kal. Jan. 1066, made two feveral charters of fundry pof- 
feltions to the abby of Weftminfter, wherto the fame men 
being witnefles fubfcribe to the one by the name of Duces, 
to the other by the name of Comitcs ; viz. to the. one thus, 
Haroldus dux, Edwin* dux, Leofwinus dux, Gyr^e dux. 
To the other Haroldus dux, Edwinus comes, Gir^e 
comes, Leofwinus comes, Morkerus comes. Now the 
Saxon Cronicle calleth them generally eorles and not dukes 

an. dom. 1054. utla^o^ron hcopa eopl Toptiis. And again, com Ha- 
polt> co;.l ; and an, icfitf. the fame Cronicle faith, ^ hcoqi pi?5 pcahc 


Of the Dignify and Antiquity of Dukes. 183 

(Dojikc|\c eonl and eabpjnc copl. la the charter of Wul- 
phere made to Medha ftede now Peterborough, it is faid. 
Ego Wulfere Rex cum Sociis regibus Chrifli Patribus, ac 
ducibus, banc donatione" confirmavi, wherto fome fubfcribe 
by the name of Kings, fome by the name of Bifliops, and, 
laftly, divers by the name of Princes : which muft needs be 
referred to thefe whom the king calleth Duces, for that 
no other but of thefe three forts doe fubfcribe at all. i 

So in myne opinion dux, comes, Aldorman, eorle, here- 
toge, ladleow, are names of like dignity; but dux, here- 
toge & ladleow implye-not fo much as comes, alderman, 
eorle, which are names of offices belonging as well to peace 
as warre, and that by virtue of this office they were princes. 

No LVI. 

Of the Etymology, Dignity, and Antiquity 

of Dukes. 

By Mr. Doyly. 

LES anciennes apanages du Fils da Roys de France 
portoit titre des Comptes^ Le Compte d*Anjou, 
Compte de Poiftou, Compte d'Eureux, Compte d'Athoi^. 
En quelques Aftes & inftrumenis du Conville & de 
Toilette en la Subfcription fe trove ; 

Adulphus Comes Scautiarum, Be Dux Venedarius Comes 
Scautiarum & Dux, Ella Comes 8c Dux, Faudilu Comes 8c 

Les Dues portent la Courrone a haulte Fleurons. Alciat 
le Jurifconfult dift que de cefle marque n'en fcauroit tro- 
ver que trois ou 4. come le Due de Milan, de Savoye, & 
de Burgoigne. 

Le Due ordonnant fes Battailles dolt avoir fon Cheval 
couvert des fes armes, & luy auffi ; & doit avoir fur fon 
fieaulme de telle, un Chapillet d'or bien riche, en lignl- 


1 14 0/ tbi DfgMify and Jntiquity of Vkhs} 

fiance qu'il foit Due. £t doit avdr uoe Badnitre & peodaV 
£t doit eftre aecompagne de 400 Lances, & fk Baoiere de 
autant, & le geos de traidt al avetiant & avec Itiy, fes 
Comtes & {ts &rrons ^ et fi il oi^cme fes bataitles a pied, 
il doit defcendre foubs fa banniere^ qut doit edre d^efchelles 
avecs fe$ Contes & Baroas. £t sll ordonde fa* Bataiile af 
Cbeval, il doit fairc foti debfvoir jufqucs a' eftre mort ou- 
pris. Car Ic Roy foa Souvairain eft tenu de le vei^er, & a? 
tirer hors de prifon.' Et pour ce peiilt izueux advaaturer 
Une Due qu^'un Roy, cD quelque Bataiile que fe foit. 

A duke had 4 contes, an earle 4 barons, a bso^on had 4 
eaftelfhips, a captain 4 fiefs. 

Ordinairament, ftir iz Contes y avcMt un JOi/f, come 
fcs Lieutenans Generauls dcs Provinces d' a prcfent Com- 
xnaundent aux Gouverneiirs particuliers des Places. £t ce 
Due commandoit aufdits xii Contes, & a leufs gens du' 
guerre les Due, 5^c. 

N<» LVir. 

Of the Etymology, Dignity, and Antiquity 

of Dukes in England. 

ByMr, Agard. 

IHa V^E thought good to fett downe the reafofii rhatih- 
duced me to prefs fo earoeftlye the reexamination of 
our former conferences, for this caufe onely, viz. That it 
feemeth to me in that there was not in anye of our formet 
propofitions anye judyciall or fynall cooclufion fetk doWne^- 
tvherby wee might fay this is the judgement or right opf» 
f^yon that is to be gathered out of everye man's fpeache. 
So- as leavinge each quellion undecyded, our afiemblye' 
might be rather demed a courte dF MoreJ^each^ as in old' 
fyme there was fuch an one at Oxford, than a learned con- 
fereaee. Therefore I wiOie this abgfe (as I t^e yt under 


Of the EiymUigfafid jhHfmi) nf TMta. x %i 

yam better cbrrecfioa aad refofmtc^on) migkt hi otir nowe 
meetings be reformifd. And that oppda.erery p^Qt, rmA 
beidg heard, the fbttodefl jddgedieiits might be thereupjpoil 
concluded. But now to this propofitionj Oftbi Etymohgyf 
Dignity^ md Aniitpiity' of Dukes in England. 

I reade in aconclufion made j^ter king Ed^^rd th^ 
Cotsfd&)r*s kw^ that after the realme was (hyred, thd 
fame fiiyres wet^ ccstimyttefl to the go^erntntnr of foffid 
oae great per&n for dae keeping of the peaxre, aad which: 
perfoos werereccyvediDtb tbeyre government! 3n this forte. 
THe finan of worthe of that ihyrc or pfovence aflembled' 
to meet him at a plact appoynted, and fo dyfmounted ffotn 
theyre Jiorfes and came with reverence to him ; and with 
theyre weapons, as lances, and fuch lyke, touched the 
toppe of his ftafFe, ^nd fo thereby promyfed him to be his 
followers, and to be under his conduft for the prefervation 
of the peace, and gave him. that tjiitle Dux, i* e, their cap* 
fain under the prince for the rule of that province. H« 
liad afithbrytye to apj[>oynte tinder oSicerd in that hi^ 
place, fome over ten towrres, which, were called DecdnosA 
quafi Caput Decimarum Villarum, fome over hundreds^ 
which weere called C€nt9natios% and fome oter iij. hun- 
dreds called Tithings. Thefe great perfons weere called 
Aldermanniy non propter feneEiutem^pd propter fapiefitiam. 

Some of thefe I find called in charters Dux, aqd in fome 
other places Comes. As Edward the Confcffo in tiis raf^- 
fycatioo of the foundation dn. 1043 of Cov'entrye, calleth 
Lcofric venerahilis Dux^ yea and the wirneflfes to the fartie 
as well the fame Lcofrrc as Godwin, Harold, Swyard, 
Sweyne, Tofto, and Randulphus. Moft of thefe are 
called in other charters but Comites, fo as in theyre govern- 
ment they weere called Duces, and for the king^s pleafure 
called Comites. 

KingeEdbald in his charter of land given to St» Auften's 
of Canterbury, dated an. 618. fetteth downe divers wit- 
ncflcs who are neither called Earls nor Dukes, as Egbar- 
tus, Erambertus, Suerdus, &c. 

King Ofwyn lykwife dothe the lyke. 
Vol. !• A a Yea, 

i 8 6 Oftbt AHtt^uitj and PriiJileges of CafiUs. 

Yea, andyt ^ppeareth that the eaft kings had maoya 
kings under them, ibme called Kings and fome Duces. As 
king OfTa in his charter hathe thefe Mritnefles, EzfndJXui 
regis, Brordran dux^ Adelard princips. 

King Kenulphos in his charter hathe thefe witncflTcs ia 
this order ; Edapeard dux, then the quetnc Einheloiy dux 
Bernhered prepofitus, Endred rex, Tydnttlf dux, Swidcn 
eom^s ; and fo duXf comes, and prepofitvs are intermingled 
one with another, in fo mnch that they (eem to bare 
been of equall authorit}'e before the Conqueft, Since the 
Conquefte, I finde no duces before Idng Henry the 3d*8 
time. How they are created I leave to the heralds. 


N^ LIX. 

Of the Etymology, Antiquity, and Privileges 

of Caftlcs in England. 

By Mr. Agard. 
9. Feb. 1598. 

AS to the Eiymolpgy of the name, I will leave that 
point to be difcourfed of at large by thofe who 
have trayvailled in readinge authors of other nations and 
languages, for my own part not differiog from fach who 
Qfteem caftles to be no other than forts made by coQ'* 
querours or their under lieutenants, wherin and whereby 
their fouldicrs and followers might be retyred and kept 
falfe from th' incurfioiis of their adverfaries. 

In regard to the antiquity of caflles I thinke the fanoe to 
have bcnnefrom Ceafer's tyme, for twoe caufes efpecially; 
the one, becaufe thofe holdes or bates refemble mooftly 
the firAe foundation of the capitoll of Rome, as I have 
feen it defcrybed, namely, that the chief tower thereof 

7 was 

C^ tbe Anti^ity and Privittges €f Cafiles. x 87 

ivas but a circular buildings and a court treojched about 
ivith an hye dytche and fome fmale walle thereupon. In 
many places of this realme where thofe olde rounde towers 
weere feytuated in caftles, theyre weere mounted higher 
than the refte of the caflle, and had ia the fame a deep 
dungeon at leafie x. or xij. fathom deep, and a well of 
of water. Such high towers were called, yea and yet are 
called the Keape^SixA in fome countreys the Juillet. The 
country people being aficed what they mean by Juillet, 
will auafwere JuUus Cafar's Tower. In 4 places in Eng- 
lafide, I have harde tbe fame. Three of thefe have beene 
made with round towers, and the fourth with a tower 
four fquare. The fir ft is Tutbury Caftle. The feconde 
the caflle in Cambridge, where I, being a fchoiar there, 
iaw the Jtulkt flanding, but it hath been fi/ice in my 
tyme defaced. The third rowndeone is yet flandinge at 
Warwycke, and the fame, to my xemembrance, is men- 
cyoned by Cealar in his Commentaries to have been built 
by him. None ^of thefe three can be eafely pearced, I 
mean the mortar of them, wJith a pyckeaxe, whereas others 
of a latter building will eaielye be beaten downe. The 
fourth is in the Tower of London, called by fome th$ 
Cradle^ and by others the JuilUty id eft, Julius Tower ^ 

Thefe towers or fortes weere at the firft of fmale conr 
tent, and fufiyced to hold a fmall garryzoa to keep in awe 
a whole countreye of unarmed people, and fo contynued 
without enlarginge anye wayes all the time of the Brittons 
and the Saxons, yea, and of the Danes alfii. For I read 
ia the hiflorye of Normandye, wrytten in Frenche, that 
when Sweyne king of Denmark entered this realme againfte 
kiage Aired or Alured« to revenge the aigbt daughter of 
tbe Danes done by the Saxons of £aglan4e, he fufodued 
;ill before him, h^cauie there were no fortes or caftles to 
TyithQiande or flop him« And the reafon yelded, is be** 
cauie the fortes of England, for the moft part, weer buylte 
after the 1^9rnuLns pofleHed the rea]m<e. Th^ wordes b^ 

iLbe& ; 

iftft ' Of tie ^tifuiiy ^ PHifHtgtf ^f Q^lis^ 

Suen le Say des Ihlno^s aU parmy jlngUterr^ ctnpterani 
ft ne Luy oantret&foit hn nuUe cho/equil vouJJift fAire^ car 
krs ii n'^iv^it que pon on nulUs forteffis^ 4t its y mt Puys 
fait fair^ ciUes qtti y fofvt Us I^rmans quant & dip»y$ 
qtiUs conqui/innt k Pays. 

So afs 1 am p^rfwadied tkat $& the Saxons found tb« 
IKaime Without ftronge hddcs and fo Aibdued the BritODS, 
m lyke- cafe ,the Daaes expelled and vanqwfliiai cbem, 

Laftiy, the Noripans conquered them all, and ererye 
earle afterwards fupplied with larg« boildipges t)ie fame 
Juilkts, which have kepte theire names to this day. Yea 
tfee (ame hav« had this pryvetl^dge never to be rafed, but 
as it weere rather to be preferred, favinge th^t for waat 
of i'epara lions fotne of them have decayed. 

In tlie tjme of kinge Stephen, when aa accorde was 
made betwyxt him and the epipefs Maud and her 
fonne, yt wa$ then ordered (becaufe that the Gai4>nle$ 
that then arofc fprange cheiflye uppon the fortes of noble- 
men newlye boUte, and ftrenghthend in fo greate a mnlU* 
tude) that therp ftoiilde be rafcd to the nomber of xi<^. 
and XV; ftronge holds. Myne atithor Is a le^er book in 
Mr. Walter Cope's cnftodyc, intltlcd Regiftrnm frioratu^ 
de Dtinftaple; and his words axe thefe, 1154. Concordid 
fafki tfi inter Regem- Stephdmtm if Dueem Henricum quem 
I^ex arr^gavit in Fitium if SttcceffiretH, j4ddit9 quad Mu- 
fiicictifs Reges iewpore fundaia diruerentur^ quarum nU' 
pshts itfquam ad nndecimum Centum xv, excrev'tt. 

But now ttyrctarnc to my Norman hiftorye, which I 
wrll ccmfirme -by the teftymonye of the moofte anncyent 
recordp of the landt, which is the took of Domefday. 
And I wjll fhewe that after theConqaeror bad difpofed to 
his nobles t^eyre (tores of Ms conquefte,' the fame nobles, 
with theyre friends and followers', dfewe* themfelves into 
thelirnponge holds, aiid there forftJyed and kepte theyre 
gftn*y^Df for the k^piftge under (^ the conquered, who 
jnudi fcpined ^aii>fte thofe ufurpers, and privily mufdred 
^hem, as they fpunde occafyon and oportunyte, where* 

t'PFPP f^S H!?gS^ W? ConquCTof, prdeyned the ftatute, 


0/MJifiiquify and Prhifigu ^ Caflhfi «|9 

intituled Mordruoi. But leaving that matter, I cease to 
the courfc which thefe gallant conquerors ufed ;in theyre 
feverall governments, They gave to theyre followers, : 

which weere, as their charters are inticled. Omnibus Baro^ 
nibus et Homimhus /uif, tarn Francbigenis ^ttam Anglis, 
Sec. Frenche, Englifte, Jkc. ati the. lands about the fame 
caftlcs, to hold of them by Caftle warde, as alfe by yddlnge/ 
fome of them rente, and fome of them horfes, how^ds,' 
vidnalls, &c. The fame courfe 6\i Edward the 6rfk 
hold in the conquefl: of Wales. For he bound the hor^ 
derers of the caftles to yeild corn for fouldyers, provender 
for horfe$, rent, &c» as apppeareth in fundrye Welch«f 
accompts, which rents are to this day, contynued in de- 
maiinde, and payde. In a late Shropfhyre account are 
thcfe words, Reddit Wardam or Cuardam ad Caftrtcm Salop 
ft A-oeram vie. Et pro Motfee, id /fft, profofdto Cajirl 
purgando vet mundando^ viij^. And fo again Tenemhntum 
de nobis per Servicium inveniendt unum Homkiem cum 
Hambergenio dd citjiodiend. tajifum nqftrum de Mungum^ 
piety pro XL . dies fumptibus fuis propriis tempore -Cuerre* 

Thcfe nobles, I fay, built and founded foundry ftrong^ 
holds in the realme, whereof I will mention fome as they 
arc fet down in Domcfday. 

Wolvhani, rex. Dorfct. 

Montague, com. Mortton. " • Somcrfit. 

Caftetlum in viila ibifT. qiouc 

CafteUum Eftrighorcll fecit 

Comes Wilis, item ficrcheiay. 

Duddelei. * Wigom. 

CafteUum de Cliford W*. Comes fecit. Hcrcf. 

Ewias CafteUum W*. Comes reformavit. 

Pro caftello xxviii. domus deftrufte. Cant. 

Kockinghm' wafta fpit quamd. ReK Wills juflit ibi No^th^' 

CafteUum fiferi. 

iiij. Domus vafte propter fitum Caftri. ' Warv. 

Henr. de Ferreres habet Caftdlnm de Totebyrye. staff. 

Jpaftejlain Comitis occupavit Ij. Manfi|ras, Sjo« 


I $C^ Of tUAntiquiPf and Privileges of Cafiksl 

RdOgerius Comes conftruxit Caftrum MoDgomerie voca- 
tum Meze(berie £t ibi fecit Raioaldus Cafteilam Luure. 

£bor. in Civitate Eborac. tnulte Domas deftruAe propter 
Caftelluai et vie. teAatiir illam domQm ia Cafiellam pro- 
ximo anno poft deftru6lionem CaAellorum* 

^^-^^^ Propter Cafiellum deftru^e fuerant CL xvj. manfure 

et Ixxiiij. extra meta' Caftelli waftate fuDt per paupertatem 
ec igmum Uftiooenk 

^^*' lo Hundr^ de Rocheibrt Ragomeia in hoc manerio fecit 
Swenus fi^tum Caftellum. 

And fo foundry others which nunc prefcribere looguoi 

The privilcgi^ of thefe caAIes weer moft Iarge» Ax. the 
begynning they had power of life and death ; they kept 
their boftage$ therein ; they imprifoned and tortured 
Aeyrt rebells and fub]e£ls, fecundum deliShtm : they were 
fitppliod with all fervices of necdTary provifyons ; and at 
tt^ day ibme of them holde foundry liberties for the levy- 
iog of theyre rents. As at Rocbefter^ if a man fail in the 
' paymenl of bis rent of C»ftle Garde on St. Andrew's feaft, 
ke mufte every tyde stfter vntil he payeth it dubble the 
fii!De» ibds it wiU in fnfull time rife ad infinitum. Agam» 
if a man be arrefted and takea into feme caftle, his fees 
arc cxceiBve both by dayc and night. At Tutboryc 
Caftlc in Staffprd&irc, I have jioown that when a diftreffe 
be taken for aiiy of the queen's debts and put into the 
caftle, the owoier rouft pay the debt before he depart 
thence> *nd alfo pay for everye hoofe i. peujay, that is for 
jcvery foote of the beafts, horfe or (hcep (to my remem- 
jbrance) a penny at the leaft. Y^^ I have fjgen one neigh- 
bour in mallyce dryve his cnemyes pattaile thyther, and 
Hh.e partye who was the owner toth b^en forced to replevy 
his faii cattaile ^t that price, Put this vyolence, thinks 
be to God, is, by our long peace, and by the laws of the 
realme in effeft quite abrogated, or elfe fuppreffed, which 
I pray Cod may ftill dyminifh for the peaceable preferva- 
•|^g^ of our pripce and realiiDe, and that thp names of tljefc 


O/ the Antiquity and PriviUges of Capler. i^t 

caftles be changed from Nides de Tlranme to Indigefta 
Moles by theire ruins, 

I will conclude my difcourfe with a Qtorf kng agoeddy* 
vered by a worthy man, whom I harde fpeake ir, aod it 
was this. When Goodyn bifliop of Winchefler was oar 
embaflador in Fraunce ia king H. viijth*s tyme, whilft he 
was fyttiflge in difcourfe with Frauncys the Frenche kinge 
at dinner, the kinge recounted to the bis(hop the multi- 
tude of ibonge townes, fortes, and cafiles that weere in 
Fraunce, and oowe fayd the kinge. My lord.bisfliop, I do 
not hear that you in Englaunde have any fortes or caftles. 
Yes;, fayd the bis(hop to the kinge, wee have two. Which 
are thofe fayd the king. Marye, Sir, aufwered the bis/hop, 
Salifbury Plain and New Markett Heath, where if ib be 
aDy enemye oiFer to enter our land, we have xl. thoufande 
men at eyther place in a day or twoo*s warninge, to give 
their enemyes fuch a welcome, that but few would be able 
to take to their fhipps againe. 

Per me Arthur Agard. 

The Etymology, Antiquity, and Privileges 

of Caftles in England. 

By Anonymous. 

CASTELLUM according to the grammarians is de- 
duced, as a diminutive, from caftles, and that from 
cafa, becaufe a caftle included in it many fmall cottages. 
Defire of fecurity and defence was the originall of caftles, 
which after by abufe, became places of offence to the con- 
fining neighbours^. Such places of defence, caufed by ne- 
ceffity, were as auncient in this country as elfwhere. For 
that ther were caftles in Britainne held out by the Brittons 
againft the invading Romance, appeareth by this paflage of 


f^ Of.&e jHtipiity Md Prittikgit tf TMtoi; 

. Dirue •. Mauramm atttgias^ if caftra Jirigantum ; 

as alfo by another in Tacitus in Vita Agrioola:* 

«Tbe 'Saxoni^ had alio their caftles, \vhich they called 
Cefter ajid Cafier, and yet the Scots call Loacaftell^ aod 
Donca(beU> tbofe places which we call Laocafter and Don* 
cafier^ The piaces of ftrength alfo, which they called 
Fcaftdes» and Burgh^ were nothing els but ca(Ues^ 

William the Conqueror after bia arrivall^ to alFtire h!m- 
lelf aad bridle the EngliOi, built divers caAlea. But ia 
the turbulent time of king StiEjpfaeo caftles were every 
Ub. I. where reared by the advarfe £a£lfoQd ; and fid Newbrigenfi^ 
*^* **• filith, Erant in AngHa quodamodo tct Regei vet p^ius Ty* 
r/mnif quot domini Caftelkrwn^ which would have their 
mints^ and prefcribe laws to thdr neighbours t and, as 
Matthew Paris in Minori Hiftoria callctfa thetn> were the 
very neftei of deviiles, and deanes of chides; Infottiiieh 
that after the agreement made between Stephen, and H. 
the 2'*. 1115. caftles in England Were raued, whfch 
Roger Wetldc'ver caU^b Caftra Aduhei ina, and it was not 
lawfull afterward to build caftle-lyke, unlefs fpecial licence 
were obteined of the kiog, which they called Licentla Fir* 
mandi Sc Kerneliandi. 

N^ Lxr. 

Of the Antiquity, Etymology, and Privilege 

of Towns. 

By Josfi^H HOLLAN0. 
22. June 15^9. 

AS the dpfire of defence againfl: injuries of the aire was 
the firft motive of building cottages and houfes, io 
the naiurali defire of mutuall fociciye was the occailon of 
joining houres together, and confequently of villages* 
After, as mifchiefe eacreafed, neceiSiie of defence againfl 


Of ibi Attiiquify and Prhilege of fmns. "^9% 

violence was the caufe of building caftles fortified with 
wallcs and trenches. But when they were not fufficient 
to receive all foch as retired unto them for refuge, they 
beganoe for more fccuritye to build townes well fenced, 
which the Latlnes in that fence called Opida^ ab ope danda. 
Or according to Varro, lib. 4. de lingua Latina, Maxi* 
mum acSficium eft bpidum, ah ope di^fufn, quodmunitur 
opts gratia^ ubi Jint^ ^ quod opm efi ad vitam gerendam^ 
ubi habitent tute s vel opida, quod tpere munibant mcenia 
yuo munitius ejfet* * 

The townes of the Britainnes were only fenced groves^ 
which they called Luen^ and 7tef, But when the Ro- 
mans came hither, and uppon Occafions encamped in fon- 
drye places, they began to build within thofe fortified 
places; and ffich encampings of the Romanes was the ori- 
ginall of manye townes in Europe. The learned 6ermanes 
think tfa^t Sted^ and Btadt^ which in their tongue and ours 
ligaifieth a towne, are derived a Siativis Romanorum, 
' As for opidum and urbs among the Romans, both in this 
country and elfewhere, I fee them ufed indifferently for 
one and the felf fame place. And Suetonius calleth Ca- 
malodunum, which was a colony^ and Verulamioim, which 
was Municipium, onely pracipua oppida^ as Ammianus 
Marcellihos calleth London Vetus Oppidum. 

This word towne, now in ufe, is thought to be a meare 
EogKfh W(H'd derived from tynan to enclofe, and brought 
in by the Englifh Saxons out of Germany, as were thorp, 
ham, fter^ 8cc. And yet I have not obferved this termina- 
tion in any towne of Germany where they inhabited. 
Neither can I fuppofe they found it here, as they formed 
their Chefter, Cefter, and Cafter deftorted from the Latine 
Cafirum, unlefle we may think the word town to be 
wrefted from the old British worde dun, which, as Clitipho ^ 
a Greiek0 author reporteth, fignified ari highe place. And 
certaialy many places which sire highe fituated, had their 
termination in this dun or dunum, as Maridunum, Camah* 
dununiy C^mbodununtf Sorbiodunum, Segodunum, ^c. and 
heqce i^ may be that we^all high places Downs. Alfricus 

Vol. I. Bb tranflatelb 

^$4^ ' Of Parijhis. 

traaflateth mons by dun^ and alfo EnglUhed opidwn a fadS* 
nes, and villa a towne. 

There ys a booke in the Excbeaqucr called Nomina Vil- 
lariim, made 9. £• 2. of all the villages and^ towns is 

Ko LXI. 

^ Of Parifhcs. 

By the Same. 

THE word parijby we borow from tho Trench paroiffef 
that comes from the Latin farochia, and this from 
the Greek parochosy which fignifieth preJUter^ and had (as 
fuTinC^n- B^^^^s affirmeth) its originall, ab exhibitione fanElifici 
iUntino. crujliili, Aunciently the portion of land afligned to old 
.fouldiers was fo called. 

But though parochia Cometh neerer to the letter, yet 
paroecia agreeth better with the fenfe, as defigning accola- 
turn or accolarum cofivenium. They both with moft 
writers are ufed promifcuoufly. 

A long time after the Chriftian religion was planted *; 
they tokened the blftiops diocefles, or circuits fubjeft to 
religious houfes, when as well the idoU temples, turned 
to Chriftian churches, as thofe builded of new by devout 
people, fervcd only for cathedralls or monafteryes, to 
which the next inhabitants reforted, for receiving inftruc-^ 
tion, and exercifing Chriftian rites, or for that purpofe, 
flocked to the monks and clerks, as they traveyled through 
the countrey. Therfore in old writers you have frequent 
mention of archbifhopps, bifhops, and moncks ; as alfo 
of preifts, clerks, and deacons to aflift the bifhops, bat of 
parifties, parfons, vicars> incumbents, or curates, none 
at all, 

* Eeja, L i. cap. at. 30. 1. 3. cap. 7. ix. 1$. a8. lib. 4. Cap. 5. Pont. 
viruni foL Z07. Henry Hunt, fo. 185. Galf. Moa« fo..|i. Mat. Weft. 


Of the Antiquity of meafuring Land in Cornwall. 1 9^ 

This orderly forting of Diocefles into parilhes was firft 
cftabliftied at the councel of Lateran, but when it took 
effeft heer with us in England, I muft not fay : Holinfhed 
only noteth that the fame began fince the conqacft, and 
fo leaveth us without any farder light. 

Thefe our parifhes take their names, 'cither from their 
head faint, or from the fcire, or from the lordftiip in which 
they ftand, or from the fancy of the firft devifer. 


» - » 

Of th45 Antiquity, Variety, and Etimology 
of Meafuring Land in Cornwayl, 

By Anonymous. 
20. Nov'. 1599.* 


I^HE meafuring of Land in Cornwayl fliould feem to 
be auncient, becaufe the manner and termes thearof 
*do differ froni thofe in other parts of the realme, for feeing 
we find not whence it hath been borrowed, wee may the 
inore probably conjeftu^e, that the fame was bropght in 
by the Britons at their firft inhabitance, and fo ever fince 
retayned. Howbeeit, . the ufe thearoff in former time 
was not very great. For within memory of their fathers, 
who now live, the moft part of the countrey lay in com- 
pjon, only fome parcells about the villages weer cnclofed, 
and a fmall quantity in land fcores allotted out for tillage. 
But when the people began to encreafe in pumber, thofe 
more mouthes fcarcened the corne, and fo confequently en- 
baunced the price ; and the gainefuU price drew the inha- 
bitants to enlarge, and (though with extraordinary charges) 
(o extend their tillage into the commons, which for the 

B b ^ better 


J 96 Of the /hiiquily 9f meafuring Land in CortmM^ 

beaer manurancc and fafet prefervlng, they divided, in-i 
clofed, and fo .reduced to be fevered. 

Through thefe means thofe who formerly bad great 
ftore of corne brought weekly to their marketts out of De- 
von, did in a /hort time after, prepare and fend yeerly 
a^ far larger quantity into other parts beyond the feas. 

The making of thefe enclofures, which they terme cbfes^ 
drew them to a greater need, ufe, and knowledge of mea- 

At firft every tenement (which they call a Bargayne) 
did ordinarily confifl of a plow land, and that of about 6q 
acres, if the ground wear geod» or mor? if barrayner, but 
jnoft of thefe Bargaynes, cfpecially neer the fea fide, 
have £riience been fub-divided into lellcr portions, and 
converted into newer dwellk^s, ^ 


The variety confifteth not In itfelf. For throughout 
the whole (hire the ffleafure of grouftd is one, but in com? 
parifon with other countyes it diflereth from them, i% 
inches make a foot, 9 foot a ftade, 2 (laves a land yard, 
1 60 land yards an Englifh aker, and 30 akers of good {bi| 
a farthing. More is taken in meafure, ^^here the ground 
is meaner in goodnes ; 4 farthings goe to a Cornifli aker, 
and 4 fuch akers to a knight's fee. 

Note, That in Cornwayl, the relief for a knight*s fee? 
amountexh but unto five marks, and is called Fee Morton. 

Etymology. - 

Clofes are derived from the Latin woord Claufus. The 
Comifh men terme them by thb Englifli, parch. 

Bargayrij of bargayning with the lord of the land, for 
the taking' therof, and that of the French woprd bergaigner^ 
jn Cornifti tre ferveth for that, and a towne and village, 
Inche commeth fronj uncia^ in Cornifli mifne. 
Foot of the Dutch Vf oox A fuefs^ in Cornifh trouz. Staffs 
pf the Dutch Jlabj in Cornifh Igrgh^ Fpr laijd yard 
fitn^lipf to Corpii^ f^uce ffeff. 



Of ibe Antiquity of Dimtnfi^ns uf Land. 

Ahr^ of aclier^ in Duch ^feild^ in Cornifti erroow. 
Farthing of the Duch viert ding, a fourth part, as Itji 
proportion it holdeth, in Cornifti ferthen teere^ 
Fet oi feqdum^ and that oijides. 




Of the Antiquitye, Etimologie^ and Variety^ 
of Din)^ntions of Land in England^ 

DIMENTIONS of land are ftriaiy to be taken for 
the meafure of land acxordaog to the quaotitye of 
the ground. They be called by the Latins Mmfura intir- 
valiorumf and differ from divjfiones terranm, here m Eng* 
^nd in this fort. 

DiviJioHS, we term thofe that are diftin^ns and feve- 
ranees c^ places, for the better government of them> in A 
politick refped, as (hiresy hundreds^ lathes, wapentakes, 
ridingeSy tithinges, and fnch like, 0f which I will fet 
dowoe nothing bycaufe they are out of this queftion^ and 
may make a fitt matter of difcourfe of themfelves< Hence 
inoCifr ordinarie fpeech, a perfon is faid to be a juffice of 
peace, or officer, in fuch a divifidn^ 



CaruBy or 



Ploughs landf 


Yard landm 



ptmentiptis of lands 
with us are topo- 

- graphical diftinc-^ 

Indefinite and in- 
ceriain, according 
to the cuflom of 
the place, as 



Definite and cer- 
tayoe^ as an 

Holin: cIct 
fcrip* Brit, 
fol. 4«. nu. 

OJ the Antiquity of Dimen/tons of Land. 







I Rood. 
_ Half acre. 

Oi the topographical dilllnflions that are indefiaite. 

Hide is taken to be a ploughe land, as mutch as one 

•snight keep a teem on, and land fufficlent of arable, hay, 

and feeding. The ufe hath been in old time to tax the 

fubjeAs withe payments and munition for the defence of 

the realm according to the hide. Thus Ethcldredwho 

was king of England; an° 978. taxed everye 310 hiies at 

jsi ihip, and every 8. hides at an armor for one man, for 

defence of the realm againft the Danes. Yet did the fame 

^king leave his crowne and land to Swain, king of Danes, 

sin^ 35. fui regni, anao domini 10 12. 

' Bidefand is takep for a family ; becaufe it is as mutch 

land as one family ufed to live on, and manure. 

Thus the Ifle of Thaoet in K^t, b^d 600 families or 
hidelandes, as Beda de.Ici:ibethe. 







"are divers termes, which have all one figni- 
fixation withe hideland, but are ufed in divers 
countries. As in Lincplnfhire for hideland, 
-^ they ufe carrucate, cartwear, or teemwear, 
which is as mutche as they may work with 
one teem of horfes or oxen: and in ^c 

^Northe oxgang is moll ufual. 

TarJ land is a term ufed in the common fielde countries, 
as Northampton ^nd Leicefter (hires, and is much lefs thea 
a plougheland. For in the beft fogies whiche afk moft 
toyle, 3 yard land is but a plough land : in the lighter 
groundes, 4 or 5 yard go to a plough. They have be- 
' ionging to them, the pafture or lea growoii, and mcdpw 

7 proper- 

Of the Antiquity of Funeral Cerefnonleil 19^ 

proportionable to their arable : in fome countries they 
confift of more acres, as 60, or 50. and in other countries 
of lefs, as 40, 30, and 20. But generally it is obferved, 
that in the beft grownds, as there are fewer yard lands to 
the ploughc-land, fo they though they have fewer acres 
to the yard land, yet the goodnefs recompenfeth the 

Furlong is taken fometime for a greater quantitye of 
land, fometime for a leflcr, but is not of any certeyne 
quantitye definite. 

Piddell or Fidelia is ufed for a little fmale dofc, and as 
k femethc is fo called of Pes a diminitive, as underAanding 
it to b§ a fmale foot of land. 


Of the Antiquity of Ceremonies ufed at 


By Sir William Dethick, Garter, 
9th February 1599. 

TOUCHING this propofition for funeralls, I cannot 
produce any thing unfpokcn by this learned fociety. 
Yet let me crave your patience to faye what I conceave of 
many hiftorics, and of Moyfes the beft wryter of the be- 
ginning pf the world, and of the creation of mankind. 
He doth approve how that Adam was made of the duft of 
the earth, and that when he had tranfgrefled the com- 
mandement of the Almighty,. God pronounced this dome 
and judgment upon Adam and his pofterity ; thou art duft 
ef earthy and to earth thou fhalt reiurne. Therefore I 
liiinkc it to be the beft kynd and manner of fepulture, for 
all men, after theyfe eftates and degrees confidered, to be 
honorably and decently put into their graves, and to be 
covered with earth. It is alledged that Adam before he 


ftoo Of tk( Antiquity of Funerd CeHnmiei. 

Iras, put out of Vzxz0^ dwelled ia Agro Damafceno, aixi- 
that there Abell was murthered by CaiQ^ and was buriei 
nere Jerufalein or in Hebron, as fom report. But omittiDg 
the varieties and alteratious of thofe coofufed people who 
lived almoft ,2000 year ^ before the lawei we muft all allowi 
of the traditions of that gre^t patriarcbe Abraham, >vho 
was defcended of Sem, the fon of Noah, and of other bed 
records of the Hebrues or JuUh nation, who affirrae and 
allow of the ground and plac6 for the funeral of Sarai« 
which Abraham bought and purchafed of the childrea 
of Cham, and wherein the iflue of Abraham wer^ afier* 
wards enterred with great pompe and folemnity. As is 
written of Jofephe, who caufed the corps of his father 
Jacobe to be fo tranfported fumptuoufly out of Egipt. 
We (hall not I think forget^ amongft us to remember the 
many fumptuous tombes, funeralls, and inonniiients of the 
Babylonians, Affiryans, and of other the monarchies in the 
world. Neither the maufoleum made by Artemifia, nor 
I the counterfeit therof made by the flatterers of Auguihs 
the emperor, at Rome in Cappo Martio, nor the miracu'^ 
lous Pyramidcs at Memphis in Egipt, which were made 
of brick for the prynces and Pharoohs, by the Jewiih 
peoples labour^ and which yet continue the wonder of the 
world ; therefore all thefe I pafs over and come to the 
{tiety of ould Tobyas remembred for his kbour employed 
in the btiriall of dead bodies of iuen» and for bis payoes 
therin, and how bis patience for his biyndeoefle tberby 
increaied the vsk^mxj of hia^• The funerals of DaTid 
and Solomon, as alfo thofe of other the . kiz^s of the 
Ifralitcs were perforn^ed in all magnificence. 

When Chrift Jefus caqac \o fulfill the word and workc 
of our redemption, we find thc.coiply ordijr for the fune* 
lalU of tb^ widpwe'$ ibne, and of I<azaruis{ 9s alio how 
the body of Chrift himfelf was put into a p^w fepvtitqre. 

This may fuffice, but yet I would not opiitt fomeof 
the vanities and varieties of other people a^d nations, dif- 
fering from each other in manners as well as in matters of 
eftate, goverment, religion^ and policies : I find that an* 


Of ibe Ami^ly of FuHerat dremdnies. floi 

rietilly moft people hare confaoied theit dead bodies m 
fire ; though fome did eate them, elkettiing theyre beHid^ 
^ be the iBoft precious place for the burial of theyre pa* 
tents, and fo oploiated were they» that they would not be 
difdraded frbm it, no lefs then others could be perfwaded 

Some people iifed immoderate laughter at the funeral 
ef theyre friends : and on the contrary the Irifh natlo^ 
itx^it^ ail others in their howliYigs and lamebtakiond. 

The folempnite ufed by the Romans in their funerftDi^^ 
VirgU it the xi bodk of the iEtieid fpei^king of the fune* 
ral of Pallas, defcrlbethe moft ingeiiioully and particularly, 

HiKC ttbi deSevit, tolli miferabile corpus 
Imperat, et toto leAos ex agmine mittit 

Milk viros • • 

Tunc geffiinas veftes oftroq. auroq. rigentes 
Extuiit i£neas. •..«•.•.* 
Multaq. preterea laurentis praemia pugnae 
Aggerat, et longo prsedam jubet ordine duci. 
Addit equos et tela quibus fpoliaverat hoftem, 
iadutofq. jubet truncos hoftilibus armis 
Jpfos ferre duces, intmicaq. nomina figu 
Ducitur itifslix svo confeflus Acetes 
Ducunt et Ruttlo perfufos fanguine corrus. 
Poft beliator equus pofitis infignibus JEthon 
It lachrimans. 

Haftam alu gsUeamq. ferunt : nam csetera Turaus 
Victor habet : turn mefta Phahnx, Teucriq. fequuntur 
Tyrheniq. duces, et verfis Arcades armis. 
Poflquam omnis longe comitum proceflerat ordo 
SubAitit ^neas gemituq. bscc addidit ulto 

Salve xternum mibi, maxime Palla, 
iEternum^. vale. 

- * It Is reported of Samueil the good judge how he died and v;as buried 
in Rhama. The Machabees let up pillars upoil theyre tdi^ibes, haviftg 
(hips carved on thetoppes of the pillars at theyre dttie at Modin, tb^iif 
ik^frt decent from the trybe of Zabulon. 

^Qt.L C C It 

202 Of the Antiquity of Funeral Ceremonies. 

It were fu{5erf}aous to repeat any thing out of Cefar, 
TuUicj Livye, Plutarch, or Tacitus, relating to the fo 
lemnites of funefalls. It is proved that the ancient Ro- 
mans interred the bodies of their dead : yet when they had 
intelligence that the bodies of fuche as were flayne in their 
forreigne warrs were by theyr enemyes afterwards pulled 
out of theyre graves, they inftituted that law which di- 
reftecj to burn them ; for it is faid, that before the tymc 
of Sylla, the diftator. Nemo in Cornelia domo crematus. 
Id autem ipfejujjit fieriy talionem metuens cum Cdj, Marii 
Cadaver erui feciu Contrary to that gobd opinion of the 
poet ; Pafcitvr^ in viris Livor pojl fata quiefcit. Th? 
Romanes in the burning of their dead bodies did ofc 
varios adores rogo impofuere, -As in the funeral of Sylla, 
the matrones of Rome brought aboundance of fpice and 
oyntements admirandi pretij. Antony's invention for the 
eagle to fly e out of the ffame ar the funerall of Cefar, was 
no lefs famous, then rydiculous. But leaving thofe Romanes 
and other hiftories in this cafe, let us come to our coun- 
trie of Brytaine, where in the tyme of Caefar, and kmg 
before, the Brytanes were not barren of examples in their 
funeralls. For brevity fake I fhall mention only, how 
honorably that valeant Brytayne Nennius, flain by Csefar, 
was carried to his gtrrve, having the fword of Casfar where- 
with he was wound«d, and which ftuck in his (heild, car- 
ried before him. 

It is not to be Jiioubted that the ancient kings of 
this real me and a#ier nobles, have been continually 
moft honourably interred as the tyme and cuflome did 

Saint Edward the confeflbr, by whom the fi7ars and 
channons of the chvf^es have frudbefied, was moft fump- 
tuoufly interred. So alfo was Sy ward ear le or ruler of 
Northumberland, of whom it is reported, that being fickc 
not long before his dtathe, he armed him in all his armor 
and fatt up, faying, that a valeant man (hould die in his, 


X)f tht jintifuify of Funeral Ceremonies. aoj 

William of Normandie, called the Conqaeroury was fa* 
mous in the fabricke of his charch for fais funeral upoa 
another man's ground and inheritage. 

Kinge Henry the third aifiAed folemply at the funerall 
of Symon de Montfort in the Abbey at Eveifaam, altboagh 
that king was his prifoner. 

Edward the 4th. aflifted at the conduft of his father's 
(Richard duk of York) corps tranflated and brought to 
the college at Fodringhcy. 

And king Henry 7th. in the 14th year of his reign, was 
at the futieral of the lord vifcount WeHs. 

We muft not forgett the auncyent manner of the fepuJ- 
ture of kings in this realme, and how they have ben ho- 
nored and adorned. The corps precioufly embalmed 
hath been apparelled in royal ro'bes or eflate, a crownc 
and diadeame of pure gould put uppon his head. 

Having gloves on his hands, howlding a fepter and ball 
^hh rings on his fyngers, a collcr of gould and precious 
ftones round his neck, and the body girt wi:h a fword, 
with fandalles on his leggs, and with fpurrs of gould. 
Ail his atchevements of honor and arms caryed up and of- 
fered, and riieyre tombe adorned therewith. 

How the byftiops alfo and prelats with abbotts mitred 
have been gteriouHy interred with rings, crofters, aubcs, 
iDyters, "Sec. 1 will not trouble you. 

In the tyme of king Henry 8. and in the third yeare of 
his reignc, I find that the Lord' William Courteny had his 
majefty's gracious letters patents to be carle of Devon : 
but he was not created ; neverthelefTe the king would that 
be ftiould be enterred as an earle, which was prepared in 
ajl fort;s accuftomed. And further that S^ jEdmund Car- 
rewe knight was in compl^at armor, and coming ryding 
into the church alighted at the quier, and Vas conduced 
by two knights, having his axe in his bandj with the 
poynt downward, and the heralds goirtg before him. lo 
that fort he was delivered to the bifliup, to whom he 
offered the axe, and then he was conveyed to the reveftrie, 

C c 3 Bcfyds 

Bttfyds the maoyfold examples hereof, it appeareth la 
tke records of the Exchequer, that William de Cufaoza 
recieved of the king^s allowance, the charges that he bad 
niade for the faneralh of the lord John earle of Coraewali 
Fr^tfis regU anno lo. Ed, i. 

There is a proclamation of K. Ed. vj. for t>reaklQg of 

A% the fompteoas and flately fnneralls of the laft Aond 
duchefle of Somerfet, which were performed by the right 
hoftorable Edward earle of Hertford hir execmor, awq 
15879 there was a portraieture of the fame dncbciTe 
ni^de in iK^b^ ^ her eftate, with a coroeicaU to % dttcb^fc^ 
and the fame repr^eotation bore under a caaopie; and 
all the other ceremonyes accompliihed ; aod fa^ycaiife ttoe 
wa,% no duchefle to af&il thereat, the queea's B^ajefty gm 
her rojal confent ths^t the countefle of Hartford his wife 
ijipuld have all honour done to her after that eftate donug 
the fuA^r^jl. As by warrant directed to me^ und^ ber 
n^ajefty's hand appears. 

And for the (ate Scoit's Queea lykewjfe %II pr]^cc]y 9b4 
royal! ceremonies were oUerved at her obfequies. 

The countelTes of Rutland and ^edfcNrd reprdentiag 
ihat royall eilate with the aflembly of noblemen) cpUQteffes, 
baronefles, and ladies attended exprefsly» from aiad by be| 
majeAy's pleafure, and ^t h^ highnefs's <g;sypences to the 
amount of 4000 librar. in the provifioQ of all which> ao4 
the ceremonyes pertaining to the fame« on account of my 
office, I myfelf bad the priocipajl direftion. 

Excufe me I praye you in what I have riide]y rem^^brpd 
or abrubtly neglefjted. 

Ultimo Aprilis, ? W". Dethick, Oarter principalj 
tCoo. 5 kingcofa|TOS. 

No L XV. 

N« LXV. 

Of j^hje Antiquitye of Ceremonies ufed at 

Funerals in England. 

* » 

By Anoktmo us. 
9. Ffib^. 1599. 

THE ccremoBlcs ufed in the barialls of gchrlcmcn 
both in this realme and in all Chriftiao kiogdome^ 
aymed onlye at two fpeci^l parpofes ; thofe wear the profit 
.qf the church, and the honor of the deccafed. TJic pro- 
fit of the church grew by the pbIation$ made at the fune- 
rails, by the heir and frendes of the dead ; the honor of 
the dead grew by Ac fblemnieye and ftate of the funeral, 
and by the creeling monuments for the memory of him 
that was buried, as what armours, fwordes, helmets, 
penons, and fuch Hke enfignes of honor appertained to hini« 
So the whole profit of the funeralls was diftributed among 
two kinde of people, the one prieftes, who were fuppofed 
to hare the care of his foul, the other, officers of armes, 
that were intended to preferve his honor here on yearthe; 
And we finde that between thefe people, there ufed to be 
a kinde of ftrife and contention, which of them (holde 
challenge moft to themfelTes in this folemnitie. 

In 9. E. 4. Rot. i4« a bill was^ brought in the King*8 $.1^4* 
Benche by the ladie WIche againft the parfon of a churche, 
for taking out of the churche a coat armour, a fword, and 
certein penons, withe the armes of Sir Hughe Wiche her 
hufband. The parfon was appofed by Yelverton, and 
fayd that they were oblations, and belonged to him ; and 
Yelverton fayd that they wear hung therp for the honor of 
the corps, and not for oblations. 

By the canon law there is due to the pafifte church of 
Jhim that is buried, Portia Canonical and therfore there arc 
niany controverfies rayfed in the cannon law between re- 
fpcCt of the churche profit, and of the honor of the dead*, 


166 Of ibe Antiquity of Funeral Ceremmes7 

Panor. in ds that which PaQormitanus difcuflethe upon in the title of 
inftkutlu burialls, no, 3. fol. 133. where the queftion is, " if a man 
*• dye, not difpofing where he will be buried, whether he 
" fliall be challenged by his parithe churche, or by the 
** church where.all his anceflors were buried." And it is 
refolved by the great dofters, that he (hall pay portionm 
canonicam to his parifhe churche, and be buried with his 
anceflors, if his heir aod frcndes will. By which decifion, 
they provide bothe for the honor of the dead, and tbear 
owne beoffit. Many queftioos and conjtroveriies we finde 
ip the canop kiw d^ oblathnibus in celebratione funerum^ by 
which we may perceive, that manye of the folemnities »fed 
in burialls, tended to the profit of the churche, in makiog 
great oSeringes, as of morning clothes, money, iVutchioos, 
and futche like. 

There was never more fplemnitye ufed in funeralls by 
^ny nation than by the Romans, which 1 will defcribe 
ihortly, leaving the comparifon of it with ours, to thofc 
gentlemen whofe profefEon it concemeihe to fpeak of our 
funeralls here in England. Their firft cerenionie was 
dcceptio fpiritus uliimi by his freinds, whiche they did 
into their own mouthes ; and occlujio occukrutn^ which 
was done alfo by his neareft freinds, and they wae 
opened again by them on the herfe whereon he was layed 
to be burned. 

Then followed their conclamationes per intcrvalla and 
divers ^afliiogs of the bodie with warme water, and 
anoynting.of it for feven dayes togeather. They that thus 
"Waflied it, were called PqlluBores, Then on the feventh 
day it was clothed in white, and fet upon a bier at the 
gate of his houfe, with his face turned therefrom. The 
I doors of the houfe were ever ftuck withe cyprefs, becaufc 
that tree being once cut never groweth again. Then 
were the people called togeather p^r publicum praconem. 
There went before the funerall mufitians, Tibicines if he 
was a mean man, if a great man Tubicines ; then the en* 
£gns of his office, as virgas, &c. : then the rewardes 
given hiin in w^r and peace for his defer t ; then all tho 


0/ ibe Antiquity of Funeral Ceremonies. toy 

images of his anceftors fuper leElis^ upon beirs, cloathed 
ia their honorable^ attire they might wear : then liberti, 
and then amicij propinqui, et libcri. 

The bodie was carred upon the (holders of honorable 
perfounges if he were imperator^ or confularis. Paulus 
^milius was carried by the ambafTadors of Macedonia^ 
Sylla by fenators and Veftall virgins, Metellus by three 
confulars his fonqs. If he wear a mean man, he was 
carried by Vefpillones, officers fo called of Vefpere fok' 
bant efftrre funera hominum infimorum. 

He was carried into the forum, and there commended 
by an oration. From thence he was carried out of the 
citie and fo burned. And that was the end of their fo- 

The folemnities of the greateft princes in Chriftendom 
are nothing to be compared withe thofe ufed in the bu 
rialls of fome citizens of Rome, as in Sylla's, that had 
6oooleftorum, fix thoufand beirs, on which were carried the 
images of his ancedors and his honors. 

What is the meaning and purpofe of many ceremonies 
ufed among us at this day in the funeralls of great men, 
I will leave to thofe gentlemen to unfold that arc exercifed 
in the profeffion of honors, as properly appertaining to 
them. I will not meddle withe it, bycaufe I know I fhall 
fpeak before true cenfurers, I have only fet down this little 
you have herd> left I jhoulde be condemned for faying 


MS Of tie Aai§9kf tf Fm&4d drmttia. 

»• LXVL 

Of the Antiquitye of Ceremonies uied ttt 

Funeralls in England* 

By Mr. Hollamb. 

30. April 1660. 

IFtnde in Geffety of Monmouth, that Ncnnini bro- 
ther of Caffibdan fighdngc With C^ar, C^far's fwordc 
4lid ftick foe faft in his targett, that he vt^ not able to 
drawc it cot ^ithall the force he had ; and therenppcm, 
helpe comming to the refcne of Nenoins, Cdefar left his 
fworde behinde him, and fled away ; but Nennins bdngc 
ibre hurte in the headc by C*faf att that tyme, dyed 
ivithin XV. dates after, And was buried at Troynovant, 
powe called London, by the Jfotthgate ; and att his fufierall 
the fworde that he had won ftx>m Catfar, when he 
fought with him, was {>utt upon the topf>e df his coffid to 
honor him withall, and fo carried with him unto the place 
of his burial ; the name of this fwof de was crocea mors. 
And there was nerer any that did efkape with lyfie, that 
was hurte with that fworde. 

fielyn fometyme kinge of this lande builded a haveit, 
With a gate over the Time, wlfhin the city of Troynovant 
or London, which place is now called Beliufgate, in the 
toppe whereof was fett a veflell of brafle, in the which 
were put the a(hes of his bodye ; which after his deceafe 
was burnt, as the manner of burninge in thofe dayes did 

Mr. Stowe in his Survey of London doth fliewe that in 
the yeare 1576 in the Spitell Feeldes without Bifhoppef- 
gate, manie earthen potts called Urns, were founde full of 
afties and of burnt bones of men, to witt, of the Romanes 
that inhabited here ; fqr it was the cuftom of the Romans 
to burne their dead, and to put theire afhes in an urne, 
add buifye the fame» Very many of thefe potts bad in them 


Of the Antiifiity ^fPmerU <linmgnm. 209 

with the aflies of the dead^ one p^e of copper money 
with the iafcHpticHi of the etnperpr theo ratgn'mge, wher^- 
c^myfelf beHige prefect aft that. tyme,. and feUigedy vers 
of the faide potts lakeil tspp^ haVie one antiquitye b copper 
of VefpafUn £oiuid in tt>e faid urne. 

Th^rc Was ja^^aother cer^mopyq obferved in buryeinge- 
tbof<& that bad qiade proleflioa to fight for the defence <^f 
the Hoily La^d^ whidi was^ that they were buried with 
tb^ legges acrofle« 

JosftPH Holland. 

\\\\ I "I f 


<3f the Antiquity of Ceremonies ,u fe4 at 

Funerals in England* 

By Mr. Ley. 

WHEREAS there was an identity of reiigiott . and 
oHttiners among the auncient Gaules and the 
BrtfanneSy by the confent pf aunden^ biftorians> we muft 
thinke that theyufed the fame fomacJ of foneralU with 
theai^ as they did othet- matters. Their. fuoeralls^ as Csefar 
jscordeth, were magnificent and furoptuons. All that 
they efteemed moft in their lyfe, were caft into the ftjneraU 
fire with them, yea their horfes and their houndes ; and in 
form^ tymes, their fervannts and refiners which wcer 
neareft and dearelt tin to them^ wouJd caft themfelves into 
the fire with them ; and as Pompomus Mela reporteth, 
the Druides^ their prlcfts, did afiiire them that they fliould 
live again in another world. When they buried or burned 
their dead bodyes, they would caft into the grave or fier 
tkek booKes of acouniptes^ bondes, and obligations^ that 
tbiqr tnight recover there debts in that other world. 

When the Romanes had reduced Brltaine into a pro- 
Tmce^ the Britains conformed themfelves to theire cuftomes, 

VoLf I, D d foe 


2 to Of the Antiquity of Funeral C^emmief, 

for vi^i femper m viSforttm morgs aheuni^ and thereforf: 
0oe doubt the Romane funerails were here in \xity and 
^?hich were fo called, a FunalWvs, becaufe they were fo- 
lempnifcd by torch light, the day being fpent in facrifices. 

When the freinds and kinfmen had received with a kifle 
the laft gafp, atid clofed the eyes, they wa(hed the bodye 
of the defunfl, and after certaine paufes, called him by 
name. The fevehth day they carried him out, cioathed 
in his beft apparel! into the entrance of the houfe, wicb 
his feete towards the .ftreet* At the door was fet up a 
Ciprefs tree buflie, becaufe that kynde of tree, being 
pruned and cut doth never revive again'; as they iniagined 
there was no fecond lyfe* after death. 

The people were gathered together by a crier on the 
buriall daye with thefe words, Exequias Marco Lucio, 
Marci Fitio quibus commodwn eft ire, jam tempiis^ ift^ Hie 
ex adibus effertur. 

In the proceeding, firft went a piper which fome tyme 
played, and fome tyme fonge* the praifes of the defun6V» 
Then followed the enfignes of the offices which he had 
borne. His fervants followed with capps, or whit woole 
tipon their heads. • Then came thQ prafica yntomtn hiered 
to fighe, fob, houle, and weepc. After the corpfe, came 
the kidtmen, frcrnds, and neighbours of the defunft. 

If the perfon was a man of any high reputation, there 
was a funerall oration made for him in the principal parts 
of the city. 

' Wheii he was brought to the funerali, a finger was cutt 
off to be referved for an annlverfary rcmembraunce '^ and 
then the body was put into the fier, which was made after 
the manner of an aulter, with pyled billetts, and Cyprefle 
braunches fet round aboute to alaye the unwhoJfom fmell. 

The neareft kinfman turning his face awaye from the 
pile, with a tortch kindled the funerall fier. The afhes 
and bones wtre gathered, and putt in a veflell called Vma^ 
and odorifefus liquors poured uppon them out ofglafles^ 
which were buried with the wr??^. Of thefe wiee have 

• feea 

• ^4. 

Of ibe ^iquUy of Funeral Or monks. iii 

feeo fome diged upp in the. Spittle Feilds with liquors as 
ycat remaining in them. 

This done, the praefficae cried Illicet^ you maye now 
departe, and then all which accompaned the courfe cried 
with a loude voice, Vale^ vak, vale, nos te ordine, quo 
natura permifertt, fequemur, ifc» 

This forme of burning, after the tyme of Antoninus 
Pius, begane ty little and little to be relinquiftied, and 
then they begann agaia to bury the dead alonge the high- 
wayc fides, and there to ereft infcriptions to their memo- 
ries. Xn like manner their were not any . buriall withia 
the cityes and townes of England, until the tyme of C;ith- 
bert ar^hbifhap of Canterburye, about the year of our 
Lord 740. 

In the Saxon's tyme, I obfcrve no fpeciall forme of bu- 
riall, but that the dead were interred in their apparell ac- 
cording to their eftate, as the body of Cedwall, kipge of 
Weft Sex was founde not longe fince at Rome in a garment 
of cloth of gouid ; and I have noted in Bede, that a ban- 
ner of purple and gould -was banged over the toumbe of 
king Ofwald in the -abbey of Bardcney. 

In the Norman xyme, I thinke the dead weare buried in 
their apparell with ther faces open; for as Symon of Dur- 
liam notetb> king Henry the fecond was caried to church in 
his royal robes, having a croune of goold vppon his head, 
bis gloves on his hands, his ring on his finger, his fepter 
in his hand> his fhown of cloth of gold, with fpures of 
^old, and his fword by his fyde ; at which tyme his fonne 
JR.ichard came, and >bloud imediately ilTued out of the 
noftrtUs of the dead kiqg. And it doth appeare by the 
White Boc4ce In ^luildhall, that before the tyme of king 
Edward the third, at the buriall of Barons, one armed 
in the armour of the defunA, and mounted uppon a trap- 
jped horfe (hould carrye the banner, (hield, and helmet of 
the defunft* About that tyme begane the ufe of herfes, 
^compofe4 all of wax candles, which they by a. Latin naiiie 
xalled Cajtra dohris. ' 

DA 1 N" LXVriL 

si'i'z' Ofth» Aini^ty «/ f^irni Otrmmet. 



Of the AntiquUIe of Ceremonies ufed at 

Funeralls in EAgJii^nd, 

By INlr. ARTHtjpE Agar p. 
30. April 1600. 

, I . "^ • » 

IWoULDE ^IKngKc keape ffleace in thJs propofirioni 
weere it not that 1 am taxed thefc.tmto by a generril «- 
der defigned to all, becaufe It Is quite befides the quesihyoa 
of my profeffion, reading, or obfervation ; but y^, wk»t 
1 have in my time ndted partely by readinge, and efpeclally, 
what I have heard thereof, I will aforde to your wife coq- 
ceiptcs, hoopinge you will take In good part whatfoever 
I (hall therein impart. 

Yt; is agreed hj alf wryters, that before the Romaiw 
cntred into this land, the ancient Britons poffefled the 
far;ie : and they ufed for the moofte parte to btrrye thcirc 
(dead, fome in the grounde, arid fotne abore the grottude, 
coveringe the latter with pyramid^' of earth, but upoii 
thofe within the grounde they ufed to fette pyr^nrids of 
fton^, as is to be feene at BorOwghc*brigge to this day, 
where fome pyramids oP a great howgenefs yet fland, fap- 
pofed by the inhabytaunts of the countrey to have beea 
jjitcbed the^e for a remembraunce of fome notable perftms 
iflaine theere at a battell. ' 1 myfelfe fawe fome of thefc 
kxxiiij. years agoe, when I was attendinge on Sir NieH. 
Throkcmtofl, who wayeted on the duke of Richemount, 
who reported what he had heard xix. yeares before rhat 
tyrae to the like ejTefte. ' * -" * 

For ^henj above the grounde buryed, I have by tradition 
heard, that wheti anye notable captayne died in batte! or 
in campe, 'thefouldyers uffcd^to take his bodye and to felt 
him on his feet uprighte, and put his launce or pyke into 
his Uaodg, 9nd then his fellow fouldyers did by travel!, 
?- , ■'••■■' - '"'' ■' •■ ■-'•' ■ '" *: everjc 

tvetyc maok bringe fb muche earthe and layc about bhn, as 
fhovAd c^ver kifls anid mouot i)p to ccmtr tke toppe of hh 
pyke*' To that purpdofe I rettieoG^beir I fa'w otice vj. mifet 
from Cambridgey at a towne, heloge about a myle or twe» 
from Babrem, three of thoTe pyranoids of eartbe^ that ia 
the middeft'far furmountyng* fte other iWoe. Tfcfe lor4* 
fliip is belooging to the heyres of Qoptoti <*f Cteptoa ia 

jn SnffWk, and is called *— — ^, Jt happeft^d. about 

xviij. yeares paft, I was wkh oae Mr. W"*. Clopton kt l&$ 
howfe, who tould me that a tehatint of hJs took dowD the 
earthe of one of them, and denged his gromide tberev^ift ; 
and toulde Mm that, he founde a deade man^ bouoes 
therein, yea, alfo, that he gate him fb&adrye o!dc brsrfi 
peecea of coitt, but, fayd he, it was toulde me, that rty 
tenaunt founde treafure therein, antj fo it might be, for he 
was nerer poore after that yeare he digged it downe. 

A gentleman in Staffordfhlre, called Stephen Bagott, at 
a place called Swethoneleye in the Moreland, digged upon 
foundrye rayfed hills for ftonoe to inclofe his grounds*, 
and founde in the fame fdundrye urna*s, potts, ^nd difhes of 
earthe, and in potts fmafe b<3ones and afties, 'whereof I 
faw fome nowe about xxxviij. yeares parte ; but that man- 
ner I think rather proceeded from the Rom^nis thati froni 
the Britons, who weere alwayes carefull to keape theyre 
auncyent cuftomes in the obfervations of lawcs' and courfc 
of lyffi. That is to be proved by king Arthure, whofe 
monument wa§ found in king Edward the firft*s time, in 
"the church-yarde of dlafenbury, with hi$ wife butyed by 
him. He was layd very deepe into the gronnde, put into 
a hoUowe tree, and being taken up, there appeared on his 
head foundrye woundes which he had receyved. His bodye 
and that of his wife were bothe again buryed in the 
churche by the king's commaundement at Glaftdnburye. 
And as I have read, the ^me bodyes weere founde and 
fearched for by the king's commaundement, who under* • 
floode theereof by a minllErett, or as they tearmcd hkn^ 
one of the bardi, ufed as heraulds in Wales, who funge a 
fonge thereof before the kinge. So as it feemed the Bri- 


ti4 Of^ AntiquUy i^ Fkneral Certmniesi 

tons kept it io tradycion amonge them, I mcaa cf the 
place of kiag Arth«ii«'s buryall. This was after Chridya- 
nytye was rec^ved imo Eoglaoid $ and theoce appe$ireth 
howe everye great kiDg» prizK:e» or lord<e, called Alder- 
iaaD« Wjouldc bp buryed ki; churches. After fryars cam 
lato Eoglaad^, which was not before H. 2's. tyme', it was 
accompEed. avery nieritorioas deed to be buryed in a fryar's 
CQwle, called a Fryar's Gowne and Hoode, witoefs Eraf- 
mns in his Colloquium* Apd now within theis ten years 
at E^e^fliam, in the breakin^e downe of the olde walks of 
tbe.^j:i[,cbe theere, the bodye of a man was founde wholle, 
lapped; ip- a fre^re^s gown, with bis hair and face wholle 
tq be feeoe^ but beinge a while m the air, being tonched 
he fell into 4uft| as. I was toulde at Evefli^ni^ by a geDtle- 
jnan that fawe the fame. 

For the variety I leave it to herauldes to difcourfe, as 
apperteyning to them, bothe for that and for ceremonjes. 
In the hiftorye of Normandy is exprelTed the manner of the 
fuqerall of Jing^ Henrye ti\e ije^cpnde. That he >ji^as dad la 
iq prMceljre robes, bare faced, a crowne uppon his heade, 
a fcepter in his hand, ^c. and fo layde uppon the bier and 
placed, under his hearfe. 

, This is alfo worthy the notinge, that it hathe alwayes 
ben reputed a^i hpnor and honell reputation to be buryed 
in ChriAian buryall ; that is, ia places defigned and fane- 
tlfyed to that jufe ; and for that caufe> ip fcone paci/he? 
theere have beene fpme jpatro^ies, that have referved to 
themfelves fome fpeci^l places within and without the 
churche, wberin they would not pjCrxnitt any other to be 
buryed but their owne kin ; and I have known great flirrc 
and futes at law bothe. about that, and for pewes ia 
churches, as wjtnefs the matter of William the Con- 
querour. When he cam to be buryed, a fubjeft of his 
denyed It to him, untlU he was compounded with for the 
place of fcpulture. This is enough as to this matter, eX: 
<:cpt I could fpeok moore ^ptlye to the purpofe* 


Of the Antiquity of Funeral (krmpnia. %f 5 


Of the Antiquity, Variety, and Ceremonies 
of Funerals in England. 

By Mr. Tate. 

30. April 1600. 

SENECA, de remeJiis fortuitorum, feeraeth to be of 
opinion, that the uie of burial fpronge from neceiCty, 
I to avoid inconveinences that happened by the fight an<f 
fmel of dead corpfes, moft lothfome to the livingc, rather 
then from a natural inftinfl and dutifall love to the de- 
cefed. This opinion may feeme to be ftrengthned by this, 
that neither prophane nor facred ftory doth name any, that 
was buried before Sara : yet I make no doubt, but as 
men died, they were enterred with a moll reverent refpeft 
to their perfons in al ages, and amongfl: al nations ; fome 
publickely with great magnificence and folemnity both 
men and women, Chriftlans ' and Infidels, emperors, 
kinges, princes, captaines, foldiers, and men of warre; 
others, privately and without pompe, ether for feare of 
their enemies, or want of welth, or becaufe thei weare 
maIefa(5jbores. In the manner of burial almofl: every nation 
had its proper cuftome, and every fingular perfon had 
ibme fpecial difference in his funeral from others. Reve- 
rence and comelinefs, which at the firft were principalli 
regarded, turning into pompe and fuperftitious vanity ; in 
ib much, as their is no nation wherein laws have not been 
made to prohibite ill cuftomes crept into funeralfs. If I 
ihould handle thefe generall heads particularli with a mul- 
titude of words, I (hould wery yow all, therfore I paflc 
them over and will omit to fpeak of funus, humatia, fepuU 
tura^ jujia^ exequiae, and whatfoever by the generality 
may caufe prolixity. For in this queftion, the greateft 
difficulty I iinde, is to ufe brevity, though nothing be 


uei Of tit ^iftUf.9fFlt»tnl CcttmtlHei: 

fpoken but of this realme : wherin I am perfwaded the 
Druides, who taught the doftfiae of the immortality of 
the foule, caufed a commely enterremeat of the dead to be 
u(ed ; the )>arciciiiariti6s whtrof is thef efdre omll^ y^. 
authors, becauf^ it varied Dotihifig from thofe of our neigh- 
bouring countries. That which Cafar and Tacitus have 
noted of this kinde in GeTniaHy ai&d France, differ very 
littk from the old cuftome of the Brittons, as by a , 
ftrift obfervation fhall be found. Caefars words, li. 6. 
de Bello Gallico, are thefe, Funerafunt pro cultu Gallorum, 
mdgnifica et fumptuofa^ omnia j. que vivis Cordafuijfe arbi' 
trantur^ in ignem in/erunff acpauhfupta hdncmimmam^ 
Servi if ClienUs quos ab biis dile^os ejfe confiabaf Juftis 
funeribui confeBis, wia cremebantur. ^ 

Now let us fee the accuftomed foleinnitids of funeral 
obfequles in Englande, both in this age, and iii ancient 
time, and we may very well judge whether th^y refembled 
the fafliion of the Gauls or noe. 

When life beginneth to forfake the bodie, thfcy which 
aie prefent cbfe .the eies and fhut the mouth, accord- 
ing to the cuftome of the Jews, Graeciaos, and Rolhanes ; 
as flxall after appear. 

The foul being feperated froth the body, the corps in 
antien.t time was waftied amongft the JeWes, Romans, 
and Chriftians. 

Then Is the body laid forth, as thel terme It, uppon a 
floore in fome chamber covered with a (heete, and candels 
fet burning over yt on a table day and wight, afid th^ body 
continually attended or watched. Though the cuftome of 
burning candels be now groWefl into difufe, being thoogbt 
fuperftitious. Yet Ifodore thinketh that futitis hath his 
denomination a funibus ac'ceiifis, Phlttius, li. i6. ea. 3^. 
hath thefe words, Stirpi fragiUs paivftrefjue qvibus de- 
tra6lo Cortice candeU turhinibus et funtribus ferxmmf. 
There is yet in ufe amongft us fuch kinde of candds, 
which, bjcaufe they were . in former times applied to this 
kinde of ufe, do beare the oaiiR of Watche Catidles. 
Thefe watche? being mucfh ibufed, it ^ppcreth-by the 


provjQctal ooaAitatiOQS gathered by Uodeif^oodot that they 
5yefC ^rolpiJii>itc;d- to be coQtitHied in ftich -mttkitudies* as 
were woi^t to afib»bk together in the m^t ofsfdn fuch 

Ampogft us tliere U no% any iSstt -nfid detertfoinate time 
bow loagpthie corps b^oM be tepc, btt as feemcth belt 
to ilkQ ;fri<mds ^ tbe decea^4* Tbec^ftomc of the Kon(ia«$ 
was to i«e^ men i!iftburi^.feveft whole do^s : the Egiptians 
kept 6^ ^$: fVieoe t^^bali^ed by the fpace of kI^ daies ; an4 
that i$ the ^rmc ^ppftjM&lal m raial fimeiak, duriog which 
timey maoy ia leftimonyofwceedislg'lave'have^ot moved 
them&lves from tt^e fighc of their ^ket^eft f deads. The 
body was tbiKS keft xiubw^f mt m^ tQ avoid hafly bvtriaU 
of fuch 39 imgt)C recov^, vhoagh they'ieamed for fom 
loQge feafon to ly .^s 4eade, b«c xq provide thipges necef- 
fary for folqaiDizatipn vof ^ fanerat, and (b long time the 
dead -body 4s iaid <o iMejNe pofeilioQ «f the hoafe wheriR 
he lieth^ For Brafton divideth poffiHSlons thus, oHa efi 
jciviUs^ alfa cpt^rMlifs civiiif que ajtimo iantum retingtur, 
naturuMs queiianium • rfl^o^^. ^d ncqm^re nfm$ foUft f^f- 

The appointed day i^ t^ funemlbeiBgaees^, the body 
i3 rwrqpt up wkh Aowem aod.hdrbfis!in 'a'faireflieet, arid 
.and this wecail Windtog a Cdrpfe^ ift^he^r aoy clothes 
be tied aboat bU.Kwe^ lo h6\d them -tip, ^r wheti, or bv 
whom./ic is di)fie^.I ^ok at*this^day is litde regarded 
^mongft ns. . jAftcrtbis, the bodyis ipik toto a coffin of 
wood or Xloie, or wrapped in iead, tasd fometime there is 
-put .up with it fomeifhmge which he'^rlmripdly edeemed. 

filftmius f rater {iltifftMnni Regis €afanem in cajifidei' per- 

fujjit^ fed eum Gi^ar.iatbtiiittr s/ukutavit, gkidkts autem 

Cafcais in c/ypcc iNmmift^tvrmiJit^ ctantjuo Nennius Labie- 

num Tribunum necamt. Giadiui * Cdfdrif^ iliffus, crocca 

mofs^ cum'I^ 'fopdckv "p^tui*' Abotic 20 !years 

rpiaft, !as thf^ feneahtsof !Mr. ICtodttl v^ere plowing his 

.gixrpgds ftt Tt^p&m m ^urfollc, thtly^found a vnulc, and 

tli^rk a>ni^ l^nng j^iiroed, ^aikd a 'biboke with hofTcs- on his 

breA, and to ^tkcjfeiBC were found diaterspeeecs of bvnik 

VojL. {« E e coice ; 

2 1 S 0/ the Antiqmiy of Fwkr^ Ceremnies. 

coioe ; the body and booke being touched fel into ^tift, 
About a twelmoothe paft, there was the body of a btihop 
digged up at Rochedefy and in his tombe was foumte his 
crofier, flaify and a chalice; and Jofephus in the 7 booke 
Antiq. Judaic, c* 12. faith, that Solomon burtcd* great 
riches with David his father. - AmongR the Romans the 
like cullom v/as ufed, till it was prohibited. ' For Olpia- 
nus faith, Non o^rtet drnamentacufn corperihus fuis cendi; 
the coffins, locuti, or farcophagi^ in the Silicons tiime 
were commonly of ftone or woode ; I never read of an;^ to 
be wrapped in lead before the Conqued, but for the apti- 
quity therof, I wil (hew a prefentment, which was made Iti; 
Here Northt, 13. c. i. in hundredo dePokebroke. Ricardui 
de Sarvwig ferviens Emme Uxons Hugonis de Jfion aranio 
terram dn^' fiiT in campis de yf/iokjin loto qui vocatur 
Chercefordjs furlonge^ invemt ijuandam magna pefra, et 
fodiebatf et invenit quandam tumbam : et venerunt Ballivi 
domini Regis Jimul cum tcta patria et afportaveruntitmham 
et inveneritnt de intus ojfa eujyfdam hominis invoitfta in 
plumboy et alho pulvere, de qva fndteria ntdlus fciebatj it 
plumbum traditum fait Vilie de Aflon. On the day of the 
Interment the body is- brought forth of the chamber, where 
before it lay, iato the hall o^ great chamber^ atid there 
placed till the mourners be reddy and marfhalled ; but 
this is not done with any of the obfer^tioiis olP the Romans 
in their Qolkcatioj fave only that the body is laied with the 
face upright, and the feet towards the doare. 

The coffin or })eaire 5s covered with a (heet, over which 
lieth a blacke cloth or a blacke velvet covering, roun(i 

• ',{.1 « i''* « 

'about wjiicji are hanged the armes of the party that is 
dead, and jb he is carrie4 towards the grave. 

Some (ay, that the creditors may flay the body of their 
dettor from burial, til they be fully iatisfied thier debt, and 
the gloffe uppon Unwoodc alledgeth this to be a lawe in 
Eoglat^d, but } tbioke no man ever heard any fuch tbir^ 
praftifed in Englande. I have read that William the Con- 
queror's body tould not be committed to the ground in 
Capn in Normandy, till bis executors ha4 agreed with one 

O^ tbi Anii^ity of Funeral Cermcnies. 219 

that claim^ed to be lord of the foilc where the church ftood, 
but never of any other interruption of funerals. 

The corps is taken up and carried either by poor people TacAnnaU 

fchofen out for the purpofe, or by the fervants of him that bbde^T*- 

is dead. They and the reft of the fervants clotheS in nats. 

blacke goe before the corps, his kinsfolke and familiar 

friends fdllowe after in blacke gownes and hoodes. Of 

principal mourners who they mvft mufi hee^ and how many 

'aniiiihich of them fhall be clofe ivhooded, and which not^ I 

leave to them whofe laming it properly concerneth. Then 

they carry the body the beft and moft convenient way to 

the gravci and neither Into the market place, nor other 

ftreets for oftentaiion ; and if they be barons or men of 

/ high degree, they are fet under an herfe covered with 

blacke. How to render that worde in Latin, or what the 

iignilkation thereof is in EngHfh, unlefs it comeof Hi^re, 

DominuSj Princeps^ for ki Dutch Herrish is that, which 

:beloogeth to a lord, and fo the very name of an Hershe 

or Herse ihould put us in minde, that it is peculiar for 

lords- and great perfonages. Some cal it Pyramis^ but ic 

feemeth to be improper ; herfes never refembliog them hi 

fa(hion. . 

I thinke the Saxons (whofe worde by the found it fhould 
be, altho* I drever red fuch worde in ^ny Saxon author) 
were authors or deliverers of this ceremony unto us. Here* 
baldus falling from his horfe in the Held, and lying as if he 
were dead, though after he were, not tvithout a miracle, 
recovered. Beda, 1. 5. c. 6. faith, ietenderunt ibidem papi* 
• Uonem in qitojaceret ; if any man thinke t^is was not done 
as a ceremony belonging to the deade, but as an helpc to 
preferve him alive, let him read what the fame author 
writeih, I. 4- c. 18. Cum elevanda ejfent Offa Mtheldrede 
JRegine de fepulchro, extento de fuper papilione, omnis co7i* 
gregatio fratrum pfallens circumftabat^ he, and this is the 
fame, which the Athenians called tabeniaculum^ which 
they ilwaies fet up on the dales before th^ folemnization of 
the funeral* 

JEe-2f. • The 

The plage Nvhcre h^rft^&are fet and graves imikJscom* 
mooly fuch chorghe^ or cbufcb y-^iif^^ as th^ party de- 
ceaftcl Hiall appoiat. BiU.! tbmk, the moil aotkntiifage 
was to bary tbcm abroodc m. tlic fi^ifs in extrermtmteagn^ 
as h b fdyd^Gea.xsiti'uof (he qtv^ which: Abcnfaam jt>ooghc 
And that was aifo obferved acnongft the Kotnanf^ whp lc£t 
^latmr Pedum interjlifium irt i^rorum ItTm^ibms ad fipe^ 
liendutn milif^ et JucaJ^as Lkminorim* > l^toTf which 
were prohibited Chrini^ bttiiiily as alt that {xsfkt&i as's^- 
lefa<5lors, were fill the fiat, of 17. E. a- a^ PoUd<?ir Vvr^U 
faith, and fuch. as dye exconmounicatpcl, are, for, tb^ moQ 
parte, baried without ibcpfeefffim as they cail^it^. ft&4 th|3|t 
is either tyiihollt the boviivis of the clisrch yaird^, wbid> 
was the circuit of tb^kflfer pfoceffiofH ^H tbe U|^it9 mi 
meeres of the parif^ w^e <^QtiiqiO]!|I;i is mi Uterfittum, 
sncch like that of; the. RfH)1<uat ki tbofe jneeiesiacexi^ 
f ' rdigg^d. !»{>; deid imn's boftes i 'Sfid &ojE:.>^aoy years .fiace, 
the utteroooft mecFes beQivistt) NieW(x»i^ and Gcddiogioa b 
Koi'thaa^ptooKbire wcr^ thus ma^kSeftly .knoweo a9d?ackDov- 
kdged. I do not finde that ,iQ. tbU r^lme int»di regaid 
was hid whether buf£|Ia wer^ ^itbia (bi&^tfjs, or ^tliioiit, 
in the church-yard, or clfwhere; Arviragus an, d^oi, 57* 
»ai^d Liiciusafi. 20-1. Mfi^ris burjedin tb^^ty qfX3|.pi|cefter, 
.awj Molnnipiis in LpikIou »», tbi{ T««nRk xif{pe«fc€e. Bor 
the bodjT of Lek, a:s Atotb, of Weftmini^en C4$fe, Wf^btt- 
^rjed beneath Leicefter towoe.ia a va^k^upder tb^ riT^r of 

Sore, , . , 

Thofe BrittoDS which Hengift Oew, asnd divert other 

kiDges of this landeji were buried ao: ^tpcqi^ge uppoQ 

$aUft)ury-plaine ; ^nd the Upmaas diiriog^ ther-e i^xxie 

hercj ufecj to biiry oflly without great cfttyes and tow^ts^, 

. .not within. 

Though I have thus brought the d|cad to, their graves, 

- ^ yet Before their bodies be cpnuoMtted to. the ground, it is to 

. 'be^ remen>bred. that ia ajijtieQt tynae, fcw^e. \^^^ b\irood, 

.. and fume buded and not burnt. But it ieeipeth to bare 

• been a thinge indifferent with us, as well as with the Rp- 

, nans. Fabian z. pte. c;,34*< faith that Beliaus body was 


burned to alhes, and the fame put into a veflel of brafle 
and placed over Bermfgattt. . Severns dying at Yorke an. 
2ti. his body was there burned, and the a(hes put io a 
veffell of gold a<|d' ojftveyed to Rome.' This burning I 
think all nations deomd.frim the jcwcs, who, as appear- 
eth I Sam xxxi. 12. and 13. verfes, Jjfumpfertmt Corpus 
Saulis et Corpora fili^rum ejus a Mnro Btthjbanis^et redeuti' 
Us Jabejbum^ combujferunt ea ibi. — The ;eafon of that ex* 
traordinary aftion, the writers uppon that place attribute 
to this ; that their bodies were putrified; by. hanging,; a|^ 
therefore they burne4, thenf^, and that they might not be 
recovered a^ine by the Phijiftinefi^ gnA receive fuch injury 
as before. This reafon. \% affigped by the l^oians f^r 
their burning of the dead. And this moved the BritlQi^s 
' to bury king Ai;thur's body xvj. fpot§ under groqnde, aud 
to lay the grav^ Oomp fevpn feqt under grounde, having 
th' infcription. Hie jaat. incliti^s Rex Jrtl^ur\ grayc;n on 
the infide of a ledden crofle next to the flone, ancj not \o 
the view. And at Caiton in Northamptonfhire are divers 
monuments withoul nasne, or fcutchepa outward. The 
ceremonies ufed in burning require a longe difcoqrje of 
Pyra^ rogusj buJliT acerra, urna^ ^^p^^ -^JbeJiiMy and 
fuch like; but becaufe many authprs haw intreated iherqf, 
I omit them, and defcend to the,, interring of the corps, 
whdrqin, bqcaufe we purfue the cQunfbl of Toledo, I w;ll 
recite the fame as Joannes Borm'. Aubamus in bi3 b^Qjcc 
De mpribus gentium reporteth it. Cadaver Mum prius 
fudario aut cilic'io indutumy a fue cqnditionis viris cantu 
.' Toletanum conjilium efferri decrevit^ a Sacerdote thujre fvf- 
JitjT et ^qm benediBa corjifperfiT cum cerSU.imprecationilfiiS 
Sepulchre impom reJupiniT, pedibus ad Orieiitim, capife ad 
. Occident em foljsm verfis : terra pofte^^qbrid fepukhrum in 
fignum Chrijiiani ibi Sepulti ligne^ Cruce, ^ circum tfo" 
hedera Cuprejfa aut Laurea injlgniri* 

The body being, thus interr^d^ the banners and 'fct|t- 
chions are hanged, and fett upoa pillars in the churjclje, 
and that we borrowed frojD theJglomana. * 

t2 2 Of the Mii^uity ofJTmHuid Monuments. 


Of the Variety and Antiquity of TombeS 

and Monuments* 

. . . • 

By Ano^tmou^. 

7. June i6od. 

ROM the beginning there hath been amoiigft men 
an efpeciall regard to (hew their love to their de- 
ccaftd freinds and continue their niertiory to pofteritye, 
v^hich ^vhen they could cfleft by no other means, tbcy 
invented tombes and monuments, as comforts to the living 
and memorialls of humaine frailtye ; which amofigft all 
civil nations hath been cfpecially refpefted, only neglefted 
l^y favage barbarians or fome difTolute courtiers, as Msce« 
n^s who was wont to faye, 

Non tumulum^curo, fepelit natura reliSlou 

Thefe monuments were called by the Romans in divert 
refpcfts, Requietoria^ OJJuariaf Cineraria^ Dornus aterm^ 
Conditoria^ Sepulchra, Olla^ Archa^ LoculuSy Monumtnftnhi 
Tumulus y i^c. as you may fee in ould Romane inrcriptions, 
which fcofiing Lucian termed cotiiges of carcafes : the ould 
Brittons called them ■ but the ould Englifli, Tru^s 

and Tombs. 

While this ifle was a province of the Romans, noc 
doubt but the provincialls did ufe the Romane fnanncr of 
tombes and monuments i which for the better forte were 
ilones infcribed, or little pillars erefted, along the high- 
way fydes, or little hillocks, or tumiili cafl tip, as that of 
Julius Laberius, the Romane capitaine near Chilham in 
Kent^ called by the common people Julabeus Grave, and 
that at Yorke raifed for the honnor of Severus at his fune- 
rall, which as Radulphus Niger reporteth, in his tyme was 
called Sivers HiH. Whether the Englifh Saxons borrowed 
this word tombe from the Grscians^ or tumulus from the 


of the Antiquity of Tombs and Monumenls. »?| 

Latines, I referr to others. The auncienteft monuments 
of ihofe people, before they received Chriftianity, were no- 
thing but. tvjtnuli, or little hillocks caft .up in the open 
fields, both for them that* died naruriilly, and for otliers 
which were flayne. - Th'oft thfey called in that age Beregen^ 
as we now call 'them Berryer, wherof th&tQ doe appeare 
a great many in divers parts of England. For as fonie 
write, the Northern natiotis which overflowed the Roman 
empire, when any man of worth was buried, obliged ev^ry 
fouldier.^o. bring his helmet full of earth rto raife a billocke,. 
A!& a monujpaent Jor.fuch perfons memory. This kinde of 
inotiuinent was ufual' amongft the Daneis, both in Eog*^ 
l^d and at home ; aodfuch a monument was ereAed by 
£[arakl,'.king of Denmarke and England,' to the honor of 
his £itber Jornx>n abobre the year 964. After Chriftianity 
,was received) and burfalls in churches and church yardf 
ipms: allowed, which they called Li£^on$, as the reftiog 
place of dead bodies, they made for their monuments 
Jlonc troughs covered arid fupported with fowr pillars, as 
Jhofc ofS^hfca, and Ethdred in the church df S. Kml, 
^hich they chilled then Trugh, as troughs ; for by that 
ivot^ dot4) Alfrick in his grammar tranflatc Maufolaeum, 
wkicK was the moft 'ftatl'y kinde of monument. In that 
age they only ufed crofles upon their monuments and no 
iniages, which feemed firft to be brought in ufe by the 
Normans. Since that, tyme I obferve no fpeciall note ia 
m^nunleots, but that fuch noblemen and gentlemen, as 
did take upon them the crofle to ferve againft the enemys 
of the erode in the Holy Land, which were then called 
€riipe Signatit or croifed, were buried for the moft parte 
with their leggs acrofle. And whereas that taking of the 
erode ceafed about the tyme of king Edward the fecond, 
yon (hall find none afterward buried in that manner witk 
iheir iogges acrolTe, 


aa4 9f^^ Antiyidtj 9f "Tomis and Menununtu 


Of the Variety and Antiquity of$ 
and Moaufpei^ts pf Per&)n^: decca£^d sa 


7. Jurvj. .1600*.. . 

TOMBES ^nd moQuimcnts ivherof Qiir qiidUcniiin* 
tredtttthy are wordes borowtd of the itottuiiKt, aBd 
intpOfTtble to{)e'«n)erbd m natural BritUh, Ssixoo, or Bog- 
l>fii ; which makedi me tbiok jti^f tii the'Rotninslffiradel 
'%hn kKHle tind l0»ge tiilSe aftei:,-di6iB^tDnsr9ad.i990^^ 
«ade i»D woEk^^in .mtm^ry of Ibe deai:]^ but oftly dC'eartk 
and uii'^ as 'did the Gor«39it5, ^ !wh6m Tas^tvs fadik» 
S^ulchrum cefpts 4:rigit, for that Wa^ dtofl pgrsaMte t^ii*^ 
iure» as TuUy^ Uh, a. <ie JLegibtt^ faith, Mdxk^ * <fm$Mir4 
j^ irc?//i fort una -difirhnen in jpr^irf^ ; ^uid tharfor^ ^tp 
. jbrbidijkth more .ftooe .worke. lo . {1117 gr^e ib^Q iH^y isoo- 
laine the praife of the .deceafe<), ia foi^ bei-^cai t«r^, 
In Athens> t^emetrius ord^fised a/fpfclai m^gifliHtf^ 1^ i«& 
.'th^t rioihin^e ihould bp fct..Hpppo the^ii«ipftlpf,,«rth» birt 
mevfatn a. fgu^re f}at iWn^^.^^i^Jiy^ ag Wlk^W ftiHiie, or 
c^lurrkHnvd ^ Uule ,plllaivin|]^ 4M|edii|g tbriS^'ltUibils «bigb, 
^ Thus ; did the RonsM^ . Ifw^ feibM tbft dgarwibiiPg flf 
rooQumeAb ,iwtb \>uU4i?S»i as^dWmas, diat j« . j^mnges, 
as I'uUy ia %e fafDe.|9lace nuik^t^. Their ^ni9Mm Idfo 
Vas to iQ^e turffe grvre$, for Taiq. i,, A|i|jai-'feiib* Pri- 
mum ^txtfuen^o jtimuU^ff^liUm. G^Jar 4^fu%U ]gra$^^ 
inukere in4^un8os. , .... - - . 

. ThdUjgh^he Latins ufe many, t^ord$^fbr a gn»v«, i^ &? 
""fulchrum, iurph,, hijiumf \mai^umenium^ .fij^>us,n%¥triulus, 
'mau/olmim, 8cc* the heft word and moft aniienc nic ffM- 
fhrum: tumba was derived from the Greek tymbon^ which 
Tully taketh to be all one with buftum\ apd Rofinos 
thinketh bufium is the place where the aflics of fuch as 
iifer^ burned >v^re buried^ as tliQPgh it came of bene ujlhm. 
.:: . Mommentm 

Of the Ant i^uiiy pf f$mhs and Monuments. %t^ 

Monvmentum is a name given iq refpeft of the end . why 
graves are made, that is, for a memorial of valiant and 
worthy men deceafed, as Cicero ad Attkum doth prove, 
^c mo7\umenti. ratio fit^ nomine ipfo ad^noneor, ad memO" 
riani magu Jpe^are debet pofteritaiis^ quam ad prafentts 
temporis gratiam. I do not thinke it is derived a muni' 
endo^ as though it were ereftcd to defend ,the plac^ of bu*- 
rial. Horace, 1. 3. od* jk ufeth it in the former fenfe, 
but iQ a more general figni^cation, for h^ calieth bli$ 
irerfes a Montiment, in the end ^x^htiof W faith, 

Exe^ Monumentum Mre perennius, 
Regaliq.Jitu Pyramidum altivs, &c. 

- But now the common pbrafe of fpe^ch fecmeth .to havf 
appropriated it to workes niade in memorial of the dead ; 
yet as Feftuc, 1. 11. laith, ^lamvis monumentuift mortui 
icoj^fadlvmjtty rwntamenjignificatibifepultiim» If the 
corps, or any parte therof-with the head was buried under- 
fu<;h aK>numeQt, it is truly c^led a Sepulchre or Crave : 
but if the body itiel£ be not there, and ic was ere^led for 
A dead bodii»'& fake, it is a monument^ and the Grecians caU 
it Kevoto^iov, the Latinifles tuntulum mane^ or tiimulum 
fionorariumi mod commonly, as Xenophon» 1. 6. d6 £x- 
pedw Cyri,. faith, they were erefted'oniy for foldiers, whofe 
bodies. could not eafily be found, A monument of this 
nature is Chaiing CroUc, and the queene's croile withoul^ 
Northampton^ which were ereft^d for Ifabel, KiogE. 2d's 
wife^j da.ughter to the kinge of Caftile, whpfe body is cn^ 
terred at Weftn-unfter. At Silchcfter in Hampfhire wag 
fuch a c(miotaphium^ cre^ed for Conftantius, who diedl 
there, as Nennius faith, but wa» buried at Conftantinople. 
Gppu^ is taken for a barrow or hillocke of earth, under 
which,, before- burials were brought into churches and 
church yards, men were buried, but now the ftraitnes of 
tfaofe places wil not permit fuch aggeres omfecratos^ as 
fome do, terrhe them,, to be made there. Mavfolaum 
ycometh of Maufolus klnge of Caria, for whom Artimefia 
(lis queen ibuilt a fumptuou^ tombe) which others after 
Vol. I F f Unitatlngp, 

zz6 Of the AntiquUy of Tomh and Monuments. 

Imltatinge, their's bore the name of Maufolaa. All tkfe 
names fignefy but two thinges, that is fumptuous and coftly 
fepulchers and common and ordinary graves : and to ex- 
prcfle this difference in Englifh, \te are forced to borowe 
thefe wordes, tombes and monuments^ both which words 
are nfed in one fence, and betoken rather the gamiihing of 
them, than the very grave itfelf. 

The antiquity of graves and monuments I infift not 
upon, becaufe I know divers here can better fpeak therof, 
having feen many erefled by the Romans, Brittons, and 
Saxons ; but I never viewed any, but only that at Lilbornc 
In my own native country, which is a rounde hill of earth, 
%vith two toppes, the one ^ greate deal higher then the 
otherl Adamnanus faith, the monument made over 
Chrifte's fepulchre was rounde. 

But the monuments now commonly creftcd, and fofor 
many hundred years part, are fquare. If they be of fmal 
charge, they are a flat ftone la)»ed even with theertb, 
' others are erefted higher then the pavement or erth, and 
thofe are more coftely buildings then the other, and belong 
to kings and famous perfonages, as appeareth by that of 
•Beda, 1. 4. c; 30, Tranfadlis xi. Annis^ a fepultura Cut' 
berti^ volentes Featres tolere OJfa i//his, et in ntrve recon* 
dere loculoy hi eodem quidem loco, fed fuper f>avimentum digna 
venerationis gratia locare, and li. 3. ca. S. Farcongatha ft' 
fulta in Eccfefi^ Stephani. Lapis quo monumentmntegehatur, 
removcbatur altius, &c, Thefe hygh ereftcd Tombes, 
Caurianus in his Italian difcourfes uppon Tacitus's Amials 
1. 3. faith, the pope hath ordained fliall be made lowc, and 
the banners taken downe, which arc fet up in churches for 
vaine oftentation, where God only ought to be worshipped. 
Sometimes in memory of the deceafed, one or more pi- 
lars were erefted. The firft we read of was that fet up by 
Jacob for Rachel in Egipt. Pyramidcs or obelHckes are or- 
dinary for this ende. Amongft the Lombardes, when any 
man died, his friends fet a poft of wood with a dove oa 
the top of it, looking towards the place where the prty 
^icd^ as faith Paul^ Diaconus de geftis Longobardorum, 
. ' • • * • / 1 5, 

Of the Antiquity of Tombs and Monuments. *2/ 

!• S« c- 34- With OS kinge Arthur's tombe at Glaftonbury 
b;ui two pyramides over it. 

The ead of montiments concerning pofterityi and future 
'ages, it was a necefliiry law, which Tully faith the komans . 
had, Ne quis fepulchrum defeat, Poenaq. eji fi quis bufitinif 
out momanentumy out columnam violarit, dejecerit^ fregerit. 
This lawe other nations eflablidied with them ; and fo did 
kibg Henry the ift. with us. For in the 82dr chapter of 
his iaweS) I finde thefe words, ^ti alium quocunque modo 
perimit, videat ne WtWr&f Jaciat. WcWrcf dicimuSy ^ quis 
mortuum refabit armis aut pror/us aUquibtis vel tumulatunt 
vel tumulandum ; etfi quis corpus in terra vel ncffo, i)el pe- 
tra^ vel Pyramide, vel JlruElura qualibet pojitum fceleratit 
infamationibus effodere vel expotiare prefufnpferit^ W^rgus 
habeatur* The lawes of kinglna and of king Ethelred have it 
thus : Walreaf, id ejl^ mortuunt referre, ejl opus nithingi. Si 
quis hoc negare voluerit faciat hoc cum 48. Thainis^ plane 
nobilibus. palpeap if n'>nser beebCi This the Leges Longo« 
bardorum Tit. 8. §. i. forbid under the name of Rapovor* 
Jin. The Salicke lawe difFereth little from the firft lawes. 
Tit. 17. §• !• 3. 4* Si quis hominem msrtuum aniequam in 
termmmittatur furto expoliaverit^ (be. Si quis hominem mor* 
iuum aut in Noffo^ aut in petra que Vafa ex vfu Sarcophagi 
aicunturjuper aliiT miferit llD.den, quifaciunt Sol, lxij\ 
culpabUes Judicentur. And in the fame Salik lawes. Tit. 57* 
§. 3. Si quis y4ri/iatonem hoc ejl Jlaptu fuper mortuurn mijfum 
capulaverity aut mandualem, quod efi eafiruElurafive felave 
qui ejl ponticulus y Jicut more ant iquorum faciendum fuit, &c. 
Si quis hominem mortuum fuper alium in naufo vel in Petrd 
miferit y &c. Si quis corpus jam fepidtum effoderit aut ex- 
poliaverit Wargus fit hoc efl, expulfus de eodem pagt ufq* 
dumy be, 

Thefe lawes I fet downe in order thereby to enterprete 
the Ifarange W0rdes in the lawes of king i^enry the firft, 
for they are fo difufed, that there is fcarce any man that 
knoweth that there arc fuch lawes. The words themfelves 
bardely can be underftood, and the rcafon thereof Is this ; 
that deadly feUd being ceafed, malice provojkeih not to dig 

F-f 2 ' up 

22» Of tfUapbs. 

tip tombes and graves ; and though it (faonid, yet rcltgioa 
doth now reftralne it, by reafon it is counted facriledge to 
violate any thinge in churches or churche-yardcs. Cove- 
toufnefs made fosfie to dig up the dead, becaufe ornaibeotSi 
jewels, or money, vctxt in times paft buried widi many ) 
but now that cufioitie feafing, no man for delire of gaine 
is invited to commit this offence, and it now being gene- 
rally reputed a moft vile a£te, no man will prefnme to tranf- 
greflc thefe lawes^ and every man is a lawe to bimfelf therin. 


Of Epitaphes* 

By Mr. C a m d e n« 
3.Novr. 1660. 

AMONG fill funerd honours, ^/zV^/^^j have atwayes 
bene moil refpe(fted, for in them love was (hewed 
to the deceafed, memory was continued to pofterity, 
friends were comforted, and the reader put in mind of ho- 
mane fraylty. 

The mention of them proceeded from the prefagc, or 
forfeeing of immortality implanted in all inen naturally^ 
and is referred to the fchoUers of Linus, who firft bewayl- 
ed theyre mafter, when he was flayne, in doleful! verfe, 
called of him Mliuum^ and afterward Epitaphia^ for that 
that they were fyrft fong at buryals, and after engraved up- 
pon the fepulchres. They were alfo called Eulogia, and 
Tituli by the Romans 5 but by our aunci^nt progenitors 
in a mere Englifti cpmpounde worde JByni^ Leo^. 1. e. a bu* 
ryall fong. 

Plato made a lawe, that an epitaph fliould be comprifed 
in four verfes ; the Lacedemonians rcferved this honor only 
to mar tiall men and chafl women ; the moft ancient (efpecially 
the Greeke) were written in elegiac verfe, after inprofc. 


Of Epitaphs. 2rft|> 

Yt'isnot impertinent to note in one wordte> that the 
auncient Romaines, who were for a long tyrrie lords of 
this ifle, beganne their epitaphes with D. M. for Diis 
MANiBUS, or D. M. S. for Diis Manibos 'Sa€RU"m. 
Hicjitus ejl^ HoJ^es \ as fpeaking to the ireadeJ', etid have 
refpefle fometyme to the reader, fometyme to the deade. 
They would alfoe exquifitlye fett dowae the yeares, 
mcHiethSy and days, with thcfe letters, vixit A, for mtnos. 
M. fov menfeSy D. for dies ; and. if he was a rmillitar^e 
man, it was ejcafHy noted in what legion he ferved, with . 
thefe wordes, tot Jiipendia fecit. 

But to come to the Engli(h nation, and omitting that of 
Auguftyne, mentioned by Bede, I will firft offer unto you 
one epitaph, which was written in the porch of St. Aoguf- 
iyne's,ia Canterburye, for the feven firft archbifhappes of 
that fee, Augnftinus, Laurentius, Mellitus, Juftus, ttono- 
rius, Deus dedlt, and Theodorus. 

* . 

Septemfunt ^nglis primates et protopatres , 
Sept em ReElores^ coelo feptemq. triones, 
Septem cijierna vit^, feptemq, lucerna:, 
Eifeptem palma regni, feptemq, corona^ 
Septemfunt Jiellay quas hac tenet area ceflte. 

For Siigandus, archbifhop of Ganterbdry, 1 h^ve found 
this moft bitter epitaph. 

Hicjacet Herodes Herode ferocior^ hujus 
Inqianat infemmtjpiritns, Ojiifoltwi. '. -^ . ' 

Upon kinge Henry the firft, was compofed theis 'ih re- 
fpefte of his peaceable government, and the troables which 
cafewed under king Stephen, both in England and -Nor- 

Quod modicum praeftent, quod opes magnum nihil 

Rex probat Henricits, rei Vivens pticis a'diicus. 
ExiAter^t fiquldem pbas cun^is ditior rdiem^ 
Osiduse genti quos prdet4lHt ordo regeoxii.; - . 
At necis ad peftes, quid .gemmae, paBia^' Tjeftos^ :, ». 
JEs vadwa terra, quid caftra fibi t^lu^^-^ ?:..... • 


230 Of Epitaphs, 

Vilibus hincfequsim dans forteiDf palliJa oequami 
Procendeodo pedem^ mors ejus puifat ad xdem 
Quo dum dira febris prima fub no£Ve Decembris 
Mundum oudavlt, mundo mala multiplicavit. 
Quippe pater populi, pax et tutela pufilli, 
Dum pius ipfe ruit» furit impias, opprimit, urit. 

Jnglia lugeat hinc, Normannica gens Jhat Ulinc, 
Occidit Henricus, modo pax^ nunc lu6lus utrique 

Uppon William, fonne of kinge Henrye the firfte, and 
heir apparent of this realme, drowned upon the coalle of 
Normandie, I have founde this epitaph. 

JbJluRt hunc terra Matri Maris Unda novercCf, 
Proh dolor ! occubuit fol anglicuSy Anglia plora : 
^aq* priusfueras gemino radiata nitorcy 
ExtinSio nato vivas contenta parente. 
For his daughter Matild, the emprefle, this is moft la- 
conically and in my opinion could hardly be matched in 
oure age. 

. Magna ortu^ majorq. viro^ fid maxima partu^ 
Hie facet Henricijiliaf Jponfa^ parens. 

For one None of Suffolk in the Bookc of Buckenham, 

Hicfitus eft nulluSt quia nullo nullior ifte^ 
Et quia nuUus eraty de nutto nil tibi Cbrifte. 

For* king Henry the fecond, I find this. 

Kex Henricus eram» mihi plurima regna fubegi^ 
Multiplicique modo, Duxqae Comefque fui. 

Cum fatis ad votum non eflent omnia terras 
Climata, terra modo fufiicit oflo pedum. 

Qui legis haec, pepfa difcrimina mortis et in me 
Humanse Speculum conditionis habe. 

^ufficit hie tumulus^ eui nonfufficerat orbis^ 
Res brevis ampla mihi, cuifuit ampla brevis. 

But this one verfe uppon his death comprtfed as much 
matter, as many long lynes to the glorye of himfelf and 
l^s fucceflbr K. Richard the firft, 

MirA. canOf fol occubuit f nox nulla fiquuta* 


Of Epitaphs. 231 

Thomas Beckett archbUhoppe of Canterbury had thics 

• cpitaphes expreiGng the caufe, the timey and place of his 
death, made by an efpccial favorer. 

Pro Chrifti f^onfa^ Chrijlifub tempore^ ChriJH 
In templo^ Chrifti verus amator obit. 

^linta Dies natalis erat^ fios orhls ah orbe 
Carpitury et fruElus incipit ejje polL 

^is moritur ? prafuL cur ? pro grege, ^aliter P 

^lando F natali. ^is locus ? ara DeL 

To the glorie of K* Richarc^ Coeur de JLIon, I have 
foande thefe* 

Hie RichardejaceSy fed Mors fi cederit amas^ 
ViEla timore tut, cederet ipfa tuts, 

Jftius in morte perimit formica Leonenit 
Pro dolor, in tanto funere mundus obit. 

Aq Englifli poet imitatiDge the epitaphe made on Pom* 
pey and his children, whofe bodyes were buried in diverfe 
countreys, made thefe following of the glory of this one 
kinge divided in three places by his funeraU« 

Vifcera Carcedumy corpus Fons fervat Ebraudip 
Et cor Rothomagunty magne Richarde tuuntm 

In tria dividitur unus, qui plusftntuno. 
Non unojaceat gloria tanta loco* 


Yt may be doubted whether Wulgrine the organift 

* was fo gopd a mufician as Hugh, archdeacon of Yorke, 
was a poet, which made this epitaphe for him. 

Te Wulgrine cadenfe, caduntvox, organa, cantut, 

Et quicquid gratiT gratia vocis haiet. 
Voce, lira, triodulis, Syrenes, Orphea, Phoebum^ 

Unus tres Poteras aquiperare tribus. 
Si tamen illorum nonfailitfama Jocorum 

^odfueras nobis, hoc eris EUfijs. 
Cantor eris, qui cantor eras, hie cbarus, et ittic 

Prpbeus alter eras f Orpheus alter crit. 


z^z Of B$Uapb&l 

Vjfoxk ooe Petre^. a religious man of this age, I fowide 

Petra capit Petri cbures^y animam Petra Chriftus, 
Sicfibi divifit utraq.. Petra Petrum. 

Among epitaphes, that is conceyted which is in Pawles, 
where there is only written uppon a ftone, 

. No?i hominem afpiciam ultra* 

This man yet would not williogly have been forgotten, 
when he adjdyned his arnies't(> continew his memorye. 
Nol! unlike ta phibfephers, whkh. prefixed their name^l)e« 
fore their treatifes of contemning glorye. 

Bis Vir^ bifq* SeneXy bis D^or, bi/q. Sacerdos* 

Digna hac luce diuturniore 
- ' N^qtmdiltKe meliore dig^a. 

Upon Pope Lucius by a monk of Bukenhamji 

, Luca dedit lucem tibi Lud^ Ptmtijicatu. 
Ofiifl^' PapatUi Rma^, f'^erorm nwru 
JmoV^rojii^d^ptiblvero vivei^i Mama. 
flxiiiumy curasOfiia, Lucn tmrL 

At St. Alban's, * ' : ' 

Mic quidem Jacet i^€cato fplvens Debit tm, ctgm H^ 
nomen-mninfcribiltur^ in vita lihrofrt infcriptum. 

Upon oneMargaretf Radcliffe, 1 found theire verH 

Here lies i. Lord hav^ mercy upon h^r! 
One of Elizabeth's maydes.of honout^^ 
Margaret. RadcUffci fayreand wittiei 
She died a maydc^ tha morO tHpittii* 



bf Epitaphs: 

By Anonymous. 
3^*. Nov'. 1600. 

NEC nlhil^ nee nlmium, iS i very good rule to tie ob* 
ferved iq fpeeches and wKcings, whether they re- 
fpeft the living br the deadc. In the dutiful regarde £ 
bear to this aflettibly, I mutt fet filenCe ap^rte, though 
fiihil, to fay nothinge, "v^ere fitteft to conceale mine igiio* 
ranee, and if I fpeke more^ then a little, It will be Ni* 
fnium J time Being wholly fpent, and choifeft niatt^rs plen^- 
tifuUy fet out, in your former difcdurfes of epitaphs, or 
tombe waitings ; wliich the Sakons termed Birs-n-jepjie, 
if thay i^ere profe, tir BiK%eh-leo«, if they wfere verfe^ 
Againft the firft pattte of this rule, our antient predecef^- 
fois, the BHttohs, tranfgrefled: they addfftffed modumepts 
(which to this -day rcHiaifaie) Without attle chkrafter upoti 
them, that hiight ifrftrtift pofterity \^hat membtials they 
were; and yet the fortnfe ahafaffiion of'thfiih evidehtly 
Ijewrayeth, tb perffcft judgments, the Intidnt of the firft 
"ereftors of them. Fdr huge smd gi^cat JElohfes were not fet - 
Up, but ether as bra vts aitid tokens df Vidldries atchered; 
or warninges of drihgeroUs landitig places \ or monuments 
t)f famous mens btirifetfe 'the firft -fort are feldome with- 
out lofcrtptioni: yet at Bor6i*gh-^bfig in Yorkftiirc is a ~ 
-trophy void of any charnfteri and cbnfifting of four pyr^- 
ifhides placed tti a ftraight libc, fignefyin^ -H parpcjfe to ptd- 
tfeediii the courfe of rttchi\'fed vidtorfes. IVdfni'ng ft$nSs 
ififfer frotti tropheyes and fepnfchers in thtir fcituation: 
'Bdth the others have the tops of their ftotieS erefted to- 
xt^ards heaven • but thefe bende theni towards fdme har^c 
"haven, or fdck, thretfting, as it were, by their verry po- 
iitiori, to make oppofulon to fea-faring fnen tlmt fhall 
VeL. I. Gg thrnft. 



2fj4. Of epitaphs. 

thruft in at ihofe places. The Britifh monuments, made 
as grateful memories of worthies decefed, are either one 
fingle pyramis made of one entire ftone; or more conjoined; 
or feveral huge ftones erefted in forme of a gate or houfe, 
and then it is a monument of fome one great perfonage 
there buryed. Such a one is at Ailesforde in Kent, where 
are ercftedin memory of Catagerne,four huge and harde 
ftones cohered with others, termed of the common people 

M Leikarde in Cornewal there is on a hiH called The 
Wrenches^ a piller of ix. ftones, and no|t fiirre from thence 
ix. other ftones, whofc uuitifig make the refemblance 
of an houfe. 

la the weft parte of Deubiglifhire are divers pillars" 
erefted and called Lapides DritydariT^ yet fome of ihefc 
have a ftfange carafter vippon them. But where many 
J)uge ftones arc fet in- a triangle, or orderly difpofed in a 
•circle, there are the bodies of many valiant naea enterred^ 
as at Brifcaw Wone nere St» Buriens in Cornewal, where 
;are xix. ftones pitched ia a joynd, everyone twelve foote 
from the other, and in the center, one greater then the 
\ reft fet upright. The like moauments are, the Magifolde 
or Cornedunc by Montgomery in Caernarvanftiire, and the 
RoUrichftones in Oxfordftiire, and the Core-gaur or Stones- 
. henge on SaliflDury-plaine : which laft is the famous fepul- 
tber of the Britifli nobility flaine by Hengift, and in me- 
mory of them erefted by the direction of Merlin, at the 
commandcment of Aurelius Ambrofius, It confifteth of 
aboute 50 huge ftones, placed orderly in a rundle, arid 
.covered with others, and fome pitched upright within tlie 
.tttermoft circle: the bewty wherof is almoft periftied by 
.the falling downe of fome of the toppe ftones. I cannot 
impute tbefe dulle fhewes to the dulnefs of Britifh wits, ar> 
.barbaroufnefs of. that age, knowinge that Ca?far alloweth 
their Druides to be learned ; and many writer^ afSrme, 
. their bardes were good poets; and the fafliion of thefe mo- 
numents argue their invention therein to be full of wit. 
The rounde forme ufually obferved is a& image of perpe- 



Of, Epfapbi. 22g 

tutty, admonlfliing every beholder, |bat as the montimefit 
is void of ende, fo the wortbinefs of the perfonages there 
entombed defeiveth endlefs remembrance. TbiC high py- 
ramides jjiounting towards the ikies bewray a min^e in the 
decefed, afpiring towards heven. 

The triangle is a forme of perfeftion reprefenting fcaowi- 
ledge of the Trinity. Tlw fhape of a great gate or houfe 
iutimateth, that the decefed are recieved into houfes by the- 
gxeat gate of deaih, there perpetually to remaine in happi- 
nefs. They knewe that letters ingraved in ftone are fab- 
jeft to tlie injury of eating Time, and the defacinge of ma- 
litious adverfaries ;. and reputed that praife moft lively, 
that lived in the mouths of lerjaed Men* Their cuftorae 
therfore was at mariagcs, Minerals, and other foletnn fefts, 
to have b-irdsin leaned verfe to fiag <hc praifes of worthies 
deceafed, wliich piadp Luca^ wrii;^ write thes gf thepa. 

Fos quoq. qui fortes animos belloq. feremptcrs 
LaudWus in longiim Vates dimittitis avum, 
Plurima fectirifuditis carmina B<trdi, 

Thefe bardes kept fo faithful a.nvemory of the place of 
of king Arthur's fcpulcbre, that though the grave ftone 
lay deepe ia the erth,' and the place was unknown to others, 
yet by their diredions it was found in the time of king 
Henry the feconde, with an epitaph therin, which is the-, 
antienteft that ever I red of, he being bmied;cleven hun- 
dred years paft. This is nimium of the Brittons ; nihil, if 
I could hav^ anfwered for them^ witb more brevity. 

This fcribling age, io hej: b^bliqg humour,_gfltndeth 
agai^ft the fecoud paxt;e of tJtie fore rjcmicmibred juje : ther? 
is nimium almoft in every epitaph. 

Men of greateft defert, by the opinion of Plato, as Tully 
de legibus faith, might haye their full irommendation la 
four heroical verfes: whatfoever is more is fuperfluous: 
Ixut this age trebleth this fcantljiing in many epitaphs. 

Licurgus forbad fo much, a^ the namie pf any to be.e^r 
graved on a fepulchre, if he died not in warre. The life 
!<|f>^^ery Chriftian is a wdrrefare. He^that di,«th fighting 

P^ * H^aliai^tlj 

^^6 Of Efitapbs. 

valiantly in this fpiritoal battel, hath his name written iq' 
an hevenly booke, and therfore is not to be denied the 
engraving of it in earthy matter. Yet when Edogia^ 
praifing epitaphs, are beflowcd on men of no note io^ the 
cburche' of God, a thing now tqo ordinary, the fliortef^ 
epitaph is too much for them. 

Some epitaphs are enjgraven upon the tombe ; fptne fixecf 
to it; fome hanged up in ts^bles and not faftened to. 
the tombe. The laft are moft fubjeft to be loit, but nonq 
of them are f^re to continue, our own ej'es daily be- 
)ldding the miferable defacing of epitaphs and monuments. 
Which made fome to engrave epitaphs uppon the lead, 
wherin the dead are wrapped, as did Sir Willlaai Hatton 
uppon Sir Chriflopher Hatton bis uncle. Some have 
written epitaphs uppon copper plates, and put themint^ 
the grave, as WilKam the Con(]ueror'<8 executors did. 
Some have placed tbejjn on the iufide of the graye^ooe, 
and buried that Ipwe in the earth, as did kinge Arthur's 

Though it be lawful for any oian to fet an epitaph upon 
^is deceafcd friend, without the commandementof any 
xnagiArate, yet thofe are moft honorable and authentkat 
that have iuch warrant. 

Of this forte is that, which Bede, 1. c. c 7. hath re- 
giftred of Cadwalla. He died at Rome, and by cbminand- 
itiient of thc-^bHhop of Rome had an epitaph fixed to his 
tombe. Biflibp Cuthbert, nbt forgetful! of private friend^ 
erefted a itfbnument for fix famous pcrfonage^ that were 
dead before him. And fo the two pyramides at Ghflbn- 
bury wfere erefted by the commandement of Sexi ; this is 
the infcription, 

If^r S4xifohfwer. 
liffiiffh^ ffuntomo wmi^f/fg^. 

Which I expound thu< 



Of Epitaphs. - tjf 

Here Sexi the blejfed man commanded to be made a chefi 
of corruption^ a tomb full (f bortes • 

?•?•••• ••• •••• 

y • , . , Wtilfre4e» Eanfiede^ istc* 

Epitaphs, havinge the allowance of public authority, 
^re authentical proofes of thut which they containe ; fo 
are not others, th^t by th^ private fancy of friends are ea- 


I have rpoken of the antiquity, diiference of placing, 
and diftinflpn of the honour of epitaphs, I (hould addc 
fome fclefted by myfclf, as you have done. 

The brefeft 1 account to be beft, and fuch as have fome 
worde adjoined to them. This of St. Edwarde's is the aa* 
flenteft that I kuowe of this kinde. "^ 

Omnibus infgnis virtutir laudibus heros 
SanSf*. Edwards. Confejfor^ Rex venerandus 
^into die Junii moriens fupcr aethcra fcandit. 



King Edward^ the 3d'$ wife had this epitaph, 
foryux Edvmrdi jacet hie Philippa Regina 


* • 

In the Temple Churchc on the grave of Rkhard Wy> 
^bc! di^d 1 519* is an ocdioary epita{A with this wordc^ 


*3* ^f '^^ Antiquity vf Epitaphs in England. 


Of the Antiquity and fele<5led Variety of 

Epitaphs in England. 

By Anonymous. 

AN cpUaph Is a monument of the dead ; it is a kind of 
poem, though not perfeft, but as an Italian calls it, 
a Mote, or Atome of poetry, poetiats atomus. Now as 
there is not any precife art or imitation required in fach 
compofitlons, therefore they are not fpoke of by Ariftotle 
in his booke of poetry. And yet in this apifh age, where 
fo many imitators fcrible poems, there are divers who pre- 
fcribe rules for making epitaphs, allowing of none, except 
they contain as many parts as a demohftrative oration : 
fuch as the praife of the party bqjied — whjjt a great lofs 
or mifTe the world hath of him — and there upon a mourn- 
full lamentation — then a corififdrtto rhe^vorld — and laftly, 
an exhortation to immitate his vertues.--r.AIl thefe, fay 
they, muft be expreft fhortly and clearly. Others will 

^ • • • 

have the name of the defunft,- together with bis* age, 
cftate, deferts, gifts, of body and mind, as alfo the time of 
his death fett forth ; and fo would have it a breif ftory or 
dcfcription of his life 

This forfooth (hold be the matter of an epitaph. For 
the form, they will hay^ it'.ofoqe .peice, and as it werC; 
one maine conceit with the parts cpntinued, chayned and 
depending : befides, it muft not be verfe, but a kind of 
metricall profe, feeming fo by the ftrange tranfpofi tion of 
the words ; which muft likewife tafte nothing of the mo- 
derne, but be all al' antiche ; 

I fpeake not this, as if I lov'd not antiquities, which 
were ever venerable ; I reverence them, as I would revere 
Adam, if he were alive ; but I fpeak it for honor of our 
Engliih epitaphes, I mean the auncient epitaphes of Eng* 
lafid ; which I will mayntayne to be good epitaphes, not* 


Of the Antiquity of Epitaphs in England 235^ 

withftanding they are not Cutt out according to the afore- 
faid meafure, but as they are divers, fo have they their di- 
vers formes ; and yet nbne of them are without an efpeclal 
grace. The only rule that is obfervcd in them, is that 
which is required in an epigram, viz. witt and brevity ; 
conformable to the opinion of Plato, who, in his com- 
monweajth, requireth that an epitaph (hould not confift of 
above four lines. 

As to the antiquitie of epttaphes in this ifland, I thrntc 
there were none in the firft barbarous times. For though there 
then were many monuments fet up for the dead, as pillars^ 
pyramids,' heaps of ear^h, which ar properly tumuli, and 
the like, yet were they all without any infcription on them. 
Such was the cafe in refpeft to the ftones at Stonehenge, 
which are monuments of the dead, but without any in- 
fcriptions ; bycaufe I think that at that time in which they 
were fet up, the barbarous people had the ftrength to ereft 
thofe huge ftones, but not the (kill to infcribe an epitaph 
on them. Notwithftanding this I make no doubt, but 
epitaphs afe very auncient, not only bycaufe the Welch 
word argraph, which llgnifies an epitaph, or an infcrip- " 
tion, is very antient, but alfo bycaufe in the year 51^ 
which is now near eleven hundred ycais paft, K. Arthur's 
epitaph. Hie jacet fepultus incfytiu Rex Jrtjjurius in Infula, 
Avalonia was infcriued on the infide of his leaden coffin. 
Further, venerable Bede, and others of our auncient writers 
recite many epitaphs of princes and pi elates who flourifbed 
long before the conqueft. . 

The next, epitaph I know of in point of antiquity is 
that of St. Auguftine the monk, the firft archbifhop of 
Canturbury, which was made about the year 560, and 
placed in the church of Pcetcr and Panic in that city, viz,^ 
Hie requiefcit Dorninus Aiigiijiinus Boruvernenfis Jrchiepif* 
^9pus primu,Sy qui ofi7n Buc n beat a Cregorio Romana urbis 
Pontifice direSIus, eSr a Deo^ operatlotie miracidorum Siifful' 
tuSf JEdilber^lum Regem, ac gentem illius ab idolorum cuitu 
dd Chrijli Jidem perduxit^ is compktls in pace diebus ojicii 


fidi drfunSlus eft fiptUno Kalends JuniaSf modern Rege re^'^ 

Shortly after died T^. Eihelbert, under whom Auftind 
fiouri(hty and his epitaph is Ukewife recorded in elegant 
riming verfe ; 

Rex Ethelbertus hie clauditur in polyandro 
Fana pians^ certe Chrifto meat ahfque MaandrO, 

About the year 600. Cedwall, king of the Wext Saxons, 
dyed and was buried at Winchefter. His epitaph, lexprefs"* 
ijig bow be went to Rosie Co be cbriftened laod wat 
suuned Peter, ive are told by Beda, was as followeth* . 

Culmenf QpeSf fuboleniy pollentia regruiy triumphos, 

ExuviaSp proceres, maeniaf^Cafira, Lares; 
,^uaque Patrum virtus, et qus eongeJferaS ipfi 

CaduQ.1 armipotens, iiqmt amore Dei, ^ 

Ut Petrum, fedpnque Petri Rex cerneret HoJpeSf 

Cujusfonte meras fume ret almus aquas, 
Spkndyicumque juhar radiant i car per at haujlu. 

Ex quo vivificus futgor ubiquejluit, 
Percipienfque alacer rediviva prosmia viter^ 

Barbaricam rabiem, nomen fcf inde/uum 
Converfus convertit cvanSf Petrumque vocare 

Sergius Jntiftes jujjlt, ut ipfe pater 
Fmte renafcentis, quern Chrifti gratia purgans 

.. Protinus abtatum vexit in arce poli. 
Mira fides Regis / dementia maxima Chrifti, 

Cujus csnfilium nullus adire poteji / 
So/pes enim veniens fupremo ex orbe Britannia 

Per varias gentes, j>erfreta, perque viaSf 
Urbem Romuleum,vidit, templumque verendum 

yijpexit, Petri myjlica dona gerens* 
Candidus inter Oves Chrifti fociabilis ibit : 

Corpore nam tumulttm, mente fuperna tenetm 
CqmmutaJJe magis Sceptrorum injignia credaSy 

^em regnum Chrifti promerui£e vides* 


0/ ik Amlquiiy of Epitaphs in England. 241 

*rhe next year after Cedwall's death, Beda reports an 
ispitaph of Theodore Archbifliop of Canterbury, not 
Wri:trei^ ufich fo good ink, 12^ \vhh fo good invention as 
the for«ier. 

flic facer in tumha pan/at turn Corpora projiilly 

^icm nunc Theodorum Lingua jtelafgh vocat, 
Princeps pontifvcum^ fi^^'^x^ fummufque facerdos^ 

Limpida Dif;ipuli^ Dogmfita diffiruit^ 
Namque diem nonam decimam September habebat^ 

Cwfi Carnis cU lift r a fpirituf egreditur. 
j^lma nova fcandens feiix confortia vita, . 

Gipibus ^ng^licii junQ^s in ttrce poll. 

The next epitaph to thofe, in point of antiquity, thnt t 
meet with, is that of Etheldred, whp wa$ king of th^ AVefl 
Sspc^ns ^bout th^ y?af SjOj, and lyes buried at Winborqe ia 

In hoc hc9 quiejiit Corpus fahdH Etheldredi regis Wejl 
Saxonummartyris^ qui ainn* 872 permanus Dacocumpa- 
gamrum occubuit. 

By thcfe it appeals, th^it epitaphs, were ufuall bef<ve 
the Coiiqaeft; but as moft men in thofe dayes were buried 
in monaftcrics, dcMAtleflTe the diflblution of thofe houfes 
haib 4tftroycd an irfifinite number of eKceUent. epitaphs 
IMd^ bpUi h^OTQ and iinpe .t|ie Noarman Invafion. 

A$ I b^is given yon a tafle of eptophs ipade before the 

Conqueft, and which are hr from bad compoiitiotM, I 

0|gU,,tP<rsX»>Q fofnc Qthiars^ i»hich were written fioce that 

finae, ^sd haire jbeed . prcferved by fiory^ though the 

cJhqr^hff apd. tomhf^s jtbftt cciataiQcd them be. now deniro5r€d^ 

$md 9i\^\ch eqnait ^bfiiharpefl and iiditkft thai ever wore 

P^Mq4* Suck, m0re efpeeialljr, wsr^ tbofe^ made in tfce 

f ilPQ i£ K. Ifenry ihc ie^bsd ; hr tbongh the xspttafdk of 

Ills d^ar Ria&iDPo^ be fome^hat moaki^ nsA m rklme, 

yq% is VimU ^at .m al^^mcy and a kind of grace equal to 

tbat of K. Ethelbert. / . -; ^ / 

Xoh. I. H h ffic 


242 t>f the jintiquity of -Epitaphs in England. 

Hicjacet in Tumba Rofa inundi\ non Rofamundaf 
Non redoletf fed olef, qua redolere folet, 

Bqt there are other epitaphs made ia bis tlmer^hich art 
as pure Latin, of fo clear invention, and of fo neat a com- 
pofition, that 1 wonder how that rude age could produce 
fuch : as firll that of his mother Maud the emprefs, 

Ortu magna : viro major y fed maxima partu, 
Hicjacet HeHriciJilia, fpon/a, parens. 

It wks not long after, when this epitaph for the Eark 
Marfhall was made. 

Sum quern Saturnum fthi fenjii Hihemia^ SoleM 
. Jnglia, Mercurium Normannia^ Galtta Martem. 

Of the iattie iiine is that, which I have heard was made 
for Richard Clamvile;, a great perfon in the ftate, in that 

Hie pudor Hippoliti^ Phridis g^na^ fin/us Utijfis, 
Mnea pietas, He^oris Irajacet^. 

The fame age was author of this epitaph uppon the 
death of a worthy king that had a worthy fuccefTor^ 

Mira loquor, fol occubuit, nox nuUafecuta eft, 

I fay, and fay it confidently, that no age, no conatrey in 
the world can (how better epitaphs then thofe which were 

• linade above 400 years fmce uppon princes of this king- 

Such epimphs of oar princes that have efcaped the rage 

of fire, are for the moft part at Wefttninftet* ; tbefe hate 

. been lately collefted and publiftieid by Mr. CJariencieuX, 

• Hnd therefore I forbeare to recite them ; but of fuch as I 
have heard to retnayne in other churches, and which in my 
judgment are fitt to be noted, I will repeat fome few, 
which wecemadefcattcringly in the ages following : 

Of one of E* E. 3*8. fooes, whofe name I remember not^ 
' there is this epitaph at Warwick, 


Ofibe Antiquity of Epitaphs in Engknd. 243 

Here lies worfhipfully interred. 

Methinks the word vjorjbipfully is a word of great honor, 
confitferiog the time, though now the gfeneral appKcation 
hath deminiiht the fignificatioQ of it. 

In the upp?r part of the long w^lk in Powlcs near tjhc 
(layers^ there is this infcriptionj. 

In my conceit an excellent epitaph for the brevity, an^ 
for the fenfe, and difproportion \yhich it feems to carry, 
in regai:d the writer foid one thing and intended another ; 
for it cannot be thought that he would have the dead nian 
forgotten, fiace he undoubtedly meant that the word oh/fvio 
(hould be his monumenr. 

The epitaph of do<?lor Caius in his colledge^ Cam- 
bridge is likewife very (harp, and cAF much ligplficationA. 
though it^be but a word, 

Fui Cues. 

But in this late refined age^ there have been many epi- 
taphs of excellent com'pofition, both ferious and ridicu- 
lous, as . - 

Of a covetous, perfon. 

Conditur in tttmulo^ gratis jui nil dedit unquam^ 
Nunc quod gratis perUgis i/la^ doleU 

Qf a mioderate contented perfon* 

Prcmus eram, noH'ComftfS, opus, divefq. videb^^ 
Nan capiendo alijs^ non cupiendo mihi. 

Of one that died of the ilone. 

C(ilculus exejit miH vivo in corpore renes. 

Nunc quoq. drfun.£ti Calctdus Offa premit^ 
Cum generi humanoJapis ihfra vifcera crefcat 

^is poterit tumtfH mm memmffefui I - 


Ypu have fome antieqt epitaphs with a wpr^ QX WittQ,}^ 

p. M. $.ir» ' 

244 ^J ^^^ Antinuity of Epitaph in Enghni. 

Plxi queinadmodum voluL quare mortuusfum^ nejcw^ 


ViLERius MicEDQ, aDifB^c dolciffiiB^ conjugir, ' 
Amid dum vivimus^ vivamus. 

Is not the epitaph of Rich. a'*. fomcT^at like it. 
Fuijfe felicem Miferrimum. 

Of Sir Phil, Sidney, among many this was very cxceK 

^djacet ktc, non ill^jacet, fed ad Afirci volavtt, 
Iftafiqui vellet pars^ mfi claudaforet. 

Eft bene quod partem patria Sidnae reUnqu^^ 
Ui neq. tot us abis, fic neq. tot us obis. 

But another there is of more'ftatc and iftore fnagnilq- 
' quenc€. 

Ecce ar6lQ terra in fumulo^ exiguiq, fepukbri 

Vifceribus femota Rxuvia Sidjrar inimenfi. 
Qlim diva, anhna Domus inculpata^ fed US' 

Caelum habei et gavelet tanto hp^ite i gaadet et <^Hs 
Vivent^ in Nat^ effigie ; pragnantis amata 

Conjugis in cqfis gremio^ vig^ alitefamd 
^lod Marte ^ mufis nomenftbi cotudidit illis* 

Nafnq, otti nequit rapere aut Mars invidus, au^norSt 
Y^l Juveni, virtus fatis vicit quoq,fatum^ 

Et vixit vivitq. Deu genusf et rhixtus Di/s} 

Of ridictilous epitaphs, tht bfeft thsff I have noted are 

Ho ! who lies h^re ? 

Heer lies the oldearUofD^on^rcy 

And Maud his tvffe^ thaf vxls fuU deerei 

We lived togfiiher Jifty^fiyi x^ne^y • 

What v)e,gcki>£^_ tbak im\k0i>ef 

What ,we fpent^Jhat^ive hf^y,^ :. . ' ., / 

Th'Us -we count up all our cofiy 

Jffh<it Vie left, that ipc *j/f .. : .' 

: .1 Another 

Of ihe AntifuHj of Efitajbs in England. 245 

Another of the fame kind is £^t SouthatnptoDy 

Ho ! who lies here far a groate f 
Heer lies old Roger iVilmote^ 
Godjhend his foul from ill^ 
For he died agairift his will. 

Another of one Mr. Sands. 

Who would truji to others breathy 

Fame deceaves the dead man's truji^ 
Since our names are lojl by deaths 
Sands I was, but now am dufi^ 

Another of one Elis, that fett the formes before the 

erode at the ftirmocis. 

m4rs Crud^lis fecijli plurima damna 

■bum m0riatur Elis, fqlitus dij^nere Scamna, 

Tain libifralis ft pojfet ut ipfa videre.. 

Dum legitur talis, darat tibifcamnafedere^ 

The epitaph of the bellows^maker is in every man's mouth. 

Here lies old Ctukipr, a mak€t of belltrwes. 
He was a craftntqftet and king ofgoodfelkws ; 
. Tet riotwithjlandirig at his howtr of death. 
He that made bellowes could not mdke breath. 

Thefe are the beft epitaphs that I can remember of our 
Englifh nation, wherein there is obferved no certain rule, 
but fometimes the autor of the epitaph fpeakes, and Some- 
times the perfon fpeaks ; fometimes they are in profe, 
fometimes in verfe \ fometinaes (horter, ibmetimes longer^ 
in the fame manner as the Roman epitaphs were made, 
from whom our criticks would take their precepts. 

To make a comparifon were ao ingaite labour ; but if 
vrelook into antiquity, M^ib^ 4^4 a jpwarcU fpr every 
Tpitaph l)d£bre recited. 


•4$ Of the Antiquiiy cf Eptapbs in Engtandf^ 


Of the fame. 

BjMr. Agard. 

HAVING already treated of monuments m geocraJ^ 
it followeth that now we fay fomewhat of epitaphs^ 
which are a fpecies thereof ; for man, having an inftic^e of 
diviByiye in him, that is^ a defyre to atteyne to an everlaft- 
ing contynnance and remembraunce of his name and wor- 
thynefle, , hath digged up pyttsi of foundrye devyfes ot 
^is owne, how he. might as it wccre make a perpetuity 
thereof: fomc by pillars^ as befc?re the flood a pillar was 
prcfenrcd by Noah, wher^n was engraven the carefters of 
aflronom jr : and wycked Abfolpm would needes have a pilr 
lar of Fame rayfed» and called by his nan>e^^ Seme by 
giving theyre name to countries, and others to theire 
howfes, as the Pfalmifte fay the ; yea, fundry perfoos re*-, 
in^rkable for their wlckednefsj afpyring to immortal fame> 
would have monuments rayfed for them. Thus did Semi- 
ramis, who wrot on th.e outfyd of her monujmem, that 
who fo lacked mon^y fiiould fynd enough their^in. Yea» 
Heroftratus was defirous to have his epitaph for burning 
t)iana*s temple. Some would have their nan\es made fa.: 
mous by pyrameds, fome by n^Ountaynes, fome by rivers, 
and fome by tragedyes; fuch was the ambition of Phillip 
of Macedon, v/ho would have had Euripides to writ^a tra- 
gcdye, and given it his name. On this occafion the 
poet wiflied that nikil tragicum might happen to him. So 
it fcemeth that monuments fucceeded from age to age, 
even from before the flood and after the floude (as Nimrod 
made Babdl) even- among aUreafonablenatyons, from Noah 
to the Chaldees, Perfyans and Egyptyatis, and from thence 
to Greece. For what is Homer's difcourfe but an epitaph 
of Ulifles, and other Grecian warriors ? What is Virgii'§ 
^ceid^ but as an epitaph of i£o^as. It i$ well known 

- th« 

/ f 

ii>fthe Antiquity of Epitaph in Englani. ' ?47 

ttiat the Romans delyted to propagate theyl-e names by 
Batues and infcriptyoas of theyre valyaunte afts ; Scipio 
had an epitaphe whkb, to my remembrance, runs thus, 

Hevidio ffanibale, cdptaqu^ Carthagmej et auSl9 
Jynpe'rio, hos ctneres tHarmore LeElus habes^ 
Cui non Eurbpa^ non oifiilit J/ricd quandatfi* 
Rejpue res hommis quern brevis UrniprenUt, 

From Rome the courfe thereof came hyther into Eng- 
launde : althoughe I doubt not, but the Trojans ufei 
the fame here brfore, as appeareth by foundrye toWn(S, 
hills, a«d places, that yet rereync fragments thereof by 
theyre names thatl impofed. But leaving foreign natioris, 
i will return home, whereof I have not red or feene any 
epitaphe, buj fince Chridyanytye cam into the realme, 
although manye places and towocs, ryvers, ' and bUJa, had 
theyre names impofed before, as Humbre of the Pane 
there drowned : and Horfey Downe of Horfa, HengiiJ*5 
brother there flayne. The reafons why fo few are extant, 
1 fnppofe, are three. 

Firft, The foraginge of the Saxons and Danes at foun- 
drye tymes thorough the lande, deftroyinge both people, 
townes, and churches. 

The fcconde is, that William the Conqueror, by the 
advice of the earle of Wight, as I remember, caufed all 
abbyes and facred Aui^luaryes whereuoto the Englifhe had 
re tyred, with theyre evidences, treafures, and monuments 
of books^ tp be burnt and rafed; to the end that no remem« 
braunce BQigfat be had of Englifli pedegrees, whereby 
to move fuits, or monuments preferved, tO> inftigate any 

Tiie thirdeis, what happened almoft ^«^ithin our me- 
morye, tp wit, the diHolution of our mpft ancient religious 
houfes, in fome of which weere fumptuous monuq^ents, 
hoibt of the founders and of others alfo, fome with epi- 
Caphes or infcriptions, and fome without. 

And yet I fawe at Burton uppon Trent this fomer, the 
monvment of Utricus Spot^ father to the earl^s Atgar and 


ft4S pfike Ami^ty ef l^iapki in England. 

Morear, who was Couiider of that abbeye before the Cori- 
quefte^ whereon lyetfa his figure eroTs-Iegged, armed with 
his ihielde, fwerde, and fpyrres, but without any epitaph 
, or infcription. The ptefervatjon of this monuDQ.ent I think 
came by this means * The firfl lord Paget, who had th^ 
fame abbaye gevea him uppon the diflTplutioa, removed 
this montiment out of the chauncel, firft into ^n ifle, and 
afterwards into the churche. Further in refpeft to epi- 
taphes the auncyeuteft I can iind<? i^ |)i^t of ktoge Keoelme« 
foi>ne of Kcixdphus, who WW murdred by the kiftigation 
of his fifter Quendreda, by fom^ ca%^ Heftebert, and bid 
in a woode> in the county of St4fi<)rd9 as I find by his 
epitaph iocerted in auncy^^it m^nufcripte of faint Aiigufiine 
of Canterbury.. Il; is thus, 

lit Clettc fub^^na jacet in convatte bovkia 
VerHc€privaius Kenelmus fraude necatus. 

To be lliorte, theere ar^ not tQ be foupde upop gr^e 
ftones, walls, or glafs of any lon^ antiquitye, aijiy qpifaphs 
but what are to be found beft in late prioteii ^jp4 old 
wrytten baud books* 

In an bl^e author called Wy tlcfFey, or plojpk of Peter- 
borough, who wrote the fundation^ gf that monall^ry, he 
fetteth downe for the |irit founders thereof, theyre qamesi 
. in this manneri 

B)irg^ fuiidator eft Peada rex renovatus 
Eft fibi 4:Ggnatu6. • . * Rex Ofwinus auxillatbf 
Coofiltnat WUer quod erat Burgi • « • • • '« , 
Per fua Icriptii ratuT fieri pcrfecit Ethelred 
39nt adfutrlces Kio^burga Einefwitha Sorores 
Per quas felices plures Burgus fumpilt honores 
8ie tnukis vitae celeftis vita paratur 
SaxuifeComite qui primo Burgh monachat^ 

Ani becapfe qur prtoci« havQ <Jww« theyre -difccnt 
from the noble duk^$ of NonniaBdy^ yt feail not i thinke 
£cexm ii3ip«rtyiii?ut that I recy te the €pit»pb Pf duke RoUo, 
whp was the lirft (i^e pf ^haljfBe.Qf rh$ D^t^ timen* 


Of the Aniiquiiy of Epitaphs in England* 249 

tred Fraunce, conquered * Normatidye, and impoied that 
name on the country, who for his feverytye in juftyce 
againil pialefaftors, and for his uprightnefs in judgment, 
was recommended thus, as it is wrytten in the hiflorye of 
Normandye in Frenche in theis words, cap. 17. lib. i. » 
Par la bonne j>aix if Juftice que Rou le premier Due de 
NormandU tint, Mvint q la gent apresja vwrt au hefoigne 
crioient Ha Rou et parce eft il emore couftume en Normandie 
f I'on crie Ha Rou, Ha Rou^ and thereupon was made 
this epicaphe^ 

Dux NormannoriT cun^oriT norma bcnorum 
Rolbferus^fortiSf quern gens Normanica mortis 
Jnvocat articulo, jclauditur in tumulo* 

To be engliftied thus. 

Vaillant duke Rolloftout and fierce, • 
Lyeth interred under this herce. 
Whom Norman People with frights afraid 
\4)id Peril of deathe doe calk for ayde. 
Crying, Ha rou. Ha rou, with rueful voice, 
And clapping cf bands with ftriking noife. 

It was my Bappe to fee once an abftrafte out of the 
lygyar-book of Barking nonnery in Eflex, in a gentleman's 
faande, now dead, iind who (hewed me that the abbefle 
betnge acx2t>m{)aiiyed with the boihop of London, the abbot 
h/i Stratford, the deane of Pauleys, and other great fpyry- 
tuall perfonnes, vrent to Ilforde to vifit the hofpytail theere, 
founded for' leeperst anduppon occacion of one of the le- 
pers, who was k brother of thehoafg^ having brought into 
his' chamber a drab, and'fayd (he was his lifter ; and for 
which drtme he was to be difgraded and expelled the 
faoufe. The manner of his difgradinge was^ thus, as I re- 
fliember ; he canie attyred in his lyvery, but bare-footed 
and bare-headed tenadepofita, thzx is, without a night -cap, 

add was fet on his kneed uppon the ftayre^ benethe the altar» 
Vol. It 1 i Vherc 


f59 Of the AiittquUy of Epitaphs in Evgland. 

xvhere he remained during all the time of mafs. When mafii 
was ended, the priefte difgraded him of orders, fcraped 
his hands and his crown with a knife, took his bookc 
irom hin , gave him a boxe on the chiek with the end pf 
his fincers, and then thruft him out of the churche, where 
the officers and people receyved him, and putt him into a 
carte, crj'inge Ha rouy Ma roti, Ha rou, after him. And ta 
this day6 in and towards our northern cquntreys, the people 
upon a fodden fright qf a madde dogge, bull, or bore, or 
one that ftealeth theyrfe hens, geefe, or ducks, or one 
taken witK a * drabe, will foHowe after and crye, Harou^ 
Harotif fo that it is become a- proverbe in ihameof a man 
to faye, he was harovjed. But this only by the way. 

Of ail our great cpnquerprs that came in with kinge 
William the Conqueror, there is not one epitaphe extant 
to be feene, but all rafed, yea, that of king William him- 
fclfe is not tabe feene, neitjicr that df earle ferrer§, which 
is in printe, and was made after he was d^ade : yt is fo well 
knowen to al} here, that I will not recyte yt. 
/ The next I finde in any auncyent author m^ncyoned, is 
\vrytten by the cronacier of Dunftaple, (hus, 

Sitfficit hie t lunulas^ cut nonfuffecerat orbis ; 
Jfte^ krevis eft ampla, cui fuit ampla brevis. 

^inge H. z's. epitaphe* 

After him, I have thought good to ll^we that by the 
indudrye of Edward the firAe and his valewre having 
overthrowpe the prince of Wales, Lewellinirs, and nude 
him yelde his homage, yet be breakinge ofTand rebellinge, 
the kinge forced him, flew him, and tooke bis brother prj- 
foner, and arrayned aqd executed him as a traytor ; but.a 
Welche metrer pr yerfyfyer made this epitaphe uppcp 
^ewellyn. As Knighton the; hiftoripgrapber recordelh, 
Hicjac^t Anghrum tortovy tutor. Vjenedorum^ 
Princcps Wullorum LeuelinuSf regula mqrum, 
CcmntJ. coevorum, flos return preteritorumy 
Forma Juturorumy duxy laus, lexj lux populorum^ - 

But an EnglifhmaQ anfwered him thus. 

'• •' • • Sic 

6/ ibi Antiquity of Epitaphs in England ^^i 

Ificjacet errontm princ€ps^ etpredo virorum^ 
Proditor Angloriim^ fax lividayfeBa reorunt, 
Numen IValhrum, trux dux, ho^icicla pionimf 
Fex Trtyanorum, Jlirps menddx, caufa v^alorum. 

But as the mdnitments of the kings, from this king'^ 
time are together with their epitaphs, patent and to be 
feen at Weftminfter, &c. I (hall leave therh to receive chat 
fate which all corruptible things doo, and will defire of 
God to have but that wrytinge imprinted in and upon aU 
bur fouiesi whereof Chrifte fpeaketh in the xth chapter of 
St* Luke's gofpel. Rejoice, becaufe your names are wrytted 
in heaven. Hie mihi Finis erit' Studiorum at que Labirttm, 

3. Nov* 1600. ArTHU&E AG1RD£; 


Of the fanie; 

By Mr. T h y n n; 

3i Nov. i6od. 

nHIS queftion Is fo very fpatious and dilatable, that 
L it cannot be comprehended within lymyttes ; , for 
being a thinge infinite (becaufe yt concerneih particular^ 
Which are linftniihed) yt may not be ri*flreyned to any one 
famylye, perfone, dr eftate ; iand therefore We muft fpeak 
of yt diforderlye, both in regard to tymc^ and pc;rfons; 
and that confined to fome efpecial perfons only. For to 
deliver all fuch epitaphs as 1 have rcgifired, either from 
hiftories^ the books of relligious houfes, monuments re* 
xttadoing in chtlrches, or fuch like, would be too tedious 
to this karned audience. Wherfore fince it is bothe 
Xiedelefle ahd frutelefle to produce fuch choice of epitaphs, 
t will here but briefly colfcft fome fcwe, which are re- 
jmarkable, partly for their antiquity, partly for their bre^ 
Vytie, partly for their rarenefle, partly for their excels 
kacyei pat* ly to Ihewe the manner of ftile of thof« ages 

I i a ill 

t52 Of the Antiquity of Epitaphs iH EngUnL 

In which they were compofed, and partly to recreate the 
mynde with the fimplicytie of their invehiions. In doing 
this I rtiall begin with thofe which were written in the 
times of the Saxons, and paffing over fuche as be printed 
in Bede, Matthew Paris, Malmfbury, Florentius Wigor- 
nienfis, and other printed auftors, I will fet down fomc 
fc\y Cuche as I liave not yet fene to come under the prefle. 
And for chat caufe will firft beginne with that of Cadwal- 
lader, delivered by Rarnardns Andreas Tolofetanus, who 
wrought a compendious hiftoryc of the reign of king 
Henry the feventh, in whofe tyme he lyved, with whom 
he wasgretly in favour, and to whom he was poet laurear. 
That epitaph is thus, 

Hicjacet in Muxo Cadwallo Londonienjis 
Angligenis Duko, qvsm funere fubdidit enjts, 

Uppon Albertus, by fome called Albetus, king of the 
Eaft Angles (being murdered by OiFa the Great, whofe 
daughter he had marryed) dothe Mathew P;w"is in the lyves 
of the abbotts of St. Alban's fett downc this epitaphe. 

Albertus juvenis fuerat Rex^ fort is ad Arma^ 
Pace plus, pulcker corporey mente Sagax* 

The Book of Walden hath this epitaph for king Edgar. 
Audlor opum, vindex fceleruniy largitor honorum, 

Septiger Edgarus regnafuperna petit. 
Hie alt er^hmon, legum pater.y orbit a pacts / 

^od caruit bellis claruit inde tnagis. 
Templa Deo, templis mon^chos, v^onachis dedit agros, 

Nequitia lapfum^ juftitiaqiie Locum. 

Novit. enim regno verum.perquirere falfo^ , 

Immenfum^ nwdico, perpetuumque brevi. ' 

UpoD th^ death of LauFeoceth^eighteeath abbott of Weft- 
tnioiler^ is thi$ epiiaph, allttding t;he.ti^xDe Laurence to Laure^a* 

Gkuditur hoc tumulo vir quondam darus in orhf 

^0 praclarus erat hie locus f eft, et erit. 

Pr& meritis vita dedit ilti Laurea nomen^ 

Detur ei vit^ I^aor^a pro mmtis. 


Of tht Jniiquiiy of Epitaphs in Englani. 253 

The book of St. Auguftine's furnifteth us with the fol- 
lowing epitaph upon the death of Ethelbert, king of Kent, 
and the firft Chriftian king of the Saxons, 

Rex Ethelbertits hie clauditur in Polyandro 
Fana pians^ certe Chrijio meat ahfque meandro. 

Out of the fame book I have alfo tranfcribed the epitaph 
of Deus Dedit archbifhop of Canterbury, which is as fol- 

j^lme Deus Dedit cui Sexta vacatio cedit, 

Signat hunc Lapidem, Lapidi Jignatus eidem, 

Prodit ab hac Urna virtute falus diuturna 

^a melioretur quemcunque dokre gravatur. 

But in a book of the abbotts of Weftminfter, I find this 
epitaph, which commemorates firft Ethelgoda, wife of 
Sebert or Sigebert king of the Eaft Saxons, who reigned 
in the year 615 ; then Hugoline, chamberleyne and treafu- 
rer to king Edward the Confeflbr ; thirdly, Edwine 
abbot of Weftminfter; and laftly, Sulcardus, the hifto- 
riographer, who was a monk of Weftminfter ; as it is in 
the Chapter-houfe of that abbay, on a plate of lead within 
the tomb, containing the bodies of thofe four perfons, 

IJle hcellus habet bis bina cadavera claufa ; 

Ux$r Sebert i prima, tamen minima, 
D^fraSio capitis tefia claret Hugolinus, 

A Claujiro noviter hue tranjlatus erat : 
Abbas Edwinus, et Sulcardus Ccenobita^ 

Sulcardus major eft, Deus adfit eis. 

The fame book hath jalfo this epitaph on the ftone of 
Vitalis, abbot of Weftminfter, who died jo8a, deducing 
his name Fitalis from the word vita. 

A vita nomen qi^i traxit, mprte vocante^ ' 
Abbas Vitalis tranfiit^ hicque jacet. 

There likewife on tlie tomb of abbot Gilbert, fucceflbr 
to Vitalis, was the following epitaph. 


25+ . Of the Antiquity $f Epitaphs in Engldhi. 

Hie l^ater infignis, genus altum, vhgo, feoexcjtit 
Giflebertc jaces, Lux, via, duxqt>e tuis, 

Mitis eras, jufliis, prudens, fortis, moderatus> 
Doftus quadrivis, ncc minus in trivio. 

Sic ^amc» ornatus nece fcxta luce Deceinbrls 
Spiramen cdelo reddis, & Ofia folo. 

In the fame book we have alfo the cpitiiph of Richard 
Ware, abbott of Weftminfter and trestfurer of England, 
who made that excellent tcflalated pavement before the 
altar at Weftminfter, of the flones which he brought with 
him from Rome. 

jibbas Richnrdus it Wsire, qui teqidefcit 

Hie, portat Lapides, qms hue portavit ab Urbe, 

Befides the many epitaphs, \Vhl<ih I have feen and reaj 
in print and other wife, of the death of Richard the firft, 
tbls epitaph not printed, contaynlng his greateft aftions 
againft the infidells, feemeth to me to equal the beft. 

Scribitur hoc tumulo, Rex^ aurca lau^ tua tata : 

Aurea materia conveniente nota> 
Laus tua prima Juit Slculi^ Cyprus altera^ Dromo 

Tertia, Carvana quarta, Suprema Joppe. 
SuppreffiSxcxxYu Cyprus pejimdata, Dromo 

MerfuSf Carvana capta^ retenta Joppe* 

The epitaph of Sir Robert KnoUes, a great captala in 
the wars of France, written on his tomb in the church of 
the Carmelites or White Fryars in London, js worth the 
reading, viz, 

Roberts KnoUis per te fit Francia mollis^ 
Enfe tuo tollis pradas^ dans vutnera collis*. . . 

In the church of Greenwich is this epitaph for Sufanlia, 
the wife of Robert Wifemane, Efq. 

Firft thefe two verfes alone, 


PJic defundli tumulo maneamus in uno 
^osfimper vivos imperat unus amor* . . 


Of the Antiqiiity of Epitaphs in England. ZSS 


Then follow thefe verfes by themfelves, 

^a pidy qua prudens, qua doEla^ pudica, mode/la^ ' 

^a ftudiofa Dei, qua ftudiofa Firi, 
Sufanna hie recubat Wifemanaa Jepulta fepulchra^ 

Magnus honos Sexus et Cynofura fuu 
Nulla maritafuo melius placuijfe Mar it o 

Vifafuity 7nelius nee placuijfe Deo. ^ 

Vive^ vale, Sufanna vale, tua panditur erbi 

Penelopaa Fides, connubialis junior. 
Te tuus excoluit Wifemannus amor^ Robertus 

Cui fine Lite Domus, cuijine labe / 

Tufrucris Co^h, tii terque quaterque beat a, > J 

Put re Cadaver hump, Spirit us ip/e pato. 

In the church of Welles is this epitaph of Barklcy, 
Jjifhop of that fee, in the verfes of which, the nomber of 
(ignificant great letters do ftiew the yere of our Lord, 
jyherein he died. 

• • 

SpirltVs erVpto salVVs Qilberte NoVeMbrc 

CaRCere Tristls in hoc JEthere Barcle Crcpat 
AnniT dant ifia falutis, 83 vixi. 
Videiis premium. 

, In the fame church of Welles is the following epitaph. 

Vita quid efi ? Fumus. ^lid ergo ? res peritura. 
Ergo quid efi nqfirum ? vivimus et morimur* 

Whereunto the dead doth anfwer, 

JYon morimur. Vivo letus, regno^ue beatus^ 
Solus adefi Chriftus, vita falufque mihi. 

Iff Gonvile and Caius GoUedge in Cambridge, is a goodly 
monument of ftone erefted for John Caius doftor of Phy- 
flck, who augmented that coUedgt; on which tomb there 
1$ nothing fett for an epitaph, but two words^ 

Fui Caius. 
,, . Upoa 

^5^ ^f ^¥ ^^^^i^iy of Epitafbs in England. 

Upon the death of Savainus, the firft and laft bi/hop 
of Glafenberye, as appeareth in the hillory of the bUhop 
of Bath and Welles, is this epitaph, 

Hofpes eram miindoper mundum femper ejufdem^ 
Sicfuprcma dies Jit Jibi prima quies. 

In the cathedral churdi of York is this epitaph of abbot 
Boothe dean of Ycrk. 

Soli Deo Honor et. Gloria. 
Jngenio, virtute, fide dare vix locus ifte^ 
Vulgi voce parent noverat ante diem. 


Thus having troubled your patience with my fiinpio 
collcftions, leaving multitudes more which might be pro- 
duced — I ft tt an end to thcfe queftions. 


Of the fame. 

By Sir William Dilthick, Garter. 
3. Nov. 1600. 

THE interpretation of the word epitaphes having 
been extremely well defined By others,' I (hall take 
them to be the infcriptions of writings, or the formsW en- 
iigns, motts, or remetnbrances engraved, or fixed upon fe- 
pultures, tombes, or monuments, where the bo'dies of 
valiant and moft worthy men fiave been buried. Of thefe 
there are infinite forms and portfaiftures to be obfervcd 
amongft fundry nations ; but thofe of the ?^onoans have 
been moft noted and known unto us by their ruins, of 
which there are many particulars fti^l remaining in Rome, 
furniflied with infaiptioos C99|ormable to what Virgil 

briefly noteth, 


of fU Aniffultf of Epitaphs^ in tngtani^ 157 

Et hmubim fatile^ et Tumuh JuperadMti: CamuH* 

With this Martial agreeth id his epi^raips, . 

J<aj^, non PMri9 nutatUU pMdfra Sitm 
J^^ Giuri mntM J^ ruitura habws ■ • 
Sedfaciies JBu^fOi it ti^as PakHiiis tmtf^p > 

^iqtic vir^ -J^^^hynAs kumid($ praia ineis» 

It vfouM be AtperiluoiD to repeat In this platce the (tvcni* 
Roman e{Htaphs dedicated to the famd of their confuW 
and CacfarSy in their ftatties^ temples, and CollafTes, wherein 
was contained a (hort defcription of the fame and honours 
of the defunft ; fincethey arc to be mett with plentifully iii 
many biflories: as alfo in the works of Francifdus de 
Albsr^s'of FkrcQCCy who hath: made a great colIeAioa 
for Rome and Italy, but was altogether ignorant of the 
multitude that have been, and areyetes^ant, in thefe parts 
of Britain. 

Now the variety and eKtravagsmt imitations^ which have 
been ufed in this and other countryes, for epitaphs, fince 
thofe Roman forms and example^r of honor became known 
to us, have been much altered and ahufed, to the infamy 
and prejudice of fome princes in thefe later ages. For 
I remember to have feen upon the tdmbe of a great lady 
in Brabant thefe verfes, yet very hyftorical. 


Jacobt» BavarisB Epitapbium Hagse Comitis. 

Infelix mulier quarto variata cubi/e. 
Bis £cor ThaUmis dejlituiffijidem. 
Corcomii einxi numerofo milite portas 
Necfrvjlra viEhix urbe pstitafid. 
Patrihis ^f^ofid vires. 7er tnUb Britanm, 
• Me propisr, Getida /tsuuhuere rteti. 

Me contra huic patruus tulit bonus arma PhUippus 
Jnque Virum 4uK vinctday Selld^ Minas, 
Ergo rejignabam dtitalia feptra Phitippo, 
Si non fponte lubenSj caufa maritus erat. 
MortUajungor Avo. tantum dUo Lvftra regehofn 
Nunqtia viShf malis, mortuajuygor Avo. 
Vol. L K k 

t£S^ Of lb< Jflf^quity of Epitaphs, in^ngl^,. 

But as for tb^-ufcaof} aDtlcjuity of «pUaphes ia England,^ 
^fcribed oq the monuments of fuch of our great princes 
fis have been held in- great reverence ^nd reputation, thofe 
monuments have btCD fo Aiakeb tfnd fpoyled as it were 
with their own rujni» that I caiAMH <6httlfen^ knofwledge 
of any, bu( of fndi a^ have btfen of late revived at Weflmin- 
^er, for the princes there buried, indoor others in London, 
by the painfijll ^nd pl^af^qt pea of }ACf Stqw \^ his Survey 
ot London and Weilminiler, whcrain fupdry epitaphs botl^ 
ferious and iidicnlous^ written pa ^he (pmbs of magiftrates 
apd men in that cltty, are rfsmembred. So that I ratbcc 
f ecomend the good ufe and continaatu:^ of t))^ip, thap ta 
cilate further thereon. 

Garter Principal King pf Anns. 


m ,% 

pf the fame. 

By Mr. Holand. ' 
3<'. Nov. 1600. 

ABOUT nyne years paft, I faw graven in ftone uppoff 
the outfide of the wall pf Wibwick Church in the 
county of LancaAer, this epitaph followiiig, written apoii 
the death of Ofwatd^ king of Northumberland, who wa9 
ilain in battle in the time of the Saxons. 

4 !•.. , . _ ... 

ffic locus Ofwalde quondam placuit tiH valdt: 
I^orthai^mbrorumfueras ReXf nunfqne Polonnm 
^egna tenes pratQ paffus Marcdde vocato. 

The jtpitajAj \yrjijtei) pppn ^be deat/i of Peter de Conr- 
^^ney^ one of the younger fons of Ht?gh Courtf ney e^l of 
bevofl, who lie^ih buried by the faid earl his father iq tb^ 
pathcdrall church of St. Peter's jn E^Qif, coi^pjjhcnds iq 


* « 

^ouf verfes, whofe fon h6 was, and tjiat" he was of the. 
kibg'S Wood, as alfo th6 Tevcrdl bffiteS wldcHhi borfe; * 

. Dev9tde natus (kmith^ 'Petmfj. vJcaim, . 
Jiegis cognatus, Cameraritu intitulatus^ 
Caiefia grains CapitaneuSy Dux^e probaius^ 
Casio firmatm^ mamatjine fine heatus. 

There is ah excellent epitaph in St.. Pawlc's Church irl 
London, uppon the tombe of Ethelred, fome time king of 
this land, which may be a warning unto all men that fee& 
To greedily for worldly wealthy that they relpeft not (hiedd* 
ing of inndcent blood. 

Hicjacet Etbelredus j^ngtorum Rex, Fittus Edgari Regis ^ 
citi in rife €oAfecrati(mis fue^ poji impojitam Corinam^ fertu^ 
San£lus Duffftantis Archiepifcopus dira pyediMiJe^ his veriis : 
^loniatn ajpirafti ad regnum per nwrtem Fratris tuiy in cu- 
jus Sanguine conj^iraveruni J^ngli, cum ignotninicfa matri 
iua, non deficiet Gladius de domo tua, Seviens in te omnibuf 
diebus vile tue interfidens de Semine tuo quoufq. regnuni 
iuum iransferatur in regnum alienuin^ cujus ritum et lin- 
guam gens cui prajidet non novit* nee expiabitur nifi longa 
vindi^apecvaium/unm, et peccatum matris iua, et pecvatuni 
virorumqui inietfaere conjilio illius nequam : ^a ficut d 
vir^ Satt3d pra^di&a, tvenerunt % nam Etheldrtsdus -variii 
PraliiSy per Suanvrh Danorum regem, fiiiumqite fmim Canu>- 
tumfatigatns etfugatus^ ac tandem hondini arSia pbjidioni 
donehJuSf mi/ere diem cbiit anno dominica intarriationii 
Mxviii pofiqnam anms xxxT i. in. magna tribulatione re^^ 

As theje epifaphe^, which t have (liewecl, do tpmpre* 
hend great fence in ffeW lines, j will conclude with an epi- 
taph, wherein there is great fenfe comprehended in ond 
v/or(i^ and yet that ^ord is written upon a large marfcle 
iione at the foot of the great jlaircs, afcending up unto .the 
ciuire in St, Paul's, to wit, , 

,)fQ)^wi(b(lan<ii9gtbe brevity of tbts» the writer's 9i^« 
ing wa$ qot tbat the perfop there, i>^1^ (hould be ibr^ 
gotten, becaule he hath fett his arms at the four corners 
of the ftone, .whkk ise figaific3at cooogk to dedatt who 
he was. 

Totum terra Ugit, qui totus Terra vacatur, 
Hollattdtts yaCetiac contumulatus bumo. 


Of the Antiquity, Variety, and Reaftm of 
Motts, with Arms of Noblemen and 
Gentlemen in England. 

By Mr. Aciude. 
a 8* Novr. i6oQ, 

IFilVD oot that any motes were ufed be&re the Coir* 
queafie heere in Englande, other than this, tbat msBj 
princes and noblemen had theyre efpectall oaehes^ fame 
fwearing by God, and fome by fayiits, who^ they efieemed 
as their patrons and advocates to God for them, yet, and 
in whole names they founded and dedicated abbayes aod 
churches, as may be feen in their fonadacion chatters, as 
in that of Sebert, called Snbregulus (Alderman) and wiio 
was a^man of great flate, and fouiKled the abbey of W<ft' 
minfter in the narhe of St. Teicr, his chkf patron. So 
did Edwkrd the Confeflbr repmtc Peter his chief patron, 
in which he \^a$ imitated by William the Conqneror, who 
in a charter of his to Weftminfter Abbey, calleth hidi ex- 
prefsly his patron in th^ words : Ne ergo Pacutu appatC' 
rem ante fecundtim Dei Apoftdum Pelrum quern perAJem 

-^ - ^gtdfervm 


Jigfiifetvm l!x d^tnfifemin 9nmiim mcejitatibm ^ fifrku^ 
Us nfeit /£njir4unp Sec. 

Wi(*kjiffe, ia the preface w^ich be nadit beiotc faU 
traaQauiutof. the bible, ihiewethe playnlye that i«idiwa^ 
the igoorance of his tyme» that Qoblemea, and vacu of. 
wort^«^ bad. choftn to thecnfelvcs focbe bye \irot:da mid 
oaths, whereby they woulde be kaowo^ ^od wberi^uposi 
they would he more crnlU(fy thaa if they a/EroBisd, ao]^ 
thinge in the name of God or the Trinitye* He fettcche 
it cot *^ that the preeftes o^ his tyme, by tbeyre wicked 
'* lyfie, dyd mien lords aod prelates exciten ftrongly to 
** idcdahT^ ibr they fveito . cvliipraaibly, adkkStf^ - and 
'' ofmn Madyifirdly aodfaUly, by the iBcmbera of God, 2sA 
«' oC Chtift, and by fay^ea ; 19 io itauche ahar edie lord 
" and great preface otMnasnly inaketh loHixA Miidall of 
*' kmkt ikyiic, whom be Mrorlkippeth.ifiare idum Ood. For 
" comflBjooiy they fweteo i>y our lady of WUffQgboAi, Stu 
<< Jotw of. Babttfis, St. Edward, St. Tfaomn of Caoier- 
'* bufJri-Und fuch other fay cttet: and cbargoi iDoretbia 
** Qihe^ than though tb^ iwcrea by the Holy Tryiiyty«k 
'< And ia ^ this* they heitioFeii moxe theis ivfadA tJaan 
" ilhey botaofca the Holyt Tryaytye/'—iAiid fo. ye ap- 
peareth that many had theyre bye word^ aad bye oaths^ 
by whicfarthey would be koowcu and rcfiiemfand itisnyc 
ages after* WiHiaai Rufos (wore pfr Fukum tk Luau 
Kiqge J^9 by fir ftdfs Dominu Abbot Satnpfaa of St. 
Edmioad's Bury, bis gentle othp was> as Braokknd report'^ 
cthr^l^r Os Dsi. The-Ukf; vile cuAome bathe cobtynqed 
ftUl ereu ueto our age^ as it haih been foeoe and harde kqr 
us all. £ut whytfaer am I gonne ? Somd of thtiftCQfDpaiiy. 
will prrbapj^ fay that I fpealee befyde the otatiier, and tfanre^ 

foie /i^it. As CO n)Qtt% I am <^ that opyayon that : 

they tcok dieyre firft begUmiqge from men's conceits of 
there b^og iboae fpeciall.vcjrtlies i& them; or froai the ety* 
mo^gye of tbeyreowa aaiaes ; or from fome watch word ia 
the cmpe, which «t tbas.dayc is called Tiig fiiktt; or 
from$be waich word to b^geven for a &>ddea enterpriftr 
or fmfnti of a pbum; cr as ioaldyera mnU giv^ them to. 


iBen of worthc; as to the duke of Guyze, after, he had 
beone hurte by a fouldyer on the face in a ffiihnyfhe !n the 
qrvUl-wars, and ib receyved a great fkaf, vms given this, 
jyautanf plus btatt^ fuch lyktf hare beeir of gr^r'dmtymi- 

aunce in Englaiid. ' - ' - * ' '/ 

• The anttcyaittefte 1 know br h^v6 reAd, is tfikt' of Tra- 
fotrds or Trafard in LancalBiIre, "whofe arms are^iJabonring 
nkin with a;flayie in hi$ hand thfes(hiDge^ add thls'witten 

' . • * • 


which they £iy came by this occafiotl : that he, afid other 
gentleinen, oppofing* tbemiclves againft (omi Normans/ 
who catiae tD invade them^.tbis^Traford dyd then much 
hurte, Hod keplte the paflages a^nft them. , But that at 
length th6 Nocmans having pafled the ryver, came fbdenlye 
upon him» anU then he difguiiipg himfelfe, went into bis 
barne, and was. thres(hing« when diey entered, -ydt bdnge 
knowen by kttxci.of them, rand.'demftnded why h&h di>afed 
himfelf, afiff^ered. Now tiius.'i— As no motts taken froni 
the etymol^ye'tsf the name^^^^^^he Caves of Heic^erfiiire 
have a pretye one»* that is a greyhounde ranninge^ and thd 
wry ttcn words, Jdfum, Cave, . ^ . ^ 

As foe motts added and fiibfcrib^ to artnes; I ftipjM)fd 
the fame came tip' firft in En^amfe, when the orddr of the 
garter was inftituted, and then every kQight broifgbt in his 
epitheton, fome' in Latin, fome in French, and few or 
none ia" EngJHhe. The mottJ of 'the kings of Eiiglaiinde 
were in Frenche, thofe of the 4<ifegs of Scotland \tk Eng- 
liihe, the^princes of Wales in ^Vlslch, Ich Dien, and for thofe 
of other natyons every one afed their niotts as iykedthem 
befte. Nay fome natyons Have chofen fpecyall motts tof 
diftinguifli themfelfes from theyre, enemyes in the- time of 
fight. Thus when William th^ Conqueror fought With 
the Engliihe at Battailefelde, oiT the oniet the ^Engly&e 
cryed, ffofy crajfe-rr^od Jlmigity*^'-^-^0oly cr^Jj^ ^^-Qnd Af^ 
migjjtyn And the Normans aftii Ntsftre DMie-^^-^uu 
ay muz ti4^i. pure, bdye and Qod: h^l^ u^ £ttt in thcjr^ ^ 


<^f tU :4»^q>Mj of hklfSy WtysK Bi^tntti. \iki 

$ght the Eoglifli cryed, Oucgt''f^mcgt''--outf one. : Thd* 
$)ngliAie untUi. of late /called always. io fight oo St. George; 
the Fkmkig^ ^d, Soq^ts i^Q. St, Apdrewe ; the Frefich on 
Saint De^ys ; the f riflie pi> St. Pj^tricke ; ai^d the Vene* 
t.yaos, as they yet do, oo &t. M^iu^v JMay A> ambityous is 
everye tnan of perpetuityet to his naipe and fame, that the 
vylefte and crueticQe, yea t^&yvproudy dyflblute 'perfoti$» 
takeiyt for glorye to havie theyre ppculyer ephbistes an4 
phrafes added to theyre a^mes, .if they have thi^m ; or yet 
to their adts^ be they gpod or bad. Such 9^ one wa^ M^* 
.chivel's idol pr paterne pf hjs cruel commop welthe. I 
nieane Csfar Borgia, the pope> fojnne, who on his con* 
quells of poore townes about Hpn^p, ufed tbis Mott, aut 
Cafar aut nihil, and fo indeed he proved nihil iiov his 
father, the pope, dyinge in this his fonnes height of pro- 
fperity, and in the depthe of his deyifes, how he might 
ryfc from mifchief 1^ mifchief by his cruelltye, feinge that 
be could not be iupplyed with hi$ former holye crown$ 
from Rome, layd him down and for grief dyed. At pre- 
sent every poore tranflator or idle ballet-maker will have 
bis fyne pbrafe or mott, as if he weere a magpifie, although 
at the firfte the fame was peciilyer to honorable and wor- 
thy perfons : fome there are who delyte to be contynued 
by bye words, as I may calle them, as yt is a fayinge la 
my countrey, Saye and holde. Anbther I have harde would 
faye, Deo gratias to everye worde, by which means he ac- 
quired the name, and was called Deo gratias. 

As to armes ufed by lawyer?, judges, and maders of 
the rolles, let thofe who defire to behold them repayre to 
the Rolles Chapel and to Serjeant's Inn wyndowes, and they 
* ihall fee' every ^rmes with theyre motts, according 3s 
|he owaer$ of them weere afie6led, yea, and fometymes 
flualefycd with gifts.of nature and wytt. 

I have heard it reported' from the firfie lofde Nordic, 
by a man of hi^ who was in good favour with him, that 
he was u£bd to ^y, that when Ue was a young ftndent in 
Lyncoin's Inn> bow about feme iLxiiij. yeares agoe, that 
pt ftudettts jiayiiig^. ordered Am Wl to be enlarged, 

fuch . 

Until' as ^a tbit wd&jmwtk^ behe&ftors to tbe hoofe, dyJ 

fftkMd gltfs t a»d that MMiigft'fhMiiiras «i anciem, one 
Sttfllard, w)m> put up fw^yM hdrfe ftcHobling moA fab- 
licrtlieil Jfej^ Bayard,' utiA thflel Me Blae&wall made a 
lAs^k weir with twci blK:lB^ti, tad! libeis worcto, Have 
WA /^» «(v//| nW d^ wsU^ qudk Blackofell. Ooe 
KaiitM fliadie a ka&fe tlt«irM^ «i tdane, m atlufion to his 
name. Add it is well ted^aflhaff B4t<m tbe Prior of St. 
Bavthokmew^ ki SmithfeAd ca\ife4 ^ be fet up in ail brs 
ik>iifid| Wdi-kt tenA weynftofte there, a tdnise with a boh 
paft th^broogh the inmt for Selcoft $ and fo I ende with 

myae own l>ktt M/^gdrde. 

. . . , » 

>^]tTBURE AgaRDE. 

■ ^ *r ^ 

Of the fa»e. 


IK diyUes-of Afme$> tbe figure or clmi^ withoot the 
fttiptt y« et tn«|iMly 9ot fe iig9i^dikt» sor able of yt* 
ieife to exprefle the meamog. of the be^-er; fe cfaat the 
iRiotce doih add .^ greater ipif it imd underAaftdkige there- 
uoto ; bowev^^ 10 mjT opuuom the oaort oogbt to be 
fixKic^ a&d not wt^^v^g tbree lor foiir MPordei.m: the nioft. 
For exaEDfde, i have f^ea a b(i<%e bdoagiog «9tD Traf- 
foril^ Trai&rd ia CheAiii^i wiikk is a itiao in n firty* 
^oullered coat, with a A^kaa tht)^fiie ceni^ amkatty ia his 
fcaad, tidder whidi was wrytten {nvm tiui) ^ad wfaicfa as 
I have heaird was borne wptm this oecafl<aa $ hfe aoaeeftor 
hiirifi9eLinbliigeiip& timt WiHiitar the CQib|iieroir had gifea 
hiis- kindts^nro one of bis* Nonnan knighi^^: knd nndcr- 
Aai«iiiig(t> what .dfi)94lie j^^btf w^M ppp(|t^ lake^^iMifitf* 

jQ/f /& JnMquity (f.MoJts^ ^c. in England. 265 

fion thereof, he apparelled himfelf verye meanlie, and was 
founde by the knight thra(beiog in his barne ; whereupon 
the knight thinking the living foe poorc, that yt would 
not manteyne him like a gentleman, compounded with 
Trafford for a fmall matter, and begged a better eftate 
from the kinge. 

Levermore of Devon (hire hire for his armes, argent, a ^ 
bunch of flagges or levers, verte, according unto his name 
Lev€rmare\ under which was wrytten ( humilitate refiir- 
gam) alluding unto that fable of ^fop, where it is fayed, 
that the flaggs, by yealdinge and bowinge themfelves with 
the winde, did recover after the ftorme was paft; when 
the great oke, being not able to bowe, was many times 
blowen down. 

St. Clcre of Devonfhire beareth for his armes parted 
per pale, or and azure, the fun coimterchanged of the 
field ; fo that half the ftin ys as it were eclipfed with a 
cloude» with this mott under yt, Objtantia nubila folvet^ 
meaning thereby to exprefs that as the fun with his bright 
ihimnge beames diflblvcth the cloudes, foe he hoped to 
vanquifh all that (hould be adverfe unto his fhyninge vermes. 

I have an auncient Roman coin of Magnentius, which 
was founde in England near Dorchefter ; upon the reverfe 
wheror is drawne a man on horfebacke, with his darte in 
bis hand, and under his horfe's feet a poore captyne hold' 
ingeup his handes as imploring for mercy, over the which 
is wr3tten, Gloria Romanorumy to fignifye thereby, in what 
cmperious forte the proude and ii>folent Romans did ' 
triumph over the poor firittans. 

Thus much brcefieli.e concerninge motts, wherein it is 
to be obfcrved, that they are not heredytary as armes are, 
for the fon is not bounde to bear his father'^' mott or im-r 
prefs. The kings of this land have altered theirs accord- 
iqge to their wiHs aiid pleafures, and in our tyme, queene 
Marye*s mott was, Veritas teiHporis Fi/ia^ but the queene 
njajfcftie that now is, ilfeth Semper eadetn. 

Joseph Pol/nd. 
Fertitudo mea Deui. 

Vol. I. LI N? LXXXI. 

%64 Of thp MhquUy qf Moils ^ ^c. in Eu^lapi^ 


Of the fame, 

By Mr. Camden, x 

M'OTTS, as we ufe tjie wordc nowc, fqrdaufeg, 
(hoivt, wittie, and conceited, anfwerabic to the 
^ifpofition of the bearer, or fome other refpeft, are nei- 
jher auncient, nor hjive beene aqncieptly apprgipriated to 
armes. As the word, fo th^ d^vife an4 ufe therof hatb 
j^y the French beene derived unto us from the Italians, 
when they began to take up impreflcs, \vhich was in 
the Neapolitan warres about th? ycarc 1460. Yet 
imprefTes without motts, as bodies withoute fpuIeSf-wcK 
in ufe Aunciently among us ; foy king Henry thp feoond, 
grevioufly molefted by the difobedience of his fowre fonnes 
who entered into aflual rebellion againft him, caufed to 
\>Q painted in bis greatc chajnber att his palace in Wio- 
chefter, an eagle >yith four young chickens, wherof three 
pecked and fcratched him, but the fourth picked at his 
t^yes.. This his devife had noe life, becaufe it k^d noc 
moite — But his anfwer gave it Ufe, when he feid toonc 
demaunding his meaning, that they were his fonnes, which 
did fo peck; him and that John, the young^, whpm he 
loved beft, praftifed h^s dea,th moft bufilj. . 

For wordcs appropriated to arme?, the moft aundeut 
that I have happened uppon, is that of William de Ferraris 
earle of Derby, i.o the time of king Henry the third, 
whofe (hield varie with a border of horfe-fhoes, had writ- 
;en abput it, Lege, lege. 

Sir Thomas Cavall bearing an horfe in his (hield writt 

under yt, Thoma crediie, cifm cernifis £Ju^ e^uutft' 

Like unto this, was that put b^ the abbot of R^ey 
about the armes^.t abbey, being .a ram in the f^i 

Cujusftgna gero, dux gregis eft^ ut fgo. 

t^fthe Antiquifyof Mot Is j Sc. in England\ iSf 

The vlftoriou^ Black Prince ufed fotnetyme one feather, 
fbmetynie three feathers argent, in a fliield fable, in tokeii 
tof his fpeedye execution in all his fervices ; as the poftes 
5n the Romaoe tymes were Pterophori, and wore featherd 
to Cgnifie their flying pod hafle ; but others faye, he wonne 
them at the battk of Poitiers, whereupon he adjoyhed thfcre- 
unto this old Englifli word, Ich Dien, i. e. I/erve^ accord- 
ing to that of the apoftle, the heire lohik he is a child^ 
differeth nothing f rein aforvant. 

King Henry the fifth carried a burning creflett, and 
tifed for.his word (b\it not appropriate hereunto) un fans 

, King Henry the eighth at the interview between hini 
iand king Francis th^ firfti whereatt alfo Charles the fifte 
was prefentj ufed for his imprefTe an Engliihe archer draw- 
ing t^is.arrowe to the head, with this infcription, €ui ad- 
Ij^reo pratfi ; which he aifoe ufi^ Under his ariiies> whfii 
. as att that tyn^ both thofe tnightie princes banding one 
. againft the otber^ wrought him for their owne particular. 
To the honor of queene Jane, v^hp died willingly td 
fave her child, king Edward, her armes were fett up with 

her creaft> being a phoenix^ Ivith this motte^ Nafcatur ui 

Sir Richard Sclielley, knight of the Rhodes, ufed under 
his armes, wherin he quartered a fauleon by the name of 
Michelgrdve; and alluding, to that fauleon, this Spaniffi 
tnottq, Fede i; Fidalgrm, i. ci/aiih and gent lefte/s* 

. Mr. Richard Carew, of Anthony in Gclrnwall, ufed Un- 
aer hi? armes this Italiap motto, Chi vendee dutera^ whicli . 
talfo conteyncth his napae anagramaticaliy. . . 
...Sir^Phillip Sydoe]^ relying uppon himfelf, and hot the 
nobiUiy of his progenitors, ufed Vix ea noflra vqc6^ allud- 
ing to that faying oiF the poet, Nam genm^ & proauoSi. d' 
^ fwf nenfecimus ipfi, vix ea n^fa v^co^ . 

' ' JPondere noh nutnerp* 

• "li^ 

i68 Of the Antiquity of'Motts, &c. in EngUnd. 


Of the f^me. 

AMOMGE all thofe authors, which write of coate^^ 
imprertes, emblems, and fuch lyke fymbolical de- 
vifes, which in my computation are about thirty, theare 
is only one that diftynftly toucheth the maiter now hand- 
led, and that is'Jeronimus Rufcellius (not in that great vo- 
lume he hath fctt out of impfefles) but, in a treatife fete 
out togeather with Paulus Jovius, in which amounge maiiy 
other arguments of Ij'kc kind, lie hath a particular dif- 
courfe of coates and motts of coates, . CafTaneiis, in cata* 
hgo ghrut mundif having a hundred feveral cOncluflons of 
this argunlent of armes, hath nothing of motts of coates. 
Our gentlemen and noblemen of ancient tyme, never 
thopght of them'for any thinge, that I dan find ; thdy cfiuf- 
jng to malceihew of honor, rather 'by their hands then 
their Witts. Our latter gallants, eger iti imitation of the 
French and Italians, have in<flyned altog^ather to imprefles, 
.aa.atnorc witty kind of devife. This humor hath rilfo 
poireffed our writers on this kind of argument, who hdve 
how turned their ftyle for the moft part to impreffes ;,fo 
th'if I cannot fee hoW he Ihall be able to fatisfye the 
hearers in this dS(couHe, tfiat hath not fnftruftioris rather 
by experience, as our officers- 'of armes have, then by 
reading, as'wee of other profeffions ha\?e. Firft then, to 
fpeake of the antiquity of mottes in "England, I fuppofe 
they had them, as wee have inoft of our civil aftiofis/by 
iifiitation frbm other nations, and libt by inventioti afconge' 
ourfelves; and thearefore yt will be In ftiihe foi-te, a'dc- 
fyaiog of the antiquity of thdin among tis, yf wfeeTeai-ch 
how ancient they dre clfewheare. The firft mott 1 iSnd 
ufed among other nations, is that of Agamemnon, generall 
of the Greekes at the feege of Troy, who bore on his 
iheild a lyon faliant, with this mott, ovroa- fxsv pofioc en 
Pforotv^ to. (hew his valofi aad ^hat he feared none. The 



Of the Antitiuity of Motts^ Wc. in England. 169 

next in time, is that of Macabees among the , Jews, who 
being Liberatores Patriae, gave this mott in their enfign to 
all their famelye, Men caphe Both iod, which are the foure 
letters of the Hebrew alphabet M. C. B. J. by which in 
the Hebrew tonge was fignified that laying of Mt>yres in 
the iji'th chapter of EKodus, and the nth verfe, which is, 
IVho is fyke unto thee^ Lord^ among the gods ? From 
this mott the faoiely weare called Macahei, which name is 
but a cotigiutiQation of tbofe fower letters. LykeUnto 
this Wtts that mott of Henry th^ fyfte, after the viftory of 
Agittcourt, Non ndis, DominCm 

The next that I' (hall cite is that of Verpaftan^ whith 
though yt weare longc after the other, yet fe very atidcnt, . 
to wit, the figure of a dolphin, with the mott> fejiina 
Unte. That of the Romans 8. P. Q^R. ligaifyjtig Senatus 
populufque Romanus, wreOed by Beda, Stukus popukis 
quarit Romanos, was both <enijgne and mott yt felfe, and 
thearefore is' not within the cumpas of our argument. 
That of Conftantine the emperor, which were, the words 
In hoc Jigno vinces, placed under the creft, isrproper-to 
our difcourfe, both becaufc yt is a mott under a coate^ 
armes, or enfigne, and w:as borne by our p<^otryHMtn. 
As to any motts placed under coats of arms, and ufed>in 
the tymes of the Englifh kings before the Cooqaeft, or;Of 
Normans at their coming in, or for many yeares fiace 
the Conquefl, wee have but fmali lyght. And fince that 
tyme this realme hath had continual praftife' 'of armes, 
both in triumphes at home and in fervic^^tMrqad, in all 
which our anceftors fett all their glory upoji points of va- 
lour andaflivity, and not upon motts and invsations*; I 
will not.fpeak of the mott of the knights .of J[he order, be- 
caufe it apperteyneth not to a coate armes ; but Tobfeaf^e, 
that the times of that inditution^brought-in^atnc^g t>ur 
- gentlemen more civilitye theo^ before was'uMrf {(^^NpHUtas 
in amore latet. The next mott that I read ^^ aft^(< t|)^t, is 
the mott of king H, 5* Noji nokify Domin^9.hQ^^f6kcti 
of, and which he aflumed after thei>atte)L',i5f :;A^ificot]irt. 
'Of late years our countrymen have applied their witts to 


tjo bftbeAniiqiiityofMcfts^ tf?c. ihknglani. 

cfFcminate inventions, infomuch that I fuppofe the mbtt de* 
Tcribed by Chsfucer in tht Priorefle's^ abbet^ ihtly v^ry well 
befcemij us; thepdiel has yt thus. 

Of . fmxile coral about her armt fbe hdTf 
sA, §Airje i\f becies^ gaiDded all *iuith greens ; 
j4nd the^re on h^fig a- branch of g'&ldfull Jbeefir, . 
On nubich theare ivas ivetten a crowned A^ 
And after that ^m^x 'n^z\t QvavAZ,) 

Ift tills fi^ft point of biHr qbcfliofi, tbiithing thfe dhtl- 
qmcye vnd0r coaler, I mi^ht take<occaflon to difeofle thbt^ 
'whichi as I have read, wfts propofed by ati author of pi^e 
fmateirnjduf m thfe fti-gtirtfciiti that i«, whither itiotts be 

• anciei^tep tfn^F coates, then under itn{)refle& ? "vil^hith qurf- 

tion I thinfc\filV be decided, if wee detel-minft \Vhither toate 

'dfin8'<)t'iiro'pte(res be anciente'ft. " Mine aisthol*' concludcth 

■ the amiqyky ^op impreffcs, but 1 ani ^gainft-him, becaufd 
I thitik cbkfe ai'mes are the tnore'antlent, and that ni<:^cs 
are of equal ty me with th(em. 

Our fecond 'point \% the variety of thefe mottfe, ^hicH ir 
pi'dpo^tioiiable to th^ diverfiry of khe minds of the bearers^ 

' ut quifqUis'ahuhdaf fenfufuo, Sotue motts are'hereditafyj 
hut thoft of them are given by the devifocs, slnd- applied td 
the conceit bf the bearer*, fume alluditig to his name, yet 
conducfiog • good matter; as that of Godwin, biffidp of 
Bathe add : Wells, tVin G6d, win ^//-^that afStr Johnl 
JefFray, lotd cheefe baron, ^efrajefra. That gi^ed 
by Wickham, founder of New Colledge in Oxoh, to his 
fcoate, and which is a very Yitt mott for a place oiF educa- 
tion. Manners maketh rHdn. I h&ve heard of a ttlott under 
the coat of a gehtlecE^n of this regime, whitb carytug & 
very good fcnfe with h, was mifmterpreted by fbmey Whd 
. - fttfpeAed that the giver wasr of a humour contrary to his 
tnott; for whereas it was, Sdrte contentusy they would 
have it» that it meadt or imended, Cmtent in a fhrt. 

" Shopid I profecUte this parte of oun queftioii, totiching 
ther^ariety of motts, in this fort, I might bring iipOti the' 
ftagt die Ai^^s of tbofe^ ^at either are flovir liv!og» ot 


Oftke Antiquity i)f MottSy^c. in Englani, «5W 

who died within the tfiempry of our fethers, vrhich I for^ 
bear to doe, left' I ihould mdke rafh conftruifliotis of the 
fecret maaiiyogs of others. This was, as I thinke; the r«i- 
fon, that fome of our countreymen writing of this matter 
of amies, and particalarly Mr, John Bofwell in his treatife 
of coates and creafts, do imblafen the coates gf xnanyc 
gentlemen' by their names, bnt without defcribing any 
motts, except thofe of his own invention; in doing of the 
which he ever applyeth the mott to the creaft, and not to 
the coate. Thofe which he fetteth downe for examples, 
have an analogic and between them and the 
creaft to which they are added, like to that which is be- 
tween the body and foule of an imprefle, as for inftance, 4 
clubb with an olive branch wreathed about yt, and this 
mott underneath, Pax vi potior, — ^I will not at this time b$ 
x)verboid to difcourfe of the variety of motts, feeing the 
profeffors of that art have been fb fcarfe in the' argument; 
but only in the'laft place touch upon the reafon of motts. 
This, as 18 apparent by the defcription of them given bjr 
thofe who are proficients in that fcience, is a (hort fen- 
tence difcoveriag a fecret invention, which defcription 
may gederally be applyed to imprefles or any other fuch 
like deviCis: for the coate or efcutcheon was anciently aa 
outward'^marke or badge wheareby you might take notice 
of the perfon of the bearer, his name, and family. And 
tbcarefore all gentlemen of armes did in the field over . 
their armour wear coats whearon their armes weare im- ' 
blafoQed;and fo wee fee them portrafted and imaged oa 
tombes in many places. This I thinke was that garment 
ivhith the ^bman general wore in the war^s, and wast 
called Paludamentum, The mott was afterward added lb 
the coate,' in order to give fome (hew of the mind and af- 
fection of the bearer. Thus the coate and mott together, 
defcribed the giver of them, both ia body and mynd. — 
Theare be certain rules prefcribed in the devifing of thefe 
IDOtts, which I think are not to be exacted in the motte^ 
p[ coates, but rather cf im|>re(res, 

The firA ^h ^J WiA l^ve a fi^r^p^e i^ ^e oiiod of 
tb€ reader to b^fye or eipploy l^s me^itatipp. 

The; fecoad is^ that they iQay Qot pic^ tbr«« wordes, 
vnlefs yt b/s dum, nee, et^ or £uch like. 

Thirdly, that they muft be taken out of fcHne laiao.tijs 

Fourthly, That they ofiuil be neither too obfcurbi oor 
too trivial. 

Ar^d, laAIy, that the figure without the mott, and the mott 
Nvithout the figure, are to be deemed as impcrfeft. Thefe 
lawes however are not ftriftly requifit in the chufing of 
any kind of n^otts, and more efpecially not in thofe under 
coates, which have the greateft liberty of invention. — 
Methi^ks the paott under the coat of Paul Baglione the 
Italian, thoughe yt be a whole hexamiter, is good enough, 
,ha4 yt not been niade fubjeA to ^ bitter jeft of an Italiap 
gentleman, for a worfe refpefl then the 1/^ngth of yt. 

His efcQUcheon was a griphpn arg. in a field gules, bis 
Baott, Unguibus et rqftro atque alls armatus i\i Jsoftcm,-^ 
But this g^iulen^an beix][g afterwar4s furp^ized by the 
treachery pf tht pope, his freind brooke this jeft of hlo^ 
that he might h^v^.donfi hin^^ffe pioorf good wpfh a pairf ^ 
wingfs to have Jlonuen mt cf th fnare, thm b^ dfifen^ng 
Mifttfrlf wifh Ins beake and talqtfs, to bf thus taken primer. 
Having ^pw fp9ken deciHvely of the thrcie j^rt^ of.our 
.quie.ftion^ viz* the antiquity, variety, jand reafon qf faottes 
.under Engl^h ^oates of arnaes, I will )^y/e tjl^e i^rge ^od 
' .apple ^mfolding of ihis argucpqnt to thoTe gentjemen^ yljip 
being pf the profjeffion of arn^ep, are .better able to j^J^^Q^ 
inftances and exan^pks pf expeffie^ to tl;i^ J>?^9^£pf 
' tjiis difpouf fe. 

^lyoreftis g falcon rayiing herfe^f upNi^a^r^ toWftr^ tfae 
fkyftom a high jLQ^Cfr-rp/fiy ^^r^ under it is, 

Ocuiis in/olm, atis in Gelum^ 


>Oftl)t Aitqidiy (f Mdh^ tSe. ik Enghml, *7I 

N* LXXXlIl. 

Of the fam6. 

By ffit WitLlAM Drthick, Gartc*i 
28 ^''. Nov'. 1600. 

I^HIS propofition for inqQiring into the antiquity of 
motts and \^ords, as emblems added to the armes an4 
cnfigncs of th€ noble and valiint, ts highly to be recom- 
mended, as it reprefenteth unto us an increafe of the de- 
snonftration of the courage, valour, and prowefle of mar- 
tial men. 

Herein, firft, we have imitated the Egyptians, who ufed 
ts well to exprefFe and preferve their clear knowledge in 
philofophy, as alfo their famous fafts, by the figures or fimi- 
litude of beads, birds, and wormes carved and cutt on 
l^illars of done, fome whereof yet remaining at Rome I 
have myfelf feen. Next to them the Greeks would, by the 
means of Cadmus his travells, challenge to themfelves the 
invention of cara£lers and letters, which invention is how- 
ever rather to be attributed to the Caldeftns and Hebrews 
then to them« After tbefe the Romans learned to perpe- 
tuate their names and renowne, by carving and exprefling . 
their dignities and offices upon marble and bralTe, whereon 
many tables of their laws, and remembrances of the huge 
edifices erefted by them, are left to pofterity, as Ovid re- - 
membreth in his verfe de Ajfih in Rome, 

Romulus et Saxo hcum circundedit alto : 
^ilibet hue inquit confuge^ tutus eris* 

Among thoufands which have been difcovered, there 
was about thirty-four years pafl, but in my time, found 
ID the old capitol, a broken marble whereon thefe letters 
•were engraved, 

A// eji d^cilius quam bem im^erari. 
Vol. J* M m hoA 

274 Of t^e 4^Hqutty cf MotlSi (Sc. in England. 

And apud Turrem Mllitiae, near to the palace of Nerva, 
there was alfo dug up a iparble ftone cut with thefe letters, 

Potijfima Dos in Principe, Liberalitas et Clement ia. 

Infinite other oiotts and inciflions in fuch letters as thof^ 
tymes produced are likewife to be mett with. Thus on a 
huge portraidlure, like to Hercules, but made for the em- 
peror. Comodus, and lately found in the ruins of Rome, 
vas written, 

PrQCul ejie Propbani. 

Fynally, let it be remembred that Cefar, whp admired 
and imitated Marius in his arts, at his third or pontic 
triumph, afTnmed this mott, Veni, viJi, vici. 

But to -make no further mention of the ufe of thof^ 
triumphs, and of the glqry of the ftate of Rome, I fhall 
juft take notice of what was faid pf St. Auguftia, viz, 
^wd tria videre voluijfe dicitur, Romam triumphant em f 
Paulum predicantem^ et Chri/iurn in dime ; and fo haftcr^ 
to England our natyve country, where both in London and 
Weftminfter certain words or motts tending to zeal for relir 
gion and godlinefs, are known to be placed upon ihe fhrines 
of kinfe EdwarS the Confeffor, and oifier our kings an^ 
princes there buried. 

The motts which are inteoded by the propofition no\y 
before us, tend only to the deraonftratipn of honorable im- 
preflTes for warlike difpofitions in valiant princes and men 
of armies ; and ihefe moft affurcdly have proceeded from 
the ordinances and obfervances of war res and battles.— 
The antient Brftops, no doubt, long before the invs^fion of 
Casfar, did ufe knovyn and proper words for figne of bat- 
tayle, and for giving encouragement to their foidiers ; In- 
ftances whereof may be found in C. Tacitus, and oth^r 
Roman hiftorians. 

Althoughc I muft confefs that I have not read much of 
thefe motts in any authors of great note, }'et I remember 
^h^t Paulus, Bifhop of • Nocera, ip his writings foyeth, 
\\ifX in fhp time pf tlie empcrof Frederick B^rbarofla, the 


^— ""^^^■■MHKWBKfi^ift'jateE...".''_-Tj««jt*,i i'^torif. ;.----* ^a««i..,. •..,__ . .^ 

Of the Antiquity of Mctts^ &c. in England. 2 75 

mod diftinguiftied princes had in great cfteem the arms of 
their families, and the imprefles which they bore in the 
wars wherein they were engaged : for that emperor ad- 
vanced many of thofe noblemen to eftates of dignity and 
honour^ on account of their valiant feats of arms performed 
in his warrs. 

In example wherof, the princes and noblemen of Eng- 
land which had ben famous in thofe wars, and in ihofe of 
the Holy Land at that tyme, as alfo with king Richard 
the firft, and long before, cre6i:ed the like ftiields and 
ftandards of arms, thereby to be the better known and 
difcerned .; and on which they fett out their feveral arms 
and devifes, and alfo replenifhed the fame with motts and 
writings to exprefs their courage and valour. But yet 
more abundantly were thcfe kind of motts brought into 
. ufe, after the example of that moft famous and virtuous . 
prince king Edward the third, when he had founded the 
moft noble order of the garter upon that mot^ Hony foyt 
qui mal y penfe : and when at his entrance in arms into 
France for recovery of his inheiiiance, he had taken this 
mott, Dieu et mon clroidf, i, e. Cod and my right, which 
mott the moft noble kings of England have ever fince ufe4 
and maynteyned. 

The ufe. and obferv^nce of thefe motts hath likewife 
fecen aflumed and taken in many joufts and turneys, and 
fet upon the trappers, caparlflons, and devifes of the com- 
batants. But thefe, bycaufe I would be (hort in my de- 
monftration, 1 muft omit, as alfo the infinite motts that 
have been ufed and depifted on the ftandards of noble- 
men, knights, and men of arms of England, and efpeciaiiy 
ufed and praftlfed in the wars againft France in the tymes 
of king Henry the fifth, and of king Henry the fixth, and 
in later times at Tyrroine, Turney, and Bullen, which 
ftandards are now in this age altered, forfaken, and turned 
all to colours in the field, and the ufe thereof almoft ex- 
pired, except what we obferve at funeralls. 




Of the fame. 

By Mr Fsancis LsiGif* 

TH E qutffttoa is of the antiquity, variety, asd fxaSm 
of iiiotts to the %xve^ qf ooblemea aod gtetleoieii 
in Eogljuidy which qtieftioQ fallkig mod properly iafo she 
Iparpipge of officers of Armes, afibrdeth me little ^Uity to 
Ipeake of a matter fp fa^re out of my proyinoe, mofs efpe- 
cially as it is coa^aed to the limits ol oi^c couotr; ; in ex? 
perience of wh^cb, wee are comimmly moft ignorai^t, «% 
having therein lefs help from readtpg and hii^ory, tfaefi w^ 
have in regard to othercouq^ri^s.. 

The firft part pf oqr queftion is the aniiqwity of mmt^ 
The wbiph, yf I may digrefle fo much* 9S to give old aad 
foreign inftanccs, as that of the ktters S. P. Q^R. for 
Stnatus PopUilufifue Romanus^. placed under the banoers Qf 
the Ropjanf, and that of Vcfpafi^Ht fifmn Icnte^ writtei|^ 
under a daulphia clafping an aqker, I take to be eqqal 19 
time to coats of arms, as being applied the one to the 
pther ; the coat defcribing the affection of the giver, and 
the mott, like the fout, giving power, life, and interpre- 
tation to that defcription. 

In this our realm, I do not read of any peHqns veiy aiir 

tient, who gave both coats and motts ; although this nar 

tion bee as famous .;^ any in Europe for pmrtiall a^ioas^ 

and for the valour of oqr anceftors in the execution of 

them « ^Qd the which they rather (hewed in the riche$ 

and ftrength of their armes, then in the acutenefs, nimble- 

nefd, or finenefs of their inventions^ For whereas I read 

of many ancient triarophs, ju(ls, turaements, aud fii^le 

combats exhibited by our feirefathers, even to the particu* 

lar defcription of every feverall part of armor, both <?f 

horr<| and man, as in the cpmbat between Mowbray a%d 

Hereford in Kl. Richard the f^cond*s time; wee never 

Bnde any mention of motts or devifes of witt ufed in dieou 

The andenteft fiox^ redouadiog to the hoaour of (xMt 


of arms whi(:h w«^ H^v« iii ^pgland, i$ thgt 0f priacc At- 
tbwr, gnd his ki)igh;$ pf thp rpund ial?l« ; wMch Aory. 
thougt) it be t>l?n4^d witli fooie fables, yt hath fn much 
truth ID yt, as to aflTure us both of fuch an honorable in- 
Ahutton of knighth^^ being eilahUihied* and of the proper 
eafigaes belonging to every one of tiK>fe knights. AB 
which arc pcrfeftly in eyery rcfpeft left unto us, but yeat 
without any motts — By which I gather that in thofean- 
tienc times, wheria the honor of armes was lirft profefled 
in this our realcp^ |h^n^ w/i9 Q<^ pri^i^ or ^^ oi any 
filch witty matters as mO(tts. 

. The firft mott that is mcflfiora^le with w, U (}rjfit pljiced 
noder llie Shield of St. Georg^^ aod ^^^ H tjbe ifi^Aitii- 
lioa of the order q( the gartier, whkii Qrd43r» 9S m^ft 
authors aiGrm, fiega^ uppoa at^ ^mPTQUS occafiou ; a(id ^ 
yhich it i$ probable, ^t thefi? q»ott« wer^ brought if^i^r 
this kiogdom ia an age decUoijjg ft-om war, ai|4 chcriOniig 

ye^f if i; b? 09 queftion, which of wn)y is copttt-overfed, 
dial the emperor Confiantine the Great was of fagUfli 
pareQtagf^ he may bs our 6rft inAancQ in this ^af(;, wha^ 
takiag the apparition of a qcotk, (q^ a preiage of vi^ory, 
Itftprwards gav^ for his ari^s pr i^afign th^ %^re of a ^q£^ , 
n4th thi§ niQtt, M6cjign0 vim^Sf 

As to th^ variety of mott^, which is th$ fecond part of 
ap^x qvi^oj^ H is hard to difcQurfe, b^iag therein redraifi^ 
^ by tb^iHi^arf^ity ^ yet tb^q di&r^nee^ do I ^d^ &mi 
w^ applied t^ r^iigiofiy as that of tb^ kings pf Ei^add* 
ffieu e4 tmm droits and chat of Sir vThovas Williams, % 
t^oight of gr.eac reputation in kiag H^ary tbs fevejith'€ 
ijm/s^ H^k ^^%Mii M thimey i. e. without Cod^ -witlmti all 
Others are applied to the habit of fome one efpecial vi rt«e, 
^ this of wr gracious fovereign, Semper eadenif and this 
0f an f «'l ia thif land, i?a/i> virtutum QivfiamHa.. 

A99ia, i^4» are applied to a gei^erai ^tpbrac^mwt of 
tirtiif^, 4S iHis of Sir Walter MUdoetay* l^iftuie^^ mmvi* 
^i M»is of Sir FhiUip Sid^y 4% hit ow^o laeriti;, Fix <« 


37S Of tbi Ataiqmiy »f Mttts, &c. in England, 


LafUy, the reafon and purpofe of every mott, in my 
opinion^ is obfcurely to give fome light of the bearers m* 
ward intemion. Frauncis Leigh. 


Of the fame. 
By Mr. A. Hartwell. 

PERADVENTURE it is expeftcd, that becaufe I was 
the mover of this qucftion, I (hould fpcak more in it 
than others do. But in trueth the very caufe that induced 
inc to have this qucftion decyded, was for that 1 have 
found very few motts, whereof with all the fmall witt I 
had, I could fyndc any reafon : and therefore I was defi- 
Tous to be informed frpm other learned men who are of 
this focietie, of that whereunto I, in myne owne learning, 
could not attain. 

But forafmuch as T am, according to the laudable cuftora 
of this company, either to write or fpeak fomewhat of the 
queftion propounded, I muft firft acknowledge my own 
ignorance therein, and wholly rely myfelf upon the know- 
ledge and obfervation of the gentlemen here prefent, who 
have had more leifure to confider of this poynt^ and have 
pbferved more then I poffibly could." For my own part, 
I cannot indeed yield any reafon why thefe motts are con- 
joyned with the armes of nobles and gentlemen of f ng- 
land, becanfe the reafon of their ufing ibefe motts (as I 
take it) was of a fpecial conceyt nnd occafion, particularly 
knowHr only to the authors thereur ihemfelves. 

As to the antiquity of motts, I read that Judas Macka* 
bceus was the mofl antient amoung the Jews that carried 
8 mott in his ftandard, and that of fuch his mott be had 

bis name. For he was not called Mackabaus of his fir- 

mily or houfe, who were all called Chajmonai, as Trcmel- 
lius, Junius, and Druilus do t^ftify ; but he was termed 


Of the Antiquity of Motts^ ^c. in England. 279 

Mackabaus, becaufe he carried in hisftandard, or vexillum 
militare, thefe four Hebrew letters, Mem^ Chaph, Bethj 
and Jod^ or M. C. B. and J. whereunto their points being 
added, which are their vowells, (for others they have 
none) his mott was Mackabai, whereof he took' his name. 
Thefe four letters are the acroftickes or initiall letters of 
thefe four wordes in the fifteenth chapter of the book of 
Exodus, Mi Chamocha Baalim Jehovah^ which is in Latia 
^iisjicut tu Deorum Jehova? And of thefe four let ters» 
M. C. B. J. fo infcribed upon his flandard, tanquam omen 
vidloria^ the Jews made one worde (as Rabbi Ben Sheola 
leftifieth) and fd called him Macabai. Like to thd" Ro- 
mans, who, as every man knoweth, did bear in their ftan- 


dard S. P. Q^R. being the acroftickall, or initial letters of 
Senatus Populus que Romanus : although it hath pleafed 
fome in another humour to interprete S. P. Q^ R, as the 
Sybilles did, Serva populum quern redimi/H^ and venerable 
Beda thus, Stuttus Populus quarii Romam ; the French, 
Si Pen que Rien ; the Italian, Sono Poltroni ^efti Romani ; 
the Almayne proteftant, Sublaio Papa ^lietum Regnum: 
and the catholiques, Salus Papa ^nes Regni. It was a 
good jeft, if it be true, that one feeing S. P. Q^R. written 
in a new pope's chamber, did interprete it thus, SanSls 
Pater^ quare rides P whereunto the pope on a fudden re- 
turning his anfwer, according to the letters retrograde, 
like a good Hebrean, reading the letters backwards, R, Q^ 
P. S. fayd, Rideo, quia Papafum. This manner of acrof- 
tick letters is at this day ufually obferved in our ordinary 
cracifix£s, the banners and ftandardes of Chriftianity, 
whereon are infcribed the four letters J.N.R.J. alluding to 
the title which Pilate caufed to be clapped over our Saviour's 
head, Jefus Nazarenus Rex Judaqrum, And theauncieat 
Greek emperours carrjed likewife in their enfignes ifoar 
betas, to fignify that the emperor was Bao-tXowj Ba<riAe«y 
'Baaiuibiv Baa-iMua-f, viz. Rex Regum Regens Reges, i. e« 
King of kings ruling over kings. 

Touching the motts of our Englifh noblemen, wher 
ther they have received any example of the lame frotn 


»So Ofihe Aniiqui^ ef M9ttSi ISc. in Engiani* 

the Romans id the Britons time, or in the Saxons tymei^ 
dr in the Normand tytne, I hope I ihall learn that of thofe 
kariied gentlemen \iho are to fpeak to that poyat after 
ftd. fiut I do yet hok! opinion, that thefe motts are de- 
ftved unto us fince the Conqueft, becaufe the moft parte 
ti motts that are added to our Englifh armes, are xnecr 
ytetK^h ; as for example, the mott of the garter^ Honi 
Jlilt qui mal y penfe^ is no aunctenter then king Edward 
the third, the reafon whereof is apparent lo any-^ 
Sttt the other moct, which is commonly coojoyned 
irith th^ arms df England, viz. Dieu if mm Droits whe- 
ther it was firft ufed in that king Edward's days, whea 
Jacques de Artwell did advife him to quarter the arms oi 
England and France, I know not ; but I reft in good hope, 
that t /hall be refolved therein before this good compaoy 
fee at this tyme diflblved. 

l*he prince of Wales ufing the molt of Ich dien, i. e. 
tgeferviOy had great reafon for fo doings becaofe fo long 
%& fke king$ his father, lived, he xvas but a fubjefl. 

Other motts of our £ngli(h nobles and gentlemen are fo 
clofe and fecret, that I am of opinion, that no man know- 
tih the reafoft of them, but oQely thofe that firft ufed 
thdm. As for example, one wiiteth Diformais, another 
t>6rtfejtavani^ a third a Tonfioiirs maiSy a fourth Plus que 
JdrflaiSy another Dro'tEl and Loyal, another Jour de ma vie^ 
arod I Will not meddle with him that ufeth viderit ufilitaS'--^ 
'tot 1 lake ih'Jki to be but feme capricious conceit, which 
!he hath appropriated to himfclf, and whereof I ant not to 
lift a reafon. — But whether that, or any other be agreable, 
fif amy way Correfpondent to the armes whereunto they 
M^ srppl.fed, I am to expeft of the learned gentlemen who 
are hereafter to fpeak. Only one mott I do find at Lan>- 
fftth in the hafigings at the upper end of the archbiftiop's 
jgfittir hall thert, ^here are (as I take it) the arms of the 
hfoufe 6f Laxemb6rough and of St. Pol, which houfe of 
fit. fi^ be^reth a ftjn, or, in a field gules, and the mott 
thereof is On le verra, intentfing (aa I conftrtre it) that a4 
pt fiHl czMiA be hidden, but at laft will be feen.— So 


Of lA* Antiquky af Parliam,ents in England^ aS i 

that gentleiaan's hcwaeft intent, though it be hidden and. 
concealed for a tioie, yet ia the end it will hurft forth and 
appear as clear as the Sun.-^And this I befeech this good 
compaBy to accept at my bands, becaufe I am appointed. 
to fay fomewhat to the queftton, not doubting but that I 
fliall recieve good inftruftiopsj of others in this prefence. — ■ 
Upon whofe mouths and judgments I do wholly depend,. 
and whereunto I do humbly fubmiit myfelf. 

Abraham Hartwell, . 

Abrahamus Chriflum^ Joh. 8®. 7 
ut ServMS Font em, Pfal. 42^ 5 


N° Lxxxvr. 

Of the Antiquity, Power, Order, State, 
Manner, Perfons, and Proceedings of the 
High Court of Parliament in England. 

By Mr. Dodderidgb. 

THERE is no king in the world, nor any fubjeft* pf 
any king» that have a greater and mpi[e binding, 
and yet a more free council, then thia Iq Qur parliament 
in England ; whofe general afts> £oc^ all men n\uft tak(; 
knowledge x>f, it may be profitable to every man to under- 
ftjuid the dignity, order, and antiquity thercgf. 

Soveraignty, the higheft degree of honour, is imported 
10 the very fumtnons j for the king htofelf (jure regio) as 
a flower of the crown, hath the abfoluto power of cajling 
and diflblving it. 

Order itfelf ftands reprefented, wh^n the court is fitting ; 
fuch is the majeftie of the prince, the gcaiBfity of th^ per-* 
fons, and their ftate in proceeding. But thi? being oftei^ 
feen, and fo beft known, and the other unknown to mar\y 
that fit, and often fee the order of this court ; therefor^ 

Vol. I. N n w^ 

282 Of tie Antif^utiy of Parliaments in Engtand. 

i-ve will treat principally of the antiquity, nature, power,;, 
and jurifdiftion of this high court of parliament. 
, And firft of the appellation. The ViO^i parliament ; fome 
derive from peers, a potiore. parte, quaji parivm Conven^: 
turn, or as others fay, quaJi parium lament* ; others, more 
probably, from the French word parier, or that of the 
Greek TrapaXa^Siv, to treat and confer freely. The French 
hiftorians fay, that this name, in this fenfc, began at the 
aflembly of the peers of France, anno Dom» 1200. but it ap- 
peareth to be more ancien-t with us-, then that time : for 
Ingulphus, who died in the year 1009. faith, In publico 
nojiro Parliamento, &c. taking it there for a meeting or 
chapter of the abbot. Ingelo king of Polorfia, in the Po- 
liih ftate, calleth the affembly Generale Parliamentum, 
This may raife a doubt of the former etymologie of it from 
the French word parier. But no doubt the word was 
brought ioto this realm by the French monks, a^nd after^ 
wards applied by the ftatifls in the tyme of kiflg Henry the 
firft, to the general, council of the kingdom. 

But the like afTemblies as parliaments are (being much 
more ancient then the parliament) underwent thefe names 
of old times. The Britons called them Kyfrithiny becaufe 
taws were therein made by the Englifli Saxons in theii 
Engli(h GereduytftSy a council ; fometimes (Wittena Mota) 
a meeting of- wife n>et>. Sometimes of the Greek word 
Synodos. The Latine authors of that age call it Con/ilium 
Magnattfm, Curia altij/ima, prafentia RegiSj Prelatorumy 
Proccrumq, ColleBorum ; as appeareth by the charter of 
IVithlafias, anno 833, and of king Edgar, anno 966. 

And now to ftep a N&mine ad Rem. Before the time of 
foveraignty,- Nature's law divetfted men to the love of fo- 
ciety, and care to preferve it ; and gained free confent evea 
tf lawlefs men, to admit of certain cuftoms as laws, from 
hence framing matter of form for a commonwealth, fiut 
new fpringing mifchiefs /landing remcdilefs by the elder 
cuftoms> caufed, for remedy thereof, the calling of yearly 
councils, the original no doubt of our after parliaments. 
And it iliall appear, that our kingdome, from as grounded 


Ofibe Antiquity ef Parliaments in England: 28 g 

authority as any other nation, can prove of old the.praftife ^' ^ 
of thefe great affemblies, then called Counfels, now Parlia* 
nients. Thofe fages the Drmdes, moft proper to this 
ifle, had yearly conventions of their nobleft and beft 
people, in a middle confecrated plot of this Ungdome; 
punlfljing with profcription from their facrificcs whofo 
obeyed not thofe general defignes. Before the Romans 
arrived in this ifland, CaufibiUan, who beforfe was (Communi 
Confilio) chieftain of the Britaines forces, SumrnO' enim 
imperii^ Relliq^ jidminijindndi^ Cornmum Cofijilio, permiffa 
^Ji Caufibulano, The ancient laws of the Britaines, which 
(to the honour of our common laws) have their ufe to this 
day, were compofed in their common counfels : the mul- 
titude at that time (as poflefTed of nothing) had neither 
voice, nor place; ufury, tribute, and greatnefs having made 
-them fervite to their betters. And thus flood the ftate, 
till by conqueft it was made a province. So before our 
Britaines learned the laws of their viftours, they held their 
common counfels. Tacitus fecmeth^ to afcribe much to 
tlic profperous proceedings of the Romans againft the Bri* 
taines^ qued nm in Csmmuni CQiifulutrunt, After the entry 
of thQ Romans, who with their people brought their laws, 
their counfels were Comitia, as parliaments compounded of 
the three degrees (SenaigreSy Equejhes^ ^ Plebd) and 
termed either Curiata, Ccnturiata, or Tributa ; fo called, 
for that the people were divided per Curias : in which af- 
fembly, Populus Suffragia tenebaty diftingui(hed by feats, 
fummoned by the liftour, held in the city, had power ta 
- confult of peace and war, and to difpofe of lefTer publique 
offices. Romulus was founder hereof, and called it L^x 
Curiata, and Centuriata,: for the nobler people were di- 
vided per Centurias : for this the counfel fore-fent by cdift, 
. j^/x Dies^ Comitiis Centuriatis futiirus eft, fummoned per 
Cornicieniy »and aflembled in Campo Martio^ becaufe all in 
armes. la this were difpofed the greater magiftracies and 
affairs : of that Hoftilius was the inftitutor. Tuliy g[o- 
ried, in that he was called Lege CenUtriata Tributa ; for 
la this the people aflembled by their tribunes;, much 

N n a agreeing 

ft §4 Of the Antipity tf Parliaments in Enghni. 

agreeing with that of Curiata : and the leges pecultares 
were general, Jujfu populi (regnante Magtjiratn) but not 
in forte as laws, until their promulgation : for which 
Cailfe the country- tribunes repaired to certain faires, where 
jDroclamation was thade of their new laws ; and holding it 
aquum ut quifquam non obligaretur ad id quod fine culpa 
faa^ ignorat. But thefc freedoms of the people expired 
and vanished as the empire grew obfolete : and when the 
ftate declined, we (as other enfranchifed countries) began 
td give laws unto ourfelves. Therefore the Britmns told 
Aoguftine, Se non pojfe ah [que faorrnn Confenfu is liccnt'm 
prifcis abdicaremoribus. And thus it ftood in Britaine un- 
til the coming in of the Saxons. 

Now that fubftance and forme of parliamentary aflcm- 
' blies went all along the Saxon age, held during the incur- 
sion of the Danes, and was continued by the Con<juerour 
, in part : and when the aflembly of the three eftates formed 

the parliament (as now we keep it) it (hall by clear proof 
and prefidents appear. The ftory of the Saxons and th«r 
laws do (hew, that they were of the fame minde trauf- 
planted hither, as Tacitus faith the Germanes Were : Nee 
Regibits vifinita poteftas ; de M'tnoribus Rebus frincipes 
confultanty de majorihus omnes : Rex Edwinus, faith Beda, 
lib. 2^ cap. 13 quod ant equam fidem fufciperity dixitp fecum 
amicis, prlncipibus, ^ Confiliariis fuis cdliaiurum. 
HiO.Eftsn- In a charter of king Etheldred it appeareth, quod ad 
^^^' *' jynodale Ccn/ilium apud Circnchefler nniverfi Opthnates fiirml 
convenerunt^ <b /Iffnctim Majejlatvm return affeBantem^ 
de hap pat Ha prGfugum exptderunt. Bcrttilphius held a 
"cotincel at Kniibury (pro Regjii Negotiis Congregat'} to 
the which the Weil Saxon king and people fent their legate. 
Ingulphus hath many pFaces of dear proof; but I wVli 
mov'e but one; Infeftonativitatis ireuta Maria, cnm uni- 
'Vcrji Magnates ^Regniy per Regium ediBtnn fnmimnifi tarn 
Archiepifjopiy Epifcopi, Jbbates, ^ Cterhij quam totius 
Regni Proceres^ b Opttmates London convenerunt^ ad trac- 
iandum de negotiis pubiicis totius Regni ; confiitnfnatis omni» 
buSy Rex Eldi$duSi coram Univerfis^ DonuiiQ Turketill^ 

. Mbaii, 

Of tht Amiquity ef P^U4mmt$ in England. -285 


MhAtu "Mmachijque fms Aecerfitis^ Jelit 'Msnaftermm df 
Cr4)^uhsid, dec. 

Ifere you inay fee the {ampler of our parliansent. 

But to come i>e.^i%r: ^hen king fcia eftabliflied his 
Ittwes, feefeitji, / /nA, king ^f the iVeft SaxvnSy have called 
•cdi my fatherhood^ aldermen^ and my wifeft commons^ wit'h 
the godly men cf my kingdom, ft> confuk cf great and weighty 
matters. Here is reprefented in king laa the king's royal 
perfon : the fatherhood in tlwfe anciem djcyes were tbofe 
whom we call Bifliops, and therefore nwre termed rewe- 
i%Ad fathers. By aldermen, the nobility is meant: fo ho- 
norable was the word alderman of old times, that onely 
noblemen were calied Aldermen, By the wifeft com- 
mons, is fignn&ed the kaights and burgdTes ; and fo is the 
king's writ at this day, D€ difcretisrihusy ^ majus fi^den- 
tibm. By godly men is meant the con vocation- hoMfe; ioc 
that it onely conlifteth of relij^ous men, to confult of 
great and weighty matters; fo is the king's writ at thfe 
day, Pro -quibufdam arduis if urgentdhis negeliis^ nas^ Sta- 
turn 6* defenfanem f^gJii nqftri Anglia, ^ Eulefie JngM' 
. cana Concernefitibus. The like was in king Alfred's da yes, 
where the king, fanBi Epifcopiy is fapientes laid Siafve^ 
runt leges \ calling the ftatp re-books libri fynodales : aH 
. their lawes going by way of fuffrage general, according to 
the right of our parliament. Wherefore kii^ OFa hav.iaig 
gathered Conjilia fapienttan, and viewing ttiel)eft lawes cf 
Inn, Aliired, and Etheldred, would notpabliSh them until 
fiach time, as the text faith, Oftendenda hac omnibus fa^im- 
tihus nojlrisy it dixerunt omnes piacet Citjl9dire ta. 

But howlbevcr the govermncnt being by Aindry^kings, 
«nd th^ continually Attent to wartc, the Simon time heW 
liardly one^fbrroe of this great aflbmbly or conncel ; yet 
in Canutus his dayes, he having conquered all, and re^ 
-d'uced that heptarchie into a monarchte, 4b that he conhl 
fay, Sub uno rege, it fub una lege univerfum Angli^t reg- 
num regerePttr ; it is plain that he held a parliament, 
thou^ *ot then fo ftScd, but yet trtfly fo ^o be accompted : 
mA fiftce '^; it hith aH «he pits of our parliament, we 


286 Of the Aniiquiiy of Parliments in EnglanL 

might rightly call it fo. la the preamble to his lawes, 
thus he {iiith, Cmvocato itaqtu conimum procerum comitatUy 
if epifcoporum^ abbatunit <y ceterorum nobiliumy. nee non, is 
cetera nobilitatis fapientiaque totius Anglia conciiio, fatage- 
hat communia decreta^ ut in quantum humarca ratio voluit^ 
Jiabiliret. After this, pious king Edward the ConfelTor, 
'in a charter made to Weftminfler Abbey, fealed, and 
£gned the fame at a parliament ; for ^thus he faith, Hanc 
igitur chartam donationisy iff libertatis in dedicatione pre- 
diSfa Ecclejia recitare jujji coram Epifcopis, abbatibus, comi- 
tibuSf ij omnibus optimatibus Angliti omnique populo audi- 
€nte, if vident^. 

But now to come to the Normans time after the Con- 
queft ; the t^o firft kings, the Conquerour and his foQ 
William Rufus, reigned with their fwords in their hands, 
^bfolutely of themfelves ; not admitting the former gene- 
ral aflemblies of the ftates, but permitting onely provin- 
cial fynods of the clergy, for compounding of the eccle- 
fiaftical caufes ; -where neverthelefs they fate as prcfidents; 
and the Conquerour himfelf did not challenge to himfelf fo 
abfolute a conqueft ; but the laws that he made have this 
title : Nic intimatur^ quod GuUelmus Rex, cum principibus 
Juis Conflitutumy fsff. And in giving laws to this nation, 
Fecit fummoniri per univerfos .Confultatus Jnglia, JhgUs 
ncbiles, ^ fapientes fua lege eruditos, ut eorum & jura, 6 
' ' Confuetudines ab ipjis Archiepifcopis ^ Epifcopis audiret : 
and often doth he and his fon -William call together 
Archiepi/copos, Epifcopos, AbbateSy ComiteSy BaroneSy Vice- 
comiteSy cum fuis Militibus ad Confulendum. And likewife 
oftentimes afterwards until the tfhae of Henry firft, we 
find that there was Conventus Epifcoporumy Abbatum^ 6 
Procerum Regniy Londini in Pqlatio Regis. Wherefore 
Polydore Virgil zxAPaladine are much deceived, if they 
thought that Henry the firft held the firft parliament within 
this r^alm. 

Neither do they feem to be of that opinion, their words 
being) that Regis ante tempora Henrici primi, non Confue^ 
verunt pppuli cqnventum Con/ultandi cauf^x njfi pro raro 


Of the Antiquity of Parliaments in England. 287 

facere. Therefore they might hold fome, though not fo ^ 

often as did their fucceflbrs : or agreeing with the manu- 
fcript of Canterbury, that the firft parliament whereia the 
commons were called as well as the peeres and nobles, was 
16 H. I. For it is true, that after the Coriqueft, until 
this time, the commons were not called; and fo at this 
time, they will have it firft called by the name of a Parlia- 
ment. Indeed if the policy of the time be noted, that 
may yeeld fome difference ; the Conqueror and his fon 
William, being ftrangers, bad . no way to make permanent 
their viftory, but by adding other laws, and plucking up 
the old roots of the families which they found, and to plant 
them in themfelves, as in new^rounds : fo for that age it 
was their wifdome to rule, and not to advife with the 
people. But Henry the firft, a new bud of the old ftock^ 
being a natural Engliftiman himfelf, born at Selby in Lin- 
colnftiire ; in love of the Englifti nation, by whom he 
fought his ftrength ; the Normans at that time ftanding at 
terms of revolt from him, in favour of his brother Robert 
duke of Normandy, he well underftanding the love of his 
people, called them to. thofe great counfels ; and fettling 
the authority of his court of parliament, fo eftabliflied his 
throne, that neither Britaine, Dane, nor Saxon, could 
ever after, to this day, difturbe either him or his pofterity 
from the pofTeilion of this land. The making of his laws 
were by aft of parliament : the marriage of his daughter 
Maud, and the entayling of the crown to her, were done 
by aft of parliament : the accord between Stephen and him 
was made by parliament ; and confequently all the fucceed- 
.ing kings fince, have ever concluded grandia Regni, onely 
in the parliament. Yet all the times fince have not kept 
the faid form of the aflcmbling of the three eftates : for 
fometimes the principal of the nobility were onely called ; 
and they at the end of the parliament were to impart to 
the other barons, and their country, wliat was done in /the 
parliament. Afterwards king John ordained that all the 
barons of England (hould come in their proper perfons to 
the parliameuty being fummoned t zo knights fces> after 

26 /. 

288 Of tht JnHquity of Parliaments in England. 

ao /. a £ce, going to the value of an entire county ; 1 5 
knights fees, making an entbe baron, by which they fitter 
bat king H« 3. after that he had fmarted by the tumuU 
tuation of the barons, their multitudes bringing confufioa, 
ordained that thofe earles and barons onely to whom he 
directed his writs (hould come unto the parFiament, and 
none elfe : and this which Hen. 3. began, his fon Edw. i. 
the founder of our civil eftatc, efFcfted, calling the barons, 
andappo'nting the knights and burgeSes to be eleAed, and 
of the barons fekded the wlieft and fnch as pteafed him, 
and did omit them and their children which did not 
eqaal thexn and their parents in wifdom and vertue : k 
held it on, until the time of Edward the third ; there 
' being a writ then in ufe de Admittendo fidi dignas ad Col^ 
hpiium. Some alfo at that time being called, as WilUani 
earl of Nottingham, to attend upon the king with one 
hundred and twenty men at armes ; Lawrence de Hail- 
zngs, earl of Pembrook, with Efty men at armes; and 
William Clinton, earl of Huntington, with fixty men at 
armes : and fo divers others. The calling was with dif- 
tinftion : the bifliops and barons de Negotiis tra^aturum, 
if Conjilium impenfuri \ the knights and burgefles adfaci" 
endum CsT Confentiendum, Thofe times had certain ordi*» 
nances befides eAatutes ; for whatfover the lords and cora« 
moDs agreed upon, was prefently an ordinance ; and what- 
iocrir the king gave his royal aflent unto, it then became 
an eftatute : but if after the parliament the king did aflent 
unto any ordinance, it then became an eflatnte : for the 
king^s anfwer is no mcve, but k Roy h veulty ou le Roy ft 
avtfera. : and before the printing of aAs was ufed, they 
were always engrolfed, and fealed with the great feal of 
£ngland; and proclaimed in every Ihire : which ufe was 
continued from the time of H. 3. until H. 7. his days ; and 
the fqrni was thus : •* The king, by the advice of his 
*• lords fpiritual and temporal, at the fpecial inftance of 
'* the commons aflembled in parliament, hath made and 
•* eftablifted thefe ordinances and ftatutes, to the honour 
** of God, the good of the king and realm." In which 


%ords yo» may obfes^e A (WmfHftry of fbte gnat Counfel : 
firfty tht perfotii, the tbrM teftaie^. ficconAy^ the. eitA 
tor which (b« p(ii-Hatn«tit tvsis c^Med, (vie.) for the faonoov 
of God^ 9tt. Tbh-dfy, the meads, by c^wsSA and coft^ 
fen(. Eftch dmy of the Cbrtre (fegree» is itlfiaaated m 
Ibtf^ tkfiee things (vk«) recfuoft of tbecocOmoas/ adrife of 
*the lords, ^od ^ftabliflunem 6f the klng« 

The firft exfmffirig the fnifors ; for the foyal a^ibot i4 
AtTcr pfayed hy the lords, but by the fpeakef> the mouth 
of thecomojoM. 

The ftcond diftkigaifting the hotife y the kiog healing 
the cauiiss debated oitely by the lords. 

The third intimatiag thai flo bill receivefh Me, uotlf 
the rOyal aflent be given. 

So by looking back, it is eaiie to fee the great antiqiriiy 
of this high courty ddiveiFed as yt>u fee» from before the 
RomsiQs; bm never fo digpiiied, as fince queen Elizabeth's 
time. Now for the dat'ere of a parliament, it is confi/ium, 
and it is curia ; the po^^'er of it in matters hereditary 
and perfbnal ; the proceedings of it ia caufes criminal and 
civil ; the priviledges of it fedeniikiSt if ferviejitihus : the 
offices, officers, and order, we leave to a further difcourfc : 
thus much onely touching the antiquity of parliaments la 

Titnpi £dw, le Confejjbf le flmnnons dok efin 40. J^un de^ 

vara Itfejfmu 

I ft. 'TT^ttE fummonscf the clergy. Archbllhops, bifliops, 
abbots, and priours, that hold by a county or 
« barony, are fummoned by writ to come to the parlla* 
ment, and the king bears the expences of their remain- 
ing and aboad ; and all the other deanes, arch-deacons, 
and perfons are fummoned to appear by two fufficient 
prodx>i9,' whioh come with a duplicate of their proctira- 
tionsf whereof one part remaineth with the clerk of the 
^rUameoty and die other with theproftors. 

Vo£. ft *# a. The 

^ Of tbi jh/iqaity 9f PorliminU In Engktli^ 

2. The fammoos of the laity, a$ earls, barons, aotd 
thdr peers, which bold lands and rents to the valve of a 
county, or of a barony (viz.) 20 knights fees, every fee 
being accompted at 20 /. per atmum^ which make 400 /• 
or 13 kni^ts fee aad a half, which makes 400 mark9 
per annum ; and none of the laity of leiler condition arc 
namely and particularly called by writ» except their pre- 
fence be neceflhry for ioant fpecial and extraordkary caufe^ 

3. Next, the king fends hit writs to the Cinque Ports, to 
chufe barons to anfwer, alleadge, and do for their ba* 
roniesj as if ^dl were preient -, as alfo a writ under the 
great feal to the warden : for their expences 20 .r. 

4. Next, the king fendeth bis writs to the (herilF c^ every 
(hire, to chufe two knights of every (hire : a mark for 
th6ir expences. 

5. Then the king fends his writs to the cities of London 
and Yorke, or other cities that are counties, to chufe two 
grave citizens : and they muft alfo have a mark for their 

6. And then the kings writ goeth to the bailiiis of bo- 
roughs to chufe two burgefTes. 

There mart be two principal clerks of the parliament, 
and they muit fit in the midft of the juftices, to enroll all 
the pleas and bufiDelFes of the parliament ; not being 
clerks to the juftices ; for there is no judiie in England 
hath any power or jurifdi^ion in the parliament, but that 
the king calleth them thither to afTift the lords, and to 
hear and determine petitions ; for the two clerks are inv 
mediately fubjeft to the king, except the kiug affignc foinc 
6f the juftices to examine their rolls. Thefe clerks enroll 
' all the judgments given in the parliament; and before the 
end of the parliament they deliver them over to the trea* 
furcr, keeping a tranfcript or counter-roll to themfelvef : 
their wages a mark a day. 

Other clerks were afOgned by the king to the .bilhops^ 
and others to the proftours of the clergy ; another to the 
earls and barons ; another to the knights ; another alfo to 
the citizens and burgefies i thc^e fet down all doubts and 


0/ the Antiqmfy €f Parlimeoti in Enghnd. 29 ^ 

anfwers, and are prefent in their counfcls ; and being at ' 
leifure, they alfift the two principal clerks to enroll ih^ 
afts of parliament. 

If a matter of difficulty, either concerning peace or 
war, be moved in parliament, the king wil enjoyn all the 
feveral degrees pr tribes of the parliament, tlie bifliops, 
the proftours, the barons, &c. to go apart into feveral 
places ; and the caf^ is to be delivered to their feveral 
clerks : whereupon they are to debate amongft themfelves, 
and to advife ; and if all, or the greateft part do not 
agree, then the lord fteward, the lord conftable, and the 
Iprd jnarftigl, are to chufe thirty-five out of the number, 
two bifliops, three proftors, two earls, threer barons, five 
knights, five citizens, and five burgefles : and thefe thirty- 
five men may diufe twelvje, and thefe may defcend to fix, 
and thefe fix to three, and thefe three to two, and 
tl\efc two to one ; and fo one perfon may determine a 
caufe, except the king gainfay it, which he may do dur- 
ing the parliament, otherwife not. 

There be three degrees of bufinefles 1p the parliament. 

1. Wars, or matters touching the king's perfon, the 
cueen, and the king's children. 

2. The publick bufinefles of the commonwealth. 

3. The private and particular matters ; y^et ^thcfe are to 
be liandled, as the bills come ia, by prioiity. 

The prltvcipal cryerpf the parliament, the chancellour,^ 
trseafurer, and barons of the exchequer, fhall record the 
defaults of all thofe that are fummoned* 

A fermon before the parliament muft be provided by 
the archbifhop in whofe diocefs it is holden. 

Proclamation mud be made in the hall, or monafiery 
where it is holden, and in the city or town, that all men 
by a certain day bring in tbeir petitions, £sff. 

The chancellor, or itie c'hief juftice of England, is to 
declare the caufe of the fummpns of the parliament. 

The king in Hate ever to be prefent in the parliament, if 
he be not fick 1 if be be fick, to fend for twelve perfons 

O o 2 of 

of the KpiiTip to (iae bi» perfosi aii4 to (kti^fie the houfe of 
the fm^ Qf his abffDcc. 

*^ For the feiGoo» the king fits alone. The arcbbUhop o( 
Cgptcrhqry Qphis right hand, yorkf on hii left haii4; 
aa4 fo every m^ m hi§ 4e|[ree : OPd the lord fteward is tq 
fee that every man fit aippn^ft his pe^s. 

The ufhers of the parliament ftand within the door of 
the hopfe, and the cryer Aand^ without the door; an4 
the kipg's guard flands a ^opd way without the door to 
keep tiimults apd c;rowds of people from about the door^ 

All fit except he that; fp^ak^, who mufl ftand to fpeak, 
that all may Hear. 

None is to go in or out of thp houfe, b,ut ^l one doojr 

The king never reqniies aide but for war, or to piake 
his foQ a knight^ or to iparry his daughter ; and th^t ii^ 
full p;p'liaincnt. 

Two knights of the fliir^ are greater then 90; ope e«r|e 
or baron ; apd two proftours then a!by one archbifhpp of 

bifhop: and thQ.ki9g c^n hold his parliament withpvit ^ny 
archbi(hopy bifhop, ea^le, or baron, with the conunon^ 
alone : for there was a parliament before there >yas^ any 
barons ; but if the ccHsmops do not appear, there can be 
no parliament, though all thp great peeres pf th^ i^eajn^ 
were prefent with the ^ng : for the proftourSj knig^ht?^ 
citizens, and burgefles of th^ realm, dq repr^ient ihe 
' whole commQi\s of the realm ; but the-- great peera of 
the realm are prefect qnely for thffjpfelve.s, and for ^q 

The parliament Qught qiot to }^ dSfrptved as long as any 
bill rcpiaineth updi/cu(Ied ; if it be, the kip^ ^ perjturcd i 
^fid publicK proclamation h to be i^a4e in (he paiUameixt^ 
tnd in the pal^Qe^ that if any have any fj^iuiQiv he Qu^tut 
to cqme in. J apd if no anfw«j: be wAe. it is tQ ^ iatet^, 

that all p)en are fati^fied. 

Any map that will^ irj^ b.a«ve ^ traoicr}pi^ Oi: ^o^i^ of 
the afts before thj^y b9. pripte4* ps^fiop for timet fwe ^oi 
4 i (or IS /. .8 Jf. X d.) fi^d ihs f^rliamciji jnay )>c hpWeft 

iu any place wberf it IhgU jjMk tha king (vizOnt Ctaford» 
zx Kq;MiielwQrtbf at Ma]iboro»gh» at Glouc^er, at Afloa^ 
BuroAl, at }^^fkx^ 9% tl^ filackfryera, ifc 14 Ii% 8 ^ 


t^afcaaee^ ■ m i 'tii ttatm 


Of the fame. 

by AKaHYMouf. 

THE noft a&cient and firft pariiament that i hav» 
read of, ia that Bkratloned in Poljrdore VvtffX to 
ha?e been beki ia the roga of H. i . aad io his fixteeath 
year» vbich iiraa about the year of oor Lord 1 1 16« And 
tbia Mra9 held M SaUfbory (aa be £utb) where ware aflbm^ 
bied with the kifig aU the prt)at«9, oobies^ aRdconiiiioos^ 
tc> <:o9fy\i &r Um p«iUick wea)e ; and (^ b^ (UatfeeUi) bd<* 
fore that day» the k'^i^ mv^^ oiikMl ib« poopte to ^oofok 

and make laws ; and he deriveth the name from the Fiaocil 
w^d t^rhr* Thjore ia ata aoci^at r<)li in Amr sucna 
haftd» whkb d^rib^ ^ ivhoie ftaic and Qcdcr of the 
poriiaftcnit ; and the ^Me of it is» i>^ m9A> tnenS Poj^ar 
mentum. And it }s further defcribed Parliamentum Me^ 
jingia^ if.Jingktjfmmpiwri tmAnur tan/foriku^ Rtgis 
EJhf^itfdi Jilii Siie^r^p qui nwdHS Rediafus fnit^ e$ram 
IVWi^Q Dm^ Normania Cmquj^^e Regt jA^gtM^ (^ fier 

By this it fliould feem that p^irliaments (as they are de* 
fcribed in that roll) wtre held ia the ttioe of Ed^v^rd the 
holy, for ha was the fo» of £tbeldied; for Edward the 
islder wat tb^ ibe of Alfred : and this Edward the holy 
livad^ut iha year 1043. ^f this it ftoHid alfe finsti 
that tb^ CoQ(|ciei!or Md a p#rlf accent : in this it is AfA fea 
dowD wb^ clergymeo ^mt called* wbicji wor« Ml ooely 
biAcp^^ \gm aWboasaod pcioesi ^t held fen tarvmam : bjr 
»Iwh \ gHdicr tfca^ ibgr canp wt lar th«^ plsce as dicy 


2^4 0/ tie A^HquHy $f Parliaments in EngUmi.* 

were fpiritual men, bnt by reafon of the temporal honours 
they* epjoy in the commonwealth ; for they have a place in 
the conrtxration-houfe, in refpeft of their fpiritual func- 
tion» jind in that aifo they are a part in the court of parlia* 

We read of a parliament in 3; E. i. in which were fix- 
teen abbots and eight priors ; but how many of thofe 
were of the higher houfis I dar^ not define, or rather were 
jof the boufe in general : for I know it is not clear that 
there was then a diftindion of houfes. 

The firft title is Ih CUricis^ the fecond Laicis, the third 
De Mi/itibuSj the fourth De Civibus, the fifth De Burgen" 
JHus: all other circumftances of place, times, cu-ders, and 
f«ch like are recited, which lomit to remembctr particu- 
larly, becaufe T know it is a thing wdl known to all, and 
that it dif&reth from the order of that court now ufed* 

The court of parliament hath a double power ; the one 
to confult by way of deliberation for the good government 
of the commonwealth, and fo it is Con/ilium^ non Curia ; 
another power it hath as a court, in adminiftratioa of 

The principal purpose of that aflembly feemeth to be 
for conftaltation ; for the writs are ad Confultandum if de^ 
liherandum : but being aflembled, they may hold plea of 
caufes. . . • .' : 

But this difl^ence I find, that in criminal caufes, both 
the upper houfe and lower houfe intermedleth therewith^ 
as in attainders onely ; and the fpiritual lords do all gQ 
out of the houfe, and give their a/Tents by proxie, 10 E. 
4. 6. 

But in civil caufes, as in writs of error fued there out 
of the King-8 Bench, the upper houfe onely m^leth, as is* 
wsell defcribed in tlie cafe i Hen. 7. 19, 20. In a writ of 
error fued by one Flowcrdue on a Replevin, wherein 
judgment was given againft him in the King's Bench. 

But we have an exprefs authority in the 4 H. 7. iS. 
That in a criminal caufe the commons maft aiient^ for 
there the lung and lords did attaini: one, and nott^ing wa»' 


Of tbi AnUfuity of PatUaments in JSaigjbmi. 195^ 

fekl of the commons ;' therefore by the opiotoa of the juf* 
dees, v)\e ^A was held void, and the party rellored. 

The peeres of Scotland were wont to come to our .par« 
liamciit % for in 39 £» 3. 35. m a writ of raviflunent de 
Garden againft Gilbert Urofrevil, he demanded judgment 
of the wtU» becaofii be was. earle of Aaguifh ; and not fo 
named in the writ : Angniih (faith the plaintiff) is out of 
the realm. Aye, b«t faid the defendant, I am fummooed to 
parliament by that name ; and the writ was abated : this 
proveth that the peeres of Scotland came to our parliament 
for joftice : but Littleton laith, 20 £» 4. 6. that we (hall 
implead an earle or duke of France by the name -o£ 
knight onely. 

I need not dilate of the nature of the parliament^ that 
it is a body politique, or of wiuit parts and members it 
conlifteth, for that is vary well underftood of all learned 
men ; neither of the order of it at this day, for moft 
know that, of their own experience : the priviledg^ of it 
ore great, and may more fafely be difcufled what they arc 
without the houfe, in i^rd of others, then what thejr 
are in the hotife, for their liberties there« 



Of the fame. 

ByMr. Agard« 

THAT which Wjt In Englilh. call parliament, I fup<^ 
pofe, and know, to have taken the name from the 
French, or Norman tongue, founding upon the word 
fark^ ac^arUr^ to fpeaLor difcourie: in Latin I find that 
it was called before the Conqueft by two names, the one 
called SynoduSf taken from the Greek, which is ufed mod 
foe the aflembly of fpiritual men, to treat of Divine 
caufes ; and fo was pradifed when Auguftine came to Can* 
lerbury, where the king of Kent (called Ethelbert) gathered 



i^ Of tie A»tlfuttf if PitHimtiurh M^gitui, 

hk nobleft aod pM^te lo Mdvrllaiid tbe met^e rnnf 
preaching of Augtsftidt ( and agatO it b termed CmfiUafWi 
a$ beretfier i ftall foe dotrH) and hereafter in ib&e fe^ce, 
i» tfiPiii' A^M. 833. mtUaJidts Du3t muwum^ 8 great lord 
9r )»eer amoitgft fhof« of the feitsi called CirrUi Crr&H^ 
•r Cirrogii, Id. his charter for the foundation of th< abbe^ 
of lUmfey^ hi t»hich he termeth Sgberte kkig, and Ahel-^ 
wolf Us §oa^ 10 be t>mmMi fu^ s he datmh his ftid 
charter thiM, Ikaum apud Lmdhti Civkatim M omnef C$h^ 
pf9gmUfmm$ /ro QnrfitiA Ca^uM^ tmtta DufiiM pkraiH 
Mf$f4ra J^itg&a affidue hififiantes : tbis^ Itigii)phtis fiicntion^ 
Mil : fi> as it appeascdiy Wbeit msf tmcaiBciit peiil drevi^ 
neer for the hurt of the commonwealth, thae fheis were 
Cottteaed the HobOity aod wMemcQ (called in the biftory 
0f EK) Ditcess Frineip&Sf Satrapa, ShOorsu & Caufi(Uci i 
aSo Gmvm^unt JgefMutrt Murmtinumj it Epifwp&s, Of' 
vyf^urtti isf' omn^ fnMofi0s Conciomtorss i^ Chm Ac. And 
the lafMie awrhdtf fiiewedi, ftar Biifbiioth^is, a rrtoft noble 
d#ke of NopthuiabeFlafid) . vaas called AldetM^n, id sft fe^ 

imr vet Dux qui fyh&ik magriA Cvrifiantia tf/iifmt Regeih 
Edgarumy ^ alios Monack&s dUtm fUqunqHm^fi ferre poffc^ 
nt Monachi ejicerentur de RegnOy qui omnem Religiment 
lenuerunty & colueruntin Bffffm, 

King OfFa, in his charter granted to the abbey of Chcrt- 
fey, hath thefe words: Ifane iH^^tati^m, d otnnid pradi&a^ 
6 prtefatum Mofta/icrium j^eriin^ntia. in fynodali conventu 
in loco qui nominatur JEccleate^ (b tejies conjtjientes concenji^ 
i^ fuhfcripfty isc in hiftorta^ Chcrtfejt penes me remanen. 

Canutus the Dane, beginning his laws, iheweth piain^ 
that he made the fatne by the achice- ttnd cduncel of 4 
parlnmicnr ; and begSmfng- thn^,- Hac ail Ccmfdiettio quam 
Canittus Rex imditatione vel detretcrfmruntfufUntiim conji*- 
tiatus ejf cum fttis fapientikfiis apud Ifi^ifoniBmy be. When 
I oSferve an old written copJej witli a comment thcretrponi 
they are expounded thus, Cohftliatio id e/f In/tifUtio tnulto^ 
timfadla Coti/tUo, Idem Cbnflitutionem pro fnJUutione, /©» 
nit, ut inuir bac mn injituta fuijfe fito propria ArbitriT^ 
fed'mulHtam C6nJtlio, And tlt« &id king^ Cannttis^ in tW 


Qf tbi Anti^tdty of Parliaments in England. 297 

preamble of hi$ iaid laws* fteweth, th3( he decreed his 
faid laws ia this manqer, Convocato itaqs Comfum Proce* 
rutnqx Convent u, ut Epifcoporum Jbhatum, is cater or um 
flobiHum^ nee non ^ eateris nobilitatis fapientiaqi totius 
Anglia Conjilio Jatagebat communi decreto, ut, in quantum 
hwnana r^io valuitf ea qfia jufta fuerant .Jiabiliret, ifc. 
And ia th« did preamble i3 fet dowa, that before his , 
time, Synodet^ or ^flfcmblies for the commonwealth, werc- 
very rare, faving Eeclefiajiica injlitutiones Jynodorumq; con^ 
ventus apud Artgke inufitati adhuc fiterunt : and the rea- 
foo, I fuppo(e, was^ that before Cancitus the realm was 
governed by fundry kings } but he having conquered them 
all, and reduced them into one monarchic, alleadgeth in 
.fois preamble, Sieutfub uno Rege it a (j una lege JJniverJum 
Jnglice Regnum regeretur : (o as I conclude in this point, 
, that before Canutus there were no parliaments in Eng- 
land i the reafon I have fliewed before, which was the 
-dtver/ity and continual inter- war bet>j»een the Heptarchy^ 
by him reduced to a monarchy. 

Since his ume, I find that Edward the ConfeiTor, in his 
charter made to Weftminfter Abbey, did feal and Cgne 
the fame ar a parliament : for thus he faith, Banc igitur 
donationift £5f Ubertatis chartam in Die dedicationis pra^ 
di^a Ecclejia recitari juji coram Epi/copis, Abbatibus^ Co- 
mitibus^ 6' omnibus opt imatibus Anglia^ ii omni populo a^idz- 
ente, is vidente : where note thcfe words, Omnibus optima^ 
tibus Jnglia, and omni populi audieffte ^ vidente ; which 
cannot be but in a general alTembly by fummons : and that 
is proved by the number and diverfity of the witnefles, 
being bi{hops, abbots, knights, chancellors, kings, chap- 
lains, dukes, earles, Minijiri, Milites, 8cc, 

And Williiyn the Conqueror, in his chatter of the rati* 

fication of the liberties of that church, after he hath fub- 

fcribed the crofs with his name, and befides him a great 

number of others of the clergy and nobility, inftead of 

cum muitis alfis, hath thefe words, Multis praterea illuf^ 

trijftmis virorum perfonis^ ij Regum principibus diverji or- 

Ijj^is omijfis qui Jimiliter huic Confirmationi piijftmo affe^u. 

Vol. I. P p tefies 

298 Of the Antiquity of ParUaments in England. 

tejies if fautores fuerunt, Hiietiam ilh tempore a Regia^ 
poteftate e diverjis provinciif i^ urbibuSf ad Univerjalem 
Synodutn pro caiijis Cujujlibet. Sanda Ecckjia audte^dis 6' 
traHandis ad prafcriptum celeberrimum Cambium quod IVefi- 
t)iona/lerium dicitur Convocati^ Ac 

And in another charter of bis to the faid abbey are 
thefe words, j^nno Incamationis Dom, loS i f regni etiam 
pranominati ghrioji R^gis Willielmi iv. Convenientibus in 
Ufium cundHs primis primatibus in nativitate. D. N. I ۥ 

I read no( in Rofus time of any parKament. 

But it appeareth in the Hed Book of the Exchequer, 
that H. I. befbre the conftitution/ or making of his laws, 
fetteth down, ^a Communi Conjilio if ajfenfu Baronutn 
Regni Artglia^ &c. And then procecdcth Omnes malas 
confuetudines quibuf Regnum ^n^lia cpprimebatury inde 
aufero^ quas ex parte fuppono^ Tefiibus ArchlepifcopiSf Epif* 
CopiSf Baronibus^ Comitibus^ yicecomitibus, if optimatibus 
Regni Anglla apud ff^ejimonajierium quando Cor^natus fui. 

The iparriage of his daugter Maud, and the e^tayling 
of the crown on her and hpr heirs, was done by parliament : 
the accord alfo between him and Stephen was done by 
parliament ; and fo confequently all matters of importance 
were done and concluded in parliament. And of fuch 
force is an aft of parliament here in the governance of the 
ftate of the realm, that it is deemed as an oracle from hea** 
Ten, and re(leth onely in the kings and queens power to 
qualifie and mitigate the feverity thereof. 

AncJ thus much of the antiquity. 

I leave to others to difconrfe of the manner how they 
that are to treat therein, are to be called ; and of their 
prjvilcdges : and fo I end. , 

Ag ARDE. . 

N* L3?X35:n|t 

0/ the Antiquity of Parliaments in England^ 299 


Of the fame. 

By Mr. Tate. 

THE diBgent obfervers of the antiquities of thiil 
realm do very well kbowi that aAs of parliament 
are of fo high a nature, that they do not onely tie the in-* 
heritance of every man, but what is there ordained^ every 
fobjeA of the, land is bound to take notice of at his pet* i1 ; 
and becaufe no man that fliould defireto inform himfelf 
therein, (hould be ignorant what was done in parliaments 
as now we ufe printing of the a£l$ ; fo before printing, all 
the ordinances affirmed, by royal aflent were recorded^ and 
then publiflied under the great feal of £ngland^ with a 
general preface, and proclaimed in every fliire : this you 
may fee continued from the time of H. 3. till about H. 7. 
his days ; and ordinarily the form was thus : the king fuch 
a day, and at fuch a place, as at Weftminfter, the 20 day 
of April, in the fecond year of the raign of king H. 6. by 
the advice of his lords fpiritual and temporal, and at the 
fpeclal inftance and requeft of the commons ailembled in 
parliament, hath made and eftablifiied thefe ordinances^ 
aAs, and ftatutes, to the honour of God, the good of the 
king and realm, in form following ; and then, fets forth 
every aft in particular chapters. 

Here you may fee the perfons aflembled^ the end of 
their meeting, and the means to make it efFc<5lual : the 
the perfons which meet at the parliament are the three 
cftatesof the realm; firft,, the king; fecondly, the nobles 
fpiritual and temporal; thirdly, the commons of the land. 
The end of the meeting is to do fomething to God's glory, 
the king's good, and the benefit of the whole land : and 
the means to effeA the fame, is by confultation and con- 

P p 2 The 

30O Of the Antiquity of ParUainents in EhgUni. 

The particular duty of.each of thefe three feems to be 
infinuated in thefe words; firft; the requeft of jthe commons ; 
fecondly, the advice of the lords ; thirdly^ the eftabliSi- 
ment of the king. The commoos being mod in number, 
and fuch as live in all the parts and places of the land, are 
like to have moft and beft notice of fuch things as are 
moft likely and meet to be provide for ; and being we4k 
in power, and mod fdbjeA to feel fuch inconveniences, ts 
greatnefs may lay upon them \ ate therefore fitted:, 
either firft tp lay open their griefs^ add pray reformation; 
or, though they be not able at the firft with judgment to 
forefce enfuing dangers, yet the fame being once propofed^ 
and inflantly apprehended, they may with inftance impor- 
tune allowance of fuch laws, as may tarn to their good : 
and our own experience teacheth us, that the royal aflenc 
is never prayed by the lords, but by the fpeaker, who is 
the mouth of the commons. 

In the prefence of a prince, a common perfim will fcarce 
have the audacity to fpeak, but when neodCty maketh 
htm crave help; and therefore It is properly faid, that the 
N krng advifed with the lords ; becaufe he heareth the cauies 

debated with them only, the commons being feparated 
from confulutioD, what were fit to propofe in fonie other 

Whatfoever the lords and the commons agree upon, is 
an' ordinance prefcntly, though it be nfcver engroflcd, and 
fealed with the great feal, and proclaimed in the counties, 
as the common courfe was : but it took not efTcA as a 
ilatuce, till the king declared his royal adent ; which he 
might very well do by writ after the parliament, as well 
as during the parliament, per 29 E. 3. f. 4, b. 39 E. 3. 
f. 7. For the king's anfwer is no more, but that he will 
be advifed, whether he will adent or no ; and if he aflent 
not till after, it is fome doubt whether it be an a(t of par* 
' liament from the firft day of the parliament, or but from 
the time of the royal aflent given. 

The general aflent of the realm to make ordinances, and 
laws, the ancient writers called Co'nfiUum, Commune Confi-- 


Of the Antiquity tf Partiaments in England. 3O i 

Sum, Magttum Con/ilium^ Placitum generdle^ Curia dltijimdf 
^ Pdrliamentum generaU, feu altiffimum. 

The Saxons called it Gemote, Pirena^ cor Pirena^ (T^- 
tnore,' Ealpa, Zemots, Syni^s. I find not the word par- 
liament before the beginning df E. i . fully in ufe amongft 
us. But the aflTembly of the three eftates to confult for 
the aiTdrs of the commonwealth is as ancient as the Bri- 
lains, and continued here in the time of the Saxons, Danes, 
^nd Normans. 

I ground my opinion for the Britains from tio exprefs. 
authority, but by inference out of divers : Caf, Com. 
lib. 5. cap. 5. faith, Summa Imperii^ Belltq; admini- 
firandi^ Communi ConftUo^ ccmijfa eji Cqffibulano. So that 
here we have the name ; and if you think that the com- 
mons were not called to this confukation, hear what So- 
thiiius faith of the Britains : Jpud hosy Populus Magna ex 
parte primatum tenet : exclude them of thefe general 
counfels, and you, deprive them of this right. Htus in 
hijioriarum. Sritanorttm^ lib. 8. fol. 11. faith, that Jr- 
tburus viElor cum Regio fplendore^ Londinum ingreditur^ 
eaq: urbe Cbnvocatis Ctericis, P rincipibufq; fua quidem /•- 
teftatlSy ommbus^ Confilium^ quid optime fc^u opus fit^ 
capita Beda, lib. 2. cap. 2. faith the Britains told Auguftine, 
Se non pojfe abfq; fuorum Concenfu^ is licentia prifcis etbdi^ 
care moribus : Beda, lib. 2. cap. 13, Rex Edwinus ante^uam' 
* ^dem Chriftianumfufciperitt dixit fe cum amicis, PrincipibuSj 
if Conjiliariis fuis Collaturum^ i; habito cum /apientibus 
Conjitio, &c. 

The (lory of the Saxons and their laws make evident 
proof, that they were ft ill of the (iime mind tranfplanted 
hither, as Tacitus faith the Germans were ; Nee Regibut 
infinita potcftas, De Minorihus Rebus Principes confultant^ 
de Majoribus vero omnes* 

■ Hiftoria ElienftSy lib. 2. deDunelme, mortuo Rege Edgaro^' 
Leffius, (vel Lepjivs) a Deo ac fan£}o Petro abJiuHt cum 
Rapina Burch, ^ Fendales, & Cateringas ptfiea^ antea , 
Eiicibatur generale pladtum, apud Londinumy ad quod dum 
Duces y Principes, Satrapa, Re^ores, ^Caufidici, ex omni- 
Z Parte 

jda Of ibe Jniiguiiy of PartimaeMis im EnghauU 

forte confiuxerunt^ beatus EtbchvaUus Ltffium in jus 
frofraxit, coram cun^is Injuriam fatefecit, if bene apertd 
iijcujfa, ea omnes Etbehvaldo per Judicium redtderunt^ 
Burcbf 6r Vendales^ o Kathcringas. 

Abendon Lanboke, foL 91. in Chart a Aegis EtbeldreJi 
Jffricum cogncment9 puer Pronbrocbe WUIemetrantum^ h 
Syrene, a quadam vidua Eadfield i^pellata^ vio/enter at- 
Jlraxit^ O quia cum Ducatvjico contra Regem Etbeldredun 
reus extitit omnes pojfejfiones ejus Regis di5lionifuba£la Jimt^ 
quod ad Synodale conjilium ad Cirencejier univerfi Optimaies 
mei Jimul in unum convenerint, ad eundem Jfffricutn^ M&^ 
jejiatis reum^ de bac patria Profugum expulerunt. 

Jngulphus hath many places to the like purpofe, bnt I 
will ufe but one : In fefto Nativitatis beata Maria cunt 
miivcrfi Magnates Regniper Regium edi5!um/ummoniti tarn 
Jrcbiepi/copi, Epi/copi, tJ Abbates^ quam cateri totius Reg' 
ni procercs^ if optimates Londini Convenemnt, ad traffan* 
dum de Negotiis publicis totnts Regni, Con/ummatis, omni^ 
bus coram univerjis. Domino Turketillo Jbbati, Monacijqs 
fyis accerfitiSf Rex Eidredus dedit Monqfterium de Croyland^ 

Polydore Virgil and Paladine are therefore much de- 
ceived, if they thought that Hi. was the firft that held 
any parliameDi within this realm : neither do they feem to 
fcic of that opinion ; their words are tbefe. Regis ante tern- 
pora H. I. non Confueverunt Populi Convenium confultandi 
caufa nifi pro rarofacere. Yet 1 think their fucccflbrs held 
parliaments oftner then they did ; yet fieverthelefs they 
lield fome ; and William the Conqueror chalenged not fo 
abfolute a conquefi of this land^ but the laws he made 
have this title, Hie intimatur quid Guliehnus Rex cum priu' 
cipibus/uis conftituit^ ifc. And \ think all kings may yeeld 
to confult with their people for that reafon which Alfred 
ufed in the preface to his laws : Temeritatis videatur ex 
Juis ipfius decretis quanquam plura Uterarum Monumenta 
conjignari^ cum incertum Jit quafem habet apudpqfieros vd 
htdfiturafmt Jidem : qua nos Magni facimus. I have not 
fcen Arthur Hall's book, whereby he difalloweth the com- 


Of the Antiquity ^ Parliaments in England, 303 

mons to have any voice in parliameat ; and for which he 
is diftbled to be of the fame houfe for ever : but I think 
he miftakeith fome writers meant Dg, which fpake onely of 
barons, or magnates / but words are not much to be re- 
garded, infomuch, as whatfoever the parliament alloweth^ 
it bindeth as a law, though it be fet forth onely in the 
king's name ; as the ftatute of Glouc', and Magna Charfa, 
or in the name of the commons onely. 

In the king's oath, the word populus extendeth to the 
greateft fubjeAs, and fo doth ic alfo in the recognizance of 
the peace, or good behaviour, quod bene fe gerat erga Po^ 
pulum cun&um : if therefore he ftrike, or mifdemean him- 
fclf towards a baron, the recognizance is forfeited. 

There is an exprefs authority, that proveth that the 
word magnates comprehendeth the people. Hovedeh faith 
anno 11 70. Rex celebrabat Magnum ConfJium Londinicum 
Principibus, is Magnatibus terra:, de Coronatione J. JiKi 
fuTf if 2>, infequenf Clerico^ iffopiilis Confentientibus^ fecit 
ipfeJUium Juum coronarU^ 

Fr4nci$ Tate. 


' Of the fame. 

By Mr. C a m p e n« 

THAT there were fuch like afllmblfes as parliaments 
nov/ are, before the Romans arrival here, fome ga- 
ther by the words of Caefar, lib. 5. de Bello Gallico. Summa 
imperii/ Belliq; adminifitandi, communi Confdio permijja eft 
CaJJibulano. And for not fuch due holding of fuch com- 
mon counfels, Tacitus feemeth to refer the happy proceed- 
ings of the Romans againft the Britains, ^lod in Communi 
pon Confuluerunt. Thefe two parliament-like aflemblies 
the'fBritains do C2^ Kifrithin^ becai^fe laws therein were 
.cnadlecj, , • 




jLibcr Can- 

0/4bi AnitquUy of P^rlhmints in Eftghnd^ 

The Englifli Saxons, bs foon as they had fctled them- 
fdves, held alfo the like afTeinbiieSy which they cailed la 
their ancient Eogliih tongue Gereduyjis^ox a counfel ; fome- 
tiines IVltUna M&ta, as a meeting of wife oen ; and 
fometimes by the Greek word Synoth : the Latine authors 
of that age did call it Conjilium, Magnatum Convfinius, 
.and Pra/entia Regis ^ Pralatorum, Procerumqy Calle^hrum^ 
as appeareth by the charter of king Edgar to the abbey of 
Crowlaod^ in the year 961. At >vhkh time it feemeth 
by the fubilgmng, that abbefles had their vc4Ces tbere» 
and conieatSy as well as the prelates and aobles of the 

After the Norman Conqueft, the two firft kings reigned 
with their fwords in their hands, abfolutely of themfelves 
(viz ) the Conqneror/ and William Rufus bis Ton, not ad- 
mitting of themfelves any general affemblips of the dates of 
the realm, bnt permitting onely provincial fynodes of the 
clergy, fpr the compofmg of ecclefiaAicai controver£es, as 
fome write ; wherein they themfelves fate never thelefs as 
preficients ; yet in their meetings (as it is in Hovcden, 
where he fetteth down the lands of William the Conque- 
ror) he 'did fet them down : and by the counfels of the 
barons, Fecit fwnmomri per univerfos Canfultatus ^ngli^, 
-Anglos, noifileSf 6 fapienies^ if fua lege eriiditoSy ut earum 
fcf jura & Confuetudines ab ipjis audiret : elecii igitur de 
ftngulis totiiis Patri^ Comitatilxus^'T^iri Duodecem Jiireju- 
rando Confirmaverunty primo ut quoad poffinti ^eHo tramite, 
ncque ad dextram^ neque ad fimjirdm partem divertenteSy 
legem fuarnm confuetudinem if JanEfitatem patrfejcerij^t^nil 
pratermihentes, nil addentes, nil pravaticando Mutames^ 

And orte^uimes he and bis fon' William called tqgether 
the arfhbiftiops, biihops, abbots, archiepifcopos , epifcopos^ 
abbateSy comit^s, barones^ vicecomites, cujnfuis militibus : 
and in the time foljowlng, we find that there was fonyen- 
turn omnium Epifcop^rum^ Jbb^tum, 6 praecrvm Regni 
Londim in pajatio Regif. Rut an old mannfcript book 
faith, that the ijirft parliament, wherein the commons were 
galled as well as the prelates and nobles, was in the fi^* 


Of thi Antiqitiff tf ParHaikeiai- in Engknd. 305 

tecdth year df H. i . and thaa was firft caUed by the natne 
of PatRantent, as fomfc fiiy from the pcercs, a: fortiori 
parte^ quaji fi&ium CtnVt^entus : foihe derfvc it from the 
peeres ridicnlotrfly, quafi Parium Itm^tum : others more 
probabi3r^derive it froiA the French v/ord- par l^, as that of 
the Gtetk oj^ftt^xni^^ that is, to treat and to confer toge- 

Sonie of the French hiftorians write, thaf this name id 
this fence, began at an alTembly of tfic i5eercs of France^ • 
about the ycer of Chrift 1200, Boil fkid the w<yird» tH 
halve btn in irfe with vrs in this realhi long before r fof Ift- 
gtrlphus, who died ift tte year iiop, Irfed the word for 
the meeting or chapter of the abbot and covcnt, writing 
thus : Conc^Jtmus etiam tunc firiarttidrh mjlra Ecclefia^ fe- 
miano de Leh, qui veniens coram conveniu in publico Par^ 
Mmenfo nofiro fmiHte^ Juramehtum ptafiiiit^ qmdfidus d 
JbkUs fidbh exifierit. Neither do I doubt but that the 
word was brought into this realm by the French monks, 
mid firft ufed by the ftafifts ifl the time of HT. i. atid fine* 
that time the authority of this court bath ftood feikd, 
and the communalty hath had their voice; which the 
MA ff. t. granted unto them, being a natural Engtlftiman 
himfelf, and iti loVe of the Englifh naftton, when aft that* 
tfmse the Normrtis were on the tcrnw of revolt frbm him, 
in favoui^ of Robert his brother, duke of Normandy* 

Ne^v^ for the form of aflcmbling of thdfe three forts of • ; 

eftates in this high court, I find no cert^nty tilt the tim# 
of king John. 

It is apparent, by a petition exhibited by the lord Fit*- 
Hugh, in a parliament holden at Leicefter, 2 H*. i. that 
t!ie principal nobility were only called ^ and they after th^ 
#ttd of the parliament to impart unto thebarods and theif 
douncry what was* done in the parlhiknisnt : afterwards 
Ifing Jbhtt ofi»(faine(( that all the barons of tnglaUd' fbdtiKi 
come in their proper perfons to the parliament, whenfoeva^ 
they^ "^ۤ6 fiimmiMied. Ihiii form I wiU deliver out of the 
words of the petitioii* 

V<^. I# Q^q lif$ 


3o6 Of the Antiquity of Parliaments in EngkndL 

Ipfe Dominus Rex generales fummonitiones, vicecomitibut, 
cujujlibet Comitatus diligent ^ ipfos injungendo^ quod omnes 
Comites, if Barones^ quorum ncmina infra fcripta fuBrunt^ 
isf infra fuas balivas refidentes^ ipfi fummonirentf adve- 

• niendum ad Parliamentum Regis : if hoc non omittatur 
quacunq; ex caufa^ fub poena Magni Contempt us : at which.. 
time, as it is in the book intituled, TWiorft/j tenendi Pariia* 
' mentum, all- earls which have lands, tenements, and reve- 
nues, to the value of an entire county, at twenty knights 
fees, after twenty pound a fee, or the value of an entire 
barony, which is fifteen knights fees and a balf^ came ta 
the parliament; but when fo great a multitude could not 
but breed tumultuous confufion, king Henry the thirds 
after he had fnaarted by thefc confufcd multitudes of barons,. 

, ordained that thofe earls and barons unto whom he di- 
refted his writs (hould onely come to the parliament : fo 
in the ancienteft fummons that I have feen, which were icv 
49 H. 3. there were called befides the earls onely feven- 
teen barons. This which king H. 3. began, was fully per- 
fedled by king Edward the fir ft his fon, who elefted 
the wifeft and fuch as pleafed him ; and likcwif« omitted 
them and their children in their fummons, if they did not 
equal their parents ia wifdom, and other good parts and 
offices of valour and government : fo we fee in that time 
Hilton, Corbet, Point, Leyburne, Vayafour, &c. and fuch. 
other like were fummoned once or twice in parliaments, 
and their pofterity wholly omitted afterwards. The barons, 
and bifliops were called De Negotiis tra5Iaturi, cSr Confix 
Hum impcnfuri : the knights and burgeflcs, ad faciendum^ 
if confentiendum iis qu£ ibidem de ccmmuni Confilio di5ih 
Regni nofiri favente Deo coniigerit or dinar i fuper Negotiis, 
antedidlis : and in the fame words were the clergy called^ 
ad faciendum, & confentiendum : fo as it feemeth they had 
as much ta do. ^ j>arliament then, as knights of £hires and 

William Camden., 

m xci. 

Cf the Atttiguity of Parliaments in England. 307 

N» XCI. 
Of the fame. 

I By Joseph Holano, 

I Find in'many ancient liiftories, that the kings of this 
land did ufe to call together the nobility and eftates of 
the realm to confer with them, efpecially about matters of 
\var, when any necefTary occafion did move them thereunto: 
but it is thought by Holinftiead in his ChroDicle, that the 
firft ufe of the parliament did be^in in the feventeenth year 
of H. I. which fi nee that time hath remained in force, and 
is frequented unto our times ; infomuch as when any thing " 
is to "be decreed appertaining to the flate of the common- 
wealth, It fhall not be received as a law, until by the autho- 
rity 'of that afTembly it fhall be eftablifhed. 

And becaufe the houfe of parliament (hould not be over- 
charged with multitudes, E. i . did order that none of his 
barons and nobility (hould come unto this affembly, but 
fuch as it (hould pleafe the king to call by his writ ; and 
the reft to be chofen by voice of the burgefles and free- * 
holders of the fhire where they did dwell, as Mr. Camden 
(Clarencieux) in his Britannia hath very well remembrcd. 

It is recorded amopgft the fummons of parliament, 35 
E. 3. that there is no writ, de admit icti Jo fide dignos ad 
Colloquium : and amongft the earls and barons there is re- 
turned Mary countefle de NorfF. Alienor countefle de Or- 
mond, Phillippa countefTe de March, Agnes counteffe de 
Pembrook, and Katherine counteflTe of Athel. 

Upon the parliament roll, anno 14 (or 15) E. 3. there 
are divers writs direfted to fundry carls and barons, dc ve* 
niendo ad Regem ; whereof the firft is direfted to William 
earl of Southampton, to attend the king with 120 men at 
armes ; William de Clinton, carle of Huntington, with 
fixty men at armes ; Lawrence de Haftinges, earle of Pem- 
brook, with fifty men at armes ; and fo likewjfe there 
wei-e divers du-efted \o others ; and thefe feveral kinds of 

Q^q 2 fummoHs, 

3^ Of the Jtlfipi^ty ff P^Htli^affi in ^ngf^n^. 

fummonsy becaufe I find them recorded amongft the 
parliament-rpUs, I tboqght gpp4 to remember them to 

I will conclude upqa ii^p ictymoioffs of the word, which 
U parlhm^nti which isilo fpeak and 4pli^l?r a man's min(| 
freely in that aflfembly ; whereof the boldeft fpeech that 
ever I did read of to tje fpokeii jp the king's prefence, |vas 
fpokerji by Roger Bigod earle Marftial of Englanyd qntp 
king Edward the firft^ in the parljaojent-houfe at Salifbury, 
ti^hcre the king would have had him to go into Gafcoyne 
for him with an army ; but when the carl^ exaufed him- 
felf, faying, he would be ready to go, if, the kinjj went 
himfelf ; the king then in a chafp fai^^ 3y Gqd, Sir earle^^ 
thou fhalt eithier go or haog ; and I (faid the earle] fweap 
the fame oath, that I will neither go nor hang ; j^d &> de- 
parted from jthe king without taking leave. 

Of the fame. 

By Anon Y MO y s. 

AS touching the nature of the high court of p^i^mpntp 
it is nothing elfe but the king's great counfel, which 
Jie doth ^ffemble together cipoRi ocpafipn of intjerpretiii^, or 
abrogating pld la^s, and ma)cing of new, as 111 manpers 
, ftall deferve ; or for the punifhment of eyil doers, or the 
reward of the vertuous; wherein thefe four thjiog^ ar^ tq 
be conildered, 

I • Whereof this court is compofed. 
a. What matters are proper for i|. 
3. To wh^t end U is ordaine^, 
J. As for the thing itself, it is cotpp ofed of a^ he;^ and 
a tody. The head is the king, the body are the ^lemb^ert 

Bf ^\^ PVli^?fl^ TN? '?^^7 ^^^9 M fsNivideji into twa 


farts : ^ ^PP^r houlib is dmd^d partly of tbe ApbiUly 
^o^poral, wbp ace haredltar^r a>^ocellors to the hifh coin:«C; 
.of parU^tmeat b^ the JiODpur of .their cneatlon i%ad lap(}«; 
and partly of the bilhops, fpiritual men, who s^re Jik/ewife 
by vertue of theif dignity, 6r ad vitam of this court. 
The other houfe is cornpofed of knights of the (hire, and 
burgefles for the to^vps : but becaufe the nun^ber would 
be infinite for all knights, gentlemen, and burge/Tes to 
be prefent at every parliament ; therefore a pertain number 
is felefted out of that great body, fcrving for that great 
parliament, wherp their perfons are ^h^ reprefentations of 
ihat body. 

2. for the matters they ovight to treat of, tfiey ought 
therefore to be general, and rather of fuch matters as can- 
not wdl be performed v^ithout the affembiy of that gene- 
ral body, and no more of the geqeraJs neither then necef- 
fity (hall require : for as in Corm^tiffima RepuiJica plurims 
funt kges, fo doth the life and Ilrepgth of the kw coafiil 
not in heaping of infinite aiid confufed numbecs of laws.;, 
but in the right interpretation and due esccuitipn of gooi 
sm4 vrholefpme law$. 

3. Theepd for which the parlianaent is ordained, being 
Duely for the advanceinent of God's glory, and eftablifli- 
ment of the wealis of the king and his people ; it is no 
place for particular men to utter their private conceits for 
iatisfadtion pf their curiofixies, or to make fliew of their 
eloquence, by fpending the time with long ftudied and 
.eloquent or^tioQs : for the reverence of God, their kiag 
and theU* country being well fetled in their hearts, wiU 
make them a(hamed of fuch toyes, aiid remember that they ^ 
9re there as fworn counfeHol'S to their kin^ to j^ve thdr 
beft advice for the furtherances of hjs fervice, ?nd fIouri(h- 

Ie^ weak of this fate, 

4« And laAly^ to coaflder the means how to bring «tf 
your labours to a good end, yotj muft remember that you 
.are aflembled by your lawful king, to pve him your beft 
advice in matters propofed by him poto yoUj being of fo 
jbj^h g nature as beforefaid, wherein you are gravely to de- 

Jiberate j 

^lO ' Of the Antiquity of Epitaphs in England. 

liberate; and upon yonr confcieaces, plaidly to deter* 
mine how far thofe things propounded do agree wiih the 
weale, both of your king and the country^ whofe weals 
eaofiot be feparated. 

N"* XCII. 

A further Difcourfe on Epitaphs *. 

By Mr. Camden. 

GREAT hath been the care of burial! ever fince the 
firft times, as you may fee by the examples of Abra- 
ham, Jacob, Jofeph, Jofua, the old prophet in Bethef, 
and Tobit ; and alfo by that in Holy Scriptures, M^rtuo ne 
deneges graiiam. The Jews annointed the dead bodies, 
wrapped them in Sindon, and layed them in covered fepnl- 
chres hewed out of ftone : the Egyptians embalmed andfilled 
them with odoriferous fpices, referving them in glafs or 
coffins; the Aflyrians in wax and honey; the Scythians 
carried about the cleanfed carkafes to the friends of the de- 
ceafed for forty daies with folemne banquets. And that 
we may not particulate, the Romans fo far exceed in fu- 
nerall honours and ceremonies, with ojntments, images, 
bonfires of the moft precious woods, facrlfices, and ban- 
quets, burning their dead bodies until* about the time of 
Theodofius, that laws were enaAed to reftrain the excef?. 
Neither have any neglefted burial, but fomefavage nations, 
as Baftrians (which caft the dead to their dogs) fome var- 
let philofopherSj^ as Diogenes, which defired to be devoured 

* At page zz8 of this work is printed from the original MS. in the 
hand writitig of Mr. Camden, the di&otirfe on epitaphs, which was by 
him read and delivered into the College or Society of Antiquaries, on the 
third November i<Soo; but as that learned author afterwards revifcd, and 
confiderably enlarged that dilcourfe, the fame for the further fatisfadtioa 
, #f the reader is here infertcd. 


Of the Antiquity of Epitaphs in EngUni. 311 

of fi(hes; fome difTolute courtiers, as Meceoas^ v^ho wAs 
wont to fay, 

Non tumulum euro, fepelit natufa relinos. 
As another faid, 

De terra in terram, 6 quavis terra fepulchrum. 

¥ea, fome of efpeciall note amongft us ncgleftiug the 
lift duty either upon a {paring or a precife humor, are 
content to commit to the ^arth their parents, wives, and 
the neareft unto them in tenebris, with little better than 
Sepukhra ajinorum. As for thofe which philofophically 
dtfljke monuments and memorialls after their death, and 
thofe thjit afFeft them, I think as Plinie did, fpcaking 
of Virginius and Apronius, that both of them do ambi- 
tioufly march with like paces towards glory, but by divers 
waies, thefe openly, in that they defire their due titles^ 
thofe other covertly, in that they would feem eardefly to 
contemne them. 

But among all funerall honours, epitaphes have alwaies 
been moft refpeftive, for in them love was fhewed to the 
deceafed, memory was continued to pofterity, friends 
were comforted, and the reader put in mind of humaa 

The invention of them proceeded from the preJage or 
forefeeling of immortality implanted in all men naturally^ 
and is referred to the fchoUers of Linus, who firll bewailed 
their mafter, when he was (lain, in dolefull verfes, thea 
Called of him Mlinum^ afterward EpitapMa, for, that ihejr 
Were firft fung at burialls, after engraved upon the iepul- 

It were needlefs to fet down here the laws of Plato, 
that an epitaph ihould be comprised in four verfes ; or of 
the Lacedemonians, who referved this honour only to mar- 
tiall men and chsiRe women i or how the moft ancient 
(efpecially Greeke) were written in elegiac verfc, after in 


3<i Ofthi Atiififiy iff Epitaphs in Engtmd. 

tio\r moDiimems ^^ttt erefted moflr trfnaity along th^ 
highway fide, to put paflengers in miod that they are^ ai 
thofe were, mortall. 

How fuch as violated fepulchre's were putiifhed with 
death, banKhment, condemoation to the ttitM, loTs of 
members, according to circumfiance of fa£l and perfon^ 
and how facred they were accounted. 

Im which' regafd I carODot but git'ie you the wordii ovt of 

the NweUm k^& Vakntimani Augu/H De fepukhris^ f£- ' 

tub 5. which are worth reading. : S^itnus, nee vanajOts^ 

^ Jbkitai memkris animal babire fs^fitm^ U in origimmf 

Juam^ritum reSre ccpUfiem, hoc kbris veterts fap'untidfp 

h9c religionist quam veneramur if colimus^ dedaratur or* 

canis, E$ Hut occafui neceffitatem nuns divina non/entiat, 

amant tamers aniiiui fidtm o^rponmi nR^rum^ if nefiit^ 

qua, forte rsiionis occulta Jepukhri honors keteMur : cnjup 

tanta permaneai cura UmporibuSy ut vi(katmu in bos ufitt- 

famptn nitnio pretiofa montium mttatia tran^erri, opefof" • 

afque molef cenfu Laborante componi. ^od- Prudentium 

c$rte inteliigentia reenjaret^ Ji rihil credertt ejftpqfimar- 

tern* JNmis barbata- efi ^ vefana crudelitasy wuntts extre^ 

mam lace carentibus invidere^ (^ t^utis per inexpidbik' 

crimen Jepulcbris manfirare coelo eorum reliquias hamatonim^ 

Againft which I cannot without grief remember, how bar- 

baroudy and unchrHliaoly (bm& not long^ fioce have ofieod* 

ed, yea, iome Mingendo in patrios^ cineres^ wUch yet wer 

have fecn* ftrangely revenged. 

I could bene alfo< call to your remembrance how tkc ' 
place of bunall was calfed by St« Paul Semanatio, in the 
re^ieA ckf the. affiired hope of refudre^ioD,' of ttie Giftake» 
Copmiterion, as a fleeping place untill the refurreflion, aad> 
of thrHebfiswe, Tbe Uoafo of the hiwngf in tl?e.(^k»e tut* 
fgeA,. as the-GennaQes- caU duirdt-y»ds: mniUf this day 
God^s. aber^ (x GodtsJieUu Aad i*^ the like fence tombeeWeetf 
named Requietoria^ QJjharia^ Ciaararia^ Dotaas £terfy^ 
&c. a& you. may fee m old^iafcriptioo^ at Rome atidelA^ 
where, ^yhich Lucian fcofHngly termed Campes and CottagfS^ 
of Carkafes, 


Notprfqus it is to ^, bow the fame Lucian bringeth in 
3>io^eocs laughiag «nd out-laughing king Mafufolus, for 
that life was fo pittifuUy prcffcd aad cruAcd with an huge 
{ heap of ftones undeir his ftawly monument, Maufoleum, which 
for its magoificeace was accounted among the worlds won- 
ders : but monumentjs anfwerable to mens worth, Hates, and 
places, have alway$ been allowed; yet ftatcly fepvJchres 
for bafe fellows have alwaies lien open to bitter jells, as 
that marble one of Licinus the barber, which one by way 
of comparifon thus d^ridedy with a doubt thereon, whether 
God regarded men of worth, 

Marmoreo Licinus tumulo jacetj at Catd farvo^ 
Pcmpelus nullo.. Credimus ejfe Deas ? 

Whereunto another replyed with an afluraqcc, that God 
doth regard worthy men, 

Sdxapremunt Ucinum, vehit cittern fama Catonem, 
Pcmpeium tituli, Credimus ejji Decs. 

As for fuch as bury themfelvcs living, and fay they live, 
to themfelves, when they live neither to themfelvcs nor 
to others, but to thfeir bell'y,.eafe; aqd plpafure, well wor- 
thy are diey to have while they live, that epitaph which 
Seneca dcvifed for Vati^ thcjr fellow, to be iijfcrlbed cpoa 
his houfe. 

Hie fttus eft Vatia, 

?nd no memoriall at all when they are dead. 

It is not impertinent to note in one word, as the ancient 
Romans began epitaphs with iD.M, for DiisManilms, D.M. 
S. Diis manibus facrum, H, S. E. hk/itux ^S<^pe^, as (peak- 
ing to the reader: fo we and other Chriflians began 
them with, Hie deponttttr^ -Hicjacet^ Hie re^uk/cif, -Hie 
tumulatur: in French, Icy gift, here lieth; and '>n ia^ter 
time, according to the doftr4ne of the time, Ora pro, ^c 
of your charity, &c. And now after the ancient manner, 
ID. O. M; for 2>* 'Opimh ^axiMo i '^o)hritdfl '^atrum J 
Memoria Sacrum / jC^iife^^V/i ^h'k^^^in6^i(;Lcrum 

' Vol. I. Rr ,L^PWif« 

314 Of the Jnttquity cf Epitaphs ift Engtaffd. 

Likewife as our epitaphs were concluded with On v)hoJ!r 

Jbulj God have mercy ^ Cvjus aninut propietur Deus, G9d 

fend him a joyfull refurreEiton^ &c. So theirs with Hoc 

Monumentum pofuit vel fecit y in thefe letters, M. P. M. F. 

in the behalf of him that made the monumenr, with Vak^ 

Vale, ((y Salve animay iios eo or dine ^ quo nafura jvJferitjfeqtK' 

fnury with H. M. H.N. S. for A&c manumentum harcdes non 

feqidtur. When they would not have their heirs entomb^ 

therein ; with Rogo per Deos Juperos infer ofyue ojfa nq/lra 

ne vioies. And moft commonly with Sit tibi terra levis^ 

in thefe notes, S. T. T- L. and fometime with ^letem 

pofteri non invideant. 

But omitting this difcourfe, 1 will offer unto your view 
a number of choife epitaphs of our nation, for matter 
And conceit, fome good, fome bad, that you may fee how 
learning ebbed and flowed, moft of them recovered from 
the injurie of time by writers ; and will begin with that 
at Rome, as moft ancient, ereAed to the memory of a Brl- 
taine, who, after the manner of the time, took' a Komaa 
name. . « 4 



Arthur, the valorous upholder of the ruinous ftate of 
Britain againft the Saxons, about the year 500, was bu- 
ried fecretly at Glaftenbury, left the enemie ffiould offer 
indignity to the dead body, and about 700 years after, wfrea 
a grave was to be made in the church-yard, there a flone 
was found between two p^ramides deep in the groand, 
with a crofsof lead infixed into the lower part thereof, and 
infcribed in the inner fide of the crofs in rude charaftcrs, 
which the Italians now call Gotifh letters. 



Of the Antiquity of EpUaphs in England. 315 

Under which in a trough of oke wae found his bones, 
which the monks tranflated into the church and honoured 
them with a tombe, but diflionoured him with thcfc hora- 
pipe verfes, 

Hicjacet Jrturusjios return, ghrta regiu, 
^etn morum probitas commendat laude perennu 

Augufline, the firft archbiihop. of Canterbury, who firft 
pfreached Chrift to the EnjgliCh nation, converted the Ken- 
ti(h men, and revived ChrilVianity in this ifle, which flou- 
Tifhed asiong the Britains many years before bis coming, 
was buried at Canterbury in St, Peter's Porch, with tUs 
epitaph, . . 

Hie requiefcit dominiis Auguftinus Thrtherncnfis ArcfUe- 
pyhopus primus f qui olim hue a heato Gregorio R^mana wr- 
bii pontifice dire^fus, fcf a Deo operatione miraculorum fuf^ 
fultus^ Mthelbertum regem^ ae gentem iUius ab idolorum 
cultu ad drifti fidem perauxity <3 completis in pace diebm 
officii fuiy defun6lus eft feptimo Kalmdas Junias^ eodem rege 

In the fanie place wese iolerced the fix fucceediiig ardti^ 
bifliops, for. ^hom and Augufline making the feaveath 
were thefe verfes, as comnion to them all. Written on the 
-wall with this title, as I iinde them In C-ervafius Dortigf^ 

Sepiem prima eccl(fia Anglorum 


Aiignfiintis^ LaurfntiuSf MeJliUiS, Jtj/lus^ Honcrius^ 

DeuS'deditf Theodorus. 

Septemfunt Jnglis primates if pratopatres^ 
Sept em restores ^ .C9elo feptemque triones^ 
Septem cijiema vita, feptemque lucerna, 
Et'feptem palma regnt^ feptemque corona ^ 
Sej^emfunt Stella quas hac tenfit.area c£lla* 

R T 2 But 

3 i6 Of the /intiquity of Epitaphs in England. . 

But Theodore, the laft of the feven, which firft tan^ht 
Greek in England, and died in the yeare 713, had this fe- 
VeraJly infcribed up<5n his tombe, 

Scandcns alma novafalix cbnfortia vittr^ 
Civibiis Jlng^licis jUnBus in arce poll. 

Cedwall, king of the Weft Sax6ns, went to Rome In the 
year 689, and there being baptized, renounced the world, 
iended his life, and was buried, with this epitaph, 

Cuhnerif opes, fobclerttj pql/enfia r^pia, triumphos, 
Exiivi(^s, prXiceres, mxnia, cafira^ ' tares ^ 

^iaque patrum virtus, ^ qua congrejferat ipfe^ 
Cadwal armipoUns liquit amore Dei, 

With fome more, which you may fee in Piulus Diaco* 
mis and Beda. 

King Edgar, furnamed the Peacpable, the great patron 
and favourer of monks, dcferved well> for his foundation 
df fo maoy ^bbies, this epitaph, 

Jutor vpttnty vindex fcelerum, largitor honoruHty 

Sceptriger Eadgarus regna fuperna petit. 
. Bic alter Salpmon Leguni pnter, or bita pacts, 

^tad caruit iellis, claruit hide- magis. 
Tewpla Des^ terHpIis tnonachos, inonacbis dedil agros : 

Nequitia lapfunty jujiitiaque locum. 
Nov it enim regm veru^i perquirere falfii : 

ImmenfuM moScJs, perpetuumque ireVil 

To the honoiilr of king Alfred, a godly, wife, and 
warlike prince, and an efpecial advancer of learning, was 
made this> JMtter tha^ that time commonly a^ded : 

NobiUtas innata tibi prpbifatis honorem 
j^rmipotens Alfrede dedit, prohitq/qiie labor em, 
Perpetuumque labor nomen : ad mixta dolori 
Gaudiafemper erant : fpes fimper mixta timcti^ 
Si modo vi&or eras^ ad craJHna bella pavebas ; 
Si m$d9 vi6lus eras^ in crajlina bella parabas / 


0/ ibe Ant qui iy of Epitaphs in England. 3 1 7 

Cai vejles fudorc jugi^ cut fica cruore 
Tindlajugi^ quantum Jit onus regnate prpbarunt. 
Nonfuit immenft quifquavt per climata mundi^ 
Cut tot in adverfti pel refpirdre liceret ; 
Nee tamen autferro contritus ponere ferrum^ 
: Aut gladio potuit 'Oita Jlntffe labores* 
Jam pofi tranJaUos vit4e regnique tabores^ 
Chrtjlus ei Jit vera quies^ i^ vita perennis. 

It is mervellous how immediately after this time learning 
decayed in this kingdom,- for John Erigena, alias Scotus, 
favoured of Charls the Bald, king of France^ and the fore- 
faid king Alfred for hiis learning, when he was flabbed b^. 
his fchollers at Maliiiefl>ary, was buried with this riide^ 
rough, and Ufilearaed verfe & 

Claudiiur in tumuh San^us Sopiifia Johanne^^ 

^li ditatus erat^ jam vivens dogniate miro. 
Martyrio tandem Chrijli confcendere regnum 

^omeritisy regnant JanEli per Jecula cun^i. 

Oh the torabc of St, iEdward the Corifeffot, ia Wcftmia* . 
fter, is this epitaph, \ 

Omnibus injignis virtutum laudibus heros 
SanElus Edlvdrdus Confeffor, Hex ven^randus, 
^linfo die Jani morierts fuper nethra Jcandit. 
Surjum Ccrda, Moritur^ 1062. 

This religious and good king died at Wcftiiinfter ; Ae 
ciiamber, wherein lie died, yet remaineth ctefe to Sir Tho- 
iiias Cotton's houfe. He built a goodly houfe in £(Iex, 
whith he called Have-he-rtng^ as much to fay as take th^ 
ring (for be in the Saxon, was the in our now Englifli) ; iii 
this place h^ took great delight, becaufe it was woody and 
folitary, &t for his private devotions* I cannot juftiiie 
that report, how when he was bindred and troubled in his 
praying by the multitude of fiuging nightingales, he earoellly . 
defired of God their abfeoce, iibce which time never 
^l^tingale was heard to iing in the parke, but without 


3 1 8 0/ ibe 4ntiguiiy of Epitaphs in England. 

the pales many numbers, as io other places ; yet this k 
reported for a truth by the inhabitants at this day, 

Conterning that name of Havering^ from taking the ring, 
the hiftory is commonly known, which is, how king Ed» 
ward having no other ihiilg to give an aged pilgrim, who 
demanded an almes of him here in England, took off the 
ring from his finger, and gave it him, which ring ihefaid 
pilgrim from Hierufalem, or I wot ndt from whence, deli- 
vered to certain Elignfhmen, and willed them to deliver 
the fame again uBto their king, and to tdl him it was St. 
John the Evaogtlift that be gave it unto, and who now 
fent it again, wtchall to tell him upon fucfa a day he fhould 
dye, which was the day iibove written. The credit of 
tl>iS'ftory I leave to the iird author, and the legend ; but 
if any time you goe through W^ftminfter Cloy fkrs into 
the Dean's Yard, you (hall fee the king and pilgrim cut in 
flone over the gate ; but this by the way. 

And from this time learning fo low ebbed in England, 
that between Thames and Trent there was fcant one 
fbund which could undertland Latin ; and that you may 
perceive, Nt^hen as Hugolin, treafurcr to king Edward the 
ConfeflTor, had thefe moft filly verfes ingraven upon his 
nonument, in the old Chapter-houfe of Weflminfler^ 

^if ruts injujle capithic HugoUne hcus te^ 
LaucUj^a glares, quia martyrilms tiece clarei* 

But fhortly after the Conqueft learning revived, as ap- 
peareth by thefe that foUpw, 'which were jcaft in a more 
learned mould than the former. 

King William, furnamed >the Conqueroi^' for his Con* 
' Queft of England, was buried at Caen in Normandy, with 

this epitaph, difcovered in the late dvill wars of France^ 
but mentioned in Gemeticenfis. 

' ^d rexit rigidos Normarmos^ at^e Britannof 
jiudaEior vicit, fortiter obtinuit : 
£i Cenomanenfes viriute contiidit enfes^ 
Jmperiique fuiiegibus appliadi : 

0/ ibe Anttquit} of Epitaphs in England. gf Jf 

Rex magnus'parvajacet hie GuUelmus in wrna : 

Sufficit ^ magno parva domus domino. 
Terfeptem gradibus fe volverat atque duoius, 

Virginis in gramio PhosbuSy if bic obiit. 

. Upon Stigand, archbiftiop of Canterbury, degraded for 
Vis iotrufion and corroptioD, I finde this moft viperous 
epitaph in an old manufcript, which feemed to proceed 
from the malice of the Normans agalnft himf 

Hie jacei Herodes Herode ferocior^ hujus 
Inquinat infernum Spirit us ^ ojfafolvm. 

William the Valiant, earl of Flanders, grandchild to this^ 
king William the Conquerour, fon to Robert, who un- 
happy in his ftate, lofiog the hope of his kingdome oC 
England, and dying of a wound in his hand, was not alto- 
gether unhappy in his poet, which made him this epitaph, 

Unicus ille rutty cujus non tergafagitiam, 

Cujus nojfe pedes non potuere fugam. 
Nil niftfuhnen erat, quoties res ipfa movebat, 

Etfi nonfuhnen^ fulminis injiar erat. 

King Henry the firft, for his learning fumamed Beau- 
clcrc, had this flattering epitaph, as poets could flatter ia 
all ages. 

Rex Henricus obit, decus oHm, nunc dolor orbisy . 

Numinajlent numen deperiijfe fitum, 
Mercurius minor eloquiOy vi mentis Apollo, 

Jupiter imperiOf Marfque vigore gemunt. 
Jnglia qua curd, quafceptro Principis hujus, 

Ardua Jplendueraty jam tenebroja ruit, 
Hac cum rege fuo, Normannia cum Duce merces, 

Nutriit hac puerum, perdidii ilia virum. 

Whereas t^is dead king was fo divided, that bis heatt 
aqd brains were buried in Normandy, and his bci^y in 
Englaad J thefe verfej w^e made by Arnulph of Lifieu^» 


$20 Of tht Jftifuiiy of EftUfphs in, EmlanJ. 

BenricU cujus cekbrat vox ^ubHca nomeUf 

Hoc pro parte jaccnt iricmhra fepulta loco, 
^lem neque viyentem capiebat terra^ nee units 

DefunElum potuit con/epelire locus. 
In tria part it us, fuajura quibujque refignat 

Partibus^ illuftrans Jlc tria regna tribus. 
Spiritui coelutn : cordi cerebroqw dicata ^ 

Neuftria : quod dederat Anglia^ corpus hahet. 

Of him alfo another compofed in refpeft of his peace- 
iftble governmeaty aod the troubles whic{i eDfued under 
Jcing Stephen, both in England and Normandy, 

jinglia lugeat binc^ Nontmnlca gensjleat iUmc, 
Occidit Henricus mocji l,uXf nunc lu&us ntriqvte. 

Upon William, fonne of king Henry the firft, and heir 
apparent of this realm, drowned upon the coaft of Nor- 
mandy. I have found this epitaph, 

jibJiuUt hunc terra matri maris wida noverca 
Proh dolor / occubuit M jingRcus^ AngUa plora : 
^jiaque priusfueras getnino radiaia nit or e^ 
' Extin6lo nato vi^Jfas c&ntenta parente. 

But well it was with England in that he was fo prevented^ 
which threatn^d to make the Englilh draw the plough a& 

Mawd, daughter to the forefaid king, wife toHenry the 4th 
emperour, mother to K. Henry the fecond, who intituled her* 
felf Emprefs and Augufta, for that flie was thrice Tolemnly 
crowned at Rome, as R. de Diccto teftifieth, and Jnglorum 
Domina, becaufe Ihe was heir apparent to the crowne o£. 
' England, was very happy in her poet, who in thefe two 
feverall verfes, contained her princely parentage, matcb» 
;ind ilTue, 

MaghaortUy majorque viro, fid maxima partu^, * 
Hicjacet Henricijiliaj Sponfa^ parens. 

Alberic Vere, grandfather to the firft eari of Oxford^ 
and his foa William were buried together^ anno^ 108 S^» 


Of the Atttiqmiy if E^tapbt In England. j 2 1 

tkritfa this epitaph, at Colne, where he was founder and 
afterward monk^ as it is in the annales of Abingdoa 

En^uer, enfenior^ pater alter ^ Jilius alter'i 
' Legem, fortunam, terram venerejub unam : 

Which is'not unlike to that c^ Conrafl the emperour, at 
Spires in Germany, 

Filius hiCf pater hie, avus hic^ proavusjacet ifticm 

Thomas Beck^t, archbilhop of Canterbury, flain ia 
Chrift*s Church at Canterbury at Chriflmas, had thefe 
epitaphs expreffing the caufe, the time^ and place of his 
death, made by his efpecial favourer. 

Pro Chrtfti fponfa, Chriftifub tempore, Cbrifti 

In templo, Chrifti verus amdtor obit* 
^inta dies natalis erdt^ Jhs orbis ab arbe 

Carpitur, if fruElus incipit ijfe pott, 
!^is moritur ? prafuL Cur f pro gregi, qualiter f 
enfe : 

^ando? natalii quis locus? ara^DeL 

For Theobald of Bloys, carl of Champaine, nephew to ' 
king Henry the firft, Giraldus Cambrenfis, bi/hop of St. 
Davld^s in Wales, made this, 

Ilk comes i comes illepius Theobaldus eras, quern 

G audit habere pohis, terra car ere dolet^ 
Non homisiem pojfttm, non audeo dicere numen : 

Mors probat hunc hominem, vitajuij/e Deum. 
Trans iomnem, citraque Deum : plus hoc^ minus iftud^ 

Nefcio quis, neuter^ inter utmmquefidt*, 

VitaGs, abbot of WcAminfter, who died in the time of 
the Conquerour, had this epitaph : 

^i nomen traxit a vita^ morte vocante, 
jibbas Vitdlis tranjiit^ iicque jacet. 

Vol. I. S f And 

§it Of the Jniiqmty df Epitaphs M E^^kmt. 

And for Laurence, abbot of the fame place, wlio dicd^ 
1 1769 ^vas made thi^ alluding to his natxie^ 

Pro merit is vita dedit ifti Laurea nomen^ 
Detur ei vita laurea pr9^ titer it is. 

Thefe tva haply may finde as much favouf with fome^ 
9" one word do fiot prejudieie, a& that ancient one of Ro^- 
ridus fo highly commended, 

^tod vrxi fios eftt fervdt lapis hie mihi nomrrif 
NqIo Deos manes, fios mihi pro titulo, 

Gervays de Bloys, bafelbn taking Stephen, arid afebot 
alfo of the fame church, was buried with the forefiid itf 
the cloyfter with this, 

De Regtcm genere pater hie Gervajius ecce 
Monjfrat defun6tnSy mors rapit omne genus. 

William de Albeney, earl of Arundel, and butler to the 
king, was buried at Wimoadhasm, which he founded with 

Hunc Pincema loctmftindavity (^ hicjacef, iffa 
^a dedit huic domui, jam fine fine tenet. 

That mlgjity monarch king Henry the fecond, who 
by his own right adjoyned Anjoy, Maine,^ and Touraiti, 
by his wiffij Aquifain, Poyftou, and by conqueft Ireland, 
to the crown of England, and commanded from the Py- 
rene Mountaines to the Orcades, was honoured with thjs 
diftich while he lived, conteyning his princely praifes, 

Nee landem^f nee tminus amat, nee honorejup^bit. 
Nee lafiis ladit nee 'dominnndo prernit. 

And after his dearth with this epitaph, 


Rex Henricus eram, mihiplurima regnafubegi^ 
Multiplicique modo Duxque Cmiefquefm. 

Cuifatis ad votum non effeht omnia t€rr4e 
CUmata, terra modofiifficit o£Iq pedum, 

4 ' ^i 

<y the ^i^ity-^f Epitaphs in England* 

j§j/i iegis hj^c^ pmfa di/crmma mortis, ^ in me 
Humana fpeculum conditi^nis h^be. 
' Sufficit hie tumulus^ cui non fuffecerat orbis, 

Res brevis ampla mihi, an fuit amfla brevis. 

Rofamond the Fair, \m paramour, daughter to Walter 
lord Clifford, and mother to WUliara Longfpee, the firft 
carl of Salifbury, eternized by Mr. Danier^ mufe, had this, 
aotlnng anfwerable to her beauty, 

Hac jacet in tumba rofa mundi non Rofamundd, 
Non redekt, fed olet^ qua reiokre fiiit. 

William Longfpee, earl of Sarum, bafe fon to king 
Henry the fecond by this lady, had an epitaph not unlike 
to that of his mother, 

Flos comitum IVillielmus cqgnomine Longus, 
Enjis vaginum cwpit habere brevem. 

For Rhees ap Gruffith ap Rhees ap Th^dor, prince of 
South WaJes, renowned in hi^ ticae, thefe fungiralj N^i^ 
wei« fl^de amoogil others, 

Nobile Cambrenfis cecidit diadema decoris, 

Hoc tji^ Rhefus obiit : Cambria tota gemit. 
Subtrahitur, fed non moritur, qiiiafemper habetur 

Ipfius egregium nomen in Qrbe novum. 
Hie fjegitur, fed delegitur, quiaf^ma p^mnis 

Nonfinit iUufirem voce latere d^em : 
Exceffit probitate modim, fenfu pr^tat^m, 

Eloquio fenfum^ moribm ek^ium^ 


The glory of that magnanimous and lion-like prince 
ki9g Richard th^ firft, refiowned foe his oonqueft of Cy- 
(H-usy the king whereof be took and kept in fetters of 
jdlveir, and for his great exployts jQ.the Hdy Land, ftirroi 
up the wits of the beft poets in that age, -to hpnour him 
with thefe epitaphs which follow, when he was (lain ift 
vieivipg the cafUe of Cfaahu in jUmpfin^ 

${% me 


324 Of the Antiquity of Epitaphs in England, 

Hie Richarde jaces^ fid mors ft cedent arms 
Vi^a timore tut, cederet ipfa tuif* 

Another alfo writ of him, 

Jflius in morte permit formica leonem : 
Proh dolor ! in tantifunere, mufidus obit. 

' An Englifli poet imitat'ing the epitaph made of Pompey 
and his children, wbofe bodies were buried in diver$ 
countries, made thefe following of the glory of this pne 
kingy divided into three places, by his funprall, - 

Vifcera Cariolum, Corpus fon^fervat Ehraudi, 
Et cor Rothomagu^, magne Richarde, tui^rn^ 

in4ria dividiiur unuSf qui plus fuif ano ; 
Non unojaceat gloria tanta loco* 

At Font Evcrard, wbcrp his body was interred with 4 
gilt image, were thefe fix excellent verfes written in golden 
letters, containing his greated and moft glorious atchteve-* 
ments : as his vidlory againft the Sicilies, his conquering 
of Cyprus, the finking of the great galeafle of the Sara- 
cens, the taking of their convoy, which in the eafi; parts 
is called a Caivanaf ^ad t(ie defending pf Joppe in the 
|Ioly I^^nd againft them, 

Scribitur hoc tumulo, Rex auree^ Laus tua^ iota 

Aurea^ materia conveniente nota. 
Laus tua prima fuit Siculi, Cyprus altera ^ Dremo 

Tertiay Carvana quarta^ Juprema Jope, 
SuppreJJi Siculi, Cyprus pojfundata^ Droma 

Merjus^ Carvana captay retenta Jope* 

But (harp9 and fatyrical was that on« verfe, which by 
alluding, noted his taking the chalices from churches for 
bis ranfom and place qi his death which was called Chatuz^ 

Chriftf tui caficis pj^ado^ fit prada Caluzis. 

Savaricus, biQiop of Bath and Wells, a ftirring prelate, 
if^hicb laboured mod for the redeeming king Richard when 

0/ the Antiquity of Epitaphs in England^ §?5 

fie was captive in AuClria, and i^ famous in the decretals 
(lib. 3. tit. 90. novit iile) had this epitaph, for that he 
was aiwayes gadding up and down the world, and ba4 lit- 
tle reft, 

Hofj^es erat mundo per mundum fem^er tundo t 
l^icfuprema dUs^ fitfihi prima quies* 


And the like in lat» years was engraven upon the monq- 
ipent of Jacobus Triulpio, a fnilitary man of the fame me- 
|tal, as LodovijC Guicciardin reporteth, 


But SimiUs, captain of the guard to Adrian the empet 
four, when he had pafled a moft toylefome life, after h^ 
had, retired hjmfelf frpm if ryice, and lived privately fevea 
years in the countrey, acknowledged that he had lived 
pnely them feven ye^rs, as he caufed to be infcribed upon 
\i\s monument thus, , 

flic jacef Similis cujus atas tnultorum annorun^ 
Fuit, ipfefeptem duntaxat 

annos vixit. 


It may be doubted whether Wplgrine tiie Organifi W9S 
fo good a muficiao, a^ Hugh, archdeacon of York, was a 
poipt, which made this epitaph for him^ 

Te tVutgrine^ cad^nte cadunt voXy organa^ cantus, 

Et quicquid gratum gratia vacis habet* 
V^fy lyra^ moduUs Syrenes^ Oirphea^ Phosbun^ 

Vnus tres pot eras aquiparare tribus. 
Si tamen illorum non jaU^fama locorum, 

^uod fueras nobis, hoc tris Elyjiis* 
Cdnfor erisy qui cantor eras, bic charus if iUic. 

Orpheus alter eras, Qrpheus alter eris» 

Upon one Peter, a religious man of tbi$ age, I fouQd 


1 26 Of the Antiquity of Epitaphs in England. 

Petra caj>it P^tri cinereSy animam Pitra^ Chriftus 
Sic tibi divifit utraque ^etra Petram, 

Upon the death of Morgan, b^(e fon of kiog Heory 
the fecond, was made this epitaph, alluding to his oame ia 
that alludiog age, 

harga^ henigna^ dfctns^ jacet fncjlirps regia, morum 
Organa Morgano fradfa jacente^ fiient^ 

King John, a gr«at prince, but unhappy, had thefe epi- 
taphs bewraying the hatred of the clergy toward hitn. 

Hoc in forc9phago fcpditur Regis imago, 
^i tnmifns nu^ltam fidavit in srbp tumukunt^ 
Et /:ui C9nnfxa dum vixit probra manebant. 
JHunc malapoft mortem fimor eft ne fata fequantur* 
^i tegis hac metuens diim cernis te moritiirum, 
Di/cito juid return pariat tibi meta dierum, 

ikit this was moft JDalkious^ and prooeeded froin a vK 
perous minde, 

JngUaficut ^dhuc ford^t fooUre JohanniSf 
Somida focdatur^ foeiante Johanne^ gebemia, 


III the time of king Henry the third they began to 

snake epitaphs, as chey call it now, out of Propria qua tna^ 

>ribn5, as fome do in our Age ; hut among titein this was 

lliOrt and good for William, eari of Pembioke, aAd maf- 

(liall of England, buried in the Temple Church, 

Sum qttem Satumumjibijwfit Hiierma^ Sdem 
Anglia^ 7\UrQurmn N&rmannia^ CaUia Mortem* . 

And this was not bad for Richard de Clare, eajrl of 
Glocefter and Hertford, which died anno 1602. 

Hie pzuhr Hipp^litu P^ridis gtva, fei^s Ufyjii^ 
JEnca pi etas, iff Boris it^^cti. . 

I doubt not hut tkis: dme of Sin^oQ Monfort, earl of 
Leicefler, (lain at Evefliam, foi^nd favour in that ^e, a$ 


(^ fbt Atdiquhf of JEpitaphs Uf Engldnd^ p t 

the earl btmfelf^ who was ib feOowed by the people, that 
he durft not confront his foveraign king Henry the 3»rf.- 
and as the epitaph doth imply, was i-he peerkls man of 
that tinie for valour, perfonage, and wifedpme, 

Nunc danturfato^ cafitque cadunt iteratOf 
Cimonc fablatOy Mars^ Paris, atque Cato. 

Upon a gentleman-, as fome think, named N'one, buried 
at Wymondham, who gave nothing to the religious, there 
was made this, 

Hicfitus eft NuHus^ qutannlh nuKor ifte; 
Et qi:ia- 7udlus erat^ de nullo nil tibi Chrifte^ 

Excellent is this (which I foirnd in the book of Wlmond- 
ham) for pope Lucius, bom at Luca, bifliopof QAia, pope 
of Rome, and dyiBg at Verona, 

Luca dedit lucem tibi Lucf, Ponttficatum 

OJiidy Papatum Somay Verona mori, 
Inw Verona dedit tibi vere viven, Roma 
* Exilium, curas Oftia Luca mori. 

If you wiW fee an old deane, named ffam^ Sbt, rcfembled 
K> the twelve foM of oM father Amraf, which had every 
one (as Cteobwhss was wont to call thenv) t-hirry daugh- 
ters, fome fair, fome foul, all dying, and never dying, 
read this epitaph^ 

Pdrticipaf Tnen/ti d^tes aijttflibet HarPro, 
CiretrnifpfStut erat ttt Janus ^ Crimvna ptigntins 
Ut Febrtnts, veiemna nov^ns ut M^rtkts iffc-^ 
Semina prodvcens ut j^prilis^ jbre coritjcans 
Ut Maius,. facie plaudens ut Junius ^ intus 
Fervens ut Julius, frugis maturus adulta 
Mejir ut Augujlus^ fcecundnns horrea more 
Septembris, rephis vino celhria more 
Odiobris, Pafior pictriam fed JpirituuHs^ 
Mar£ Navimbris \ ipuiator dapfitir if^iar ' 
0mn4 Decembris habet^ hiemali pejle quiefcens* 


$29 Of the Antiqaiiy bf Epitaphs in England. 

Another playing upoa the name Hamon^ made this idi 

t^hfti ffifcdfor hommak^ ^fkaji^ifcis ab homo 
Mortis tafius ffamp, cekbrai tbnvivid vita. 

But witty was this, whereas he died ifi a \tzp year upon! 
the leap day, accounted fo unlhappy a day of the Romans^ 
that Valcntinian the emperoor durft not peep out in that 

Homo t)icane jaceSf toto fugit exulab annd 
Interitwn Solis, aufa videre £es. 

Verily he was a man of fome good note in that x\mt^ 
for I finde another of him alluding alfo to this leape day. 

Nulla dies anni nifi biffextilii^ ^ dnnt 

Judicio damnatajiii, nee Jiihdita men/!, 

Sed no6Iis lux inftair erat, lux nefcia lucisi 

Et lux exiftens inter luces, quqfi bubd 

Inter aves, hujus poterat concludere vitaM 

Solis, if bumanum genus hoc privare lucerna. « 

Alexander Necham a great learned man of his age, a< 
appeareth by his books De Divina/apientia laudibus, was 
buried in the Cloifter at Worcefter with this^ but deferved 
a better, 

BcUpfim patitur fapieniia. : Solfepelitut • 
^i dum vivebaty Jiudii genus mnni vigebat i 
Solvitur in dneres Necham, cuijiforet hares 
In terris unus, minus ejfetjlebilefunus4 

A merry mad maker, as they call poets no'^, was he 
which in the time of K. Henry this 3* made thid for Joha 

Deus omnipotens Vituli mijerere Joannis, 
^uem mors pravemens noluit e£e bovem. 

Which in our time was dius paraphrafed by the tranf- 


Of the Antiquiiy of Epitaphs in England. '3^9 

j^U Chriftian men in my behalf^ 
Pray for the foul of Sir John Calf. 
crueitdeatkt as fnbtle as a fox^ 
Who would not let this calf live till he had been an oxe. 
That he might have eaten both brambles and thorns^ 
And when he came to his father s years, might have 
worn horns. 

Robert de Courtney was buried at Ford, as appeareth 
bj the regifter of that place 1242,. under a ftateiy Piramis, 
who, whether he was defcendcd from the earls of Edefla, or 
from Peter the fon of Lewis the Grofs, king of France, 
had but this bad infcription, which I infert more for the 
honour of the narne, than the worth of the verfe, 

Hicjacet ingenui de Courtney gleba Robert i, 
Militis egregii, virtutum laude referti. 
^lem genuit Strenuus Reginaldus Courtenienfisy 
^li procer eximius fuerat tunc Devonicnjts. 

A monk of Durcfme bufied his brain in nicking out 
thefe nice verfes upon the death of W, de La-March, chan- 
cellor of England under king John. 

Culmina qui cupi ^ ^ Laudes pompafque fiti 
Efife datafi j A Si me penfare veli 

^n populos regi I . \ Memores fuper omnia ft . . 
^tod mors immi C J Non parcit honore poti ' * 
Vobis prapoji I I Similis fueram bene fci 
^lodfum vos eriJ L Ad me currendo veni 

William de Valentia, commonly called Valcns -carl of 
Pembroke, and half brother to king flenry the 3d. from 
whom the earls of Shrewlbury, Kent, and others are de- 
fcended> is intombed at Weftminller^ with thefe rank 

Anglia tot a doles y moritur quia regia proles, 
^ua florere foles , quem continet infima moles : 
Gpilelmus nomen infigne Valentia prabet 
Celfum cognofnen, nam tale darifibi debet. 

Vox.. I. T t ^i 

330 Of the Antiquity af Epitaphs in England 

j^ui valuit validuSf vincdns viftMU vahre, 
Et placuit placid ftnfu ; m9rw»f[Ui vig$re^ 

Robert Groftcft, commonly called Robin GroflieacT,. 
6i(hop of Lincoln, a moft learned prelate, reported by Mat- 
thew Paris to be a fevere reproovcr of the Pope, a favourer 
of learning, a fearcher of fcripturc, a preacher of the word,, 
and generally a man of great worth, commanded this oneljc 
to be engraven over bis tomb. 

^uisjim nofie cupis?" caro puprida^ nil nifi vermin 
^ifqui^es^ hoc dcmejit tibi fcirdfatif^ 

But upon his death tbis was writteir^ 

Rex dolet\ ac regnum gemet, ^ flet AngVia May 

Plebs plangity gemitus ingeminare juyht, 
^lippe Grqftedus Jpeculwn virtutis^ afylum 

Jujiitia^ Regis anchora morte jaceL 
Non poterit tamen iile morij cuifama perorat, 

Laiis loquitur^ redoletfruSuSf abundat honor :. 
Vnde dolens trifiatur homo^ canit Angejua inde^ 

11 nde fcrenoiitur JiderA pallet bnmux* 

King Henry the third, a prin«e more pious than prnd«nt, 
lyeth buried in WeftminfteF Church, which he newly rc- 
builded, in a fair monumeat ere£led by the Mooks» aad. 
infcribed with thefe monkifli rimes, 

Tertius Henricus jn^et hicpieiatis amicus^ 
Ecclefiam iftatnjiravit^ quampoji renovavit. 
jReddet ei tmnus qui reg^at trinus et iinus^ 

Upon the tomb of D John Bekingale, fomeiimc bifliop of 
Chichefter, this is engraven, whlck 1 fet h ere fen: rarecof* 
jTcfpondcncy of the rime. 

Tu modo qudlis eris ? quid mundi quarts honores f 
Crimina deplores^ in me nunc tejpeculeris : 
En mors ante /ores, qua clamitat omnibus adfum 
In poenis paffum, pro me te deprecor ores* 


Of At AMktdtj «f Bfitafbi inEn^Uni. 33 1 

Which 18 the bait in fence vith that at Genera, 




Lewes de Beaumont, that learned bjlhop of Durefroc, 
■who was preferred thereuDto for his affiaity unto the queen, 
although he could not with all his learning read this word 
^ttitropolitice at his cotifeeratioo, but pafled it over with 
JUt ^r diSl% fweafing by S. Lewes, that they were dlf- 
courteous which fet down fo many hard words in tbe or- 
deriag of fn'iefts, had this upon this tombe in Durcfme 
Ohutch, where he was buried 1333, 

De Bella Monte jacet hie Ludovictis bumatus, 
Nobilis exfonie regum, Comitumjue creatus^ ifc. 

King Edward the firft, a moft worthy and mighty 
prince, the firA efiabUiher of the kingdonie of England, - 
had affixedat the Altar of St, Edward, near his tombe at 
Weftminfter, a large epiuph in profe^ whereof I have found 
only this fragment. 

. • . Abavus autem if triavus ejus dilatantes imperia^ 
fuljecerant fibi t>ucatus ^ Comitatus. EJwardus vero pa-^ 
temarum magnificentiarum amplius amulator exiftens^ Re* 
galeque folium perornans in clype^ f£sf inhajid^ prinapatum 
IVtAlia truncatis £Jus principibus Leolino & David, poten^ 
iijjime adquijivit. ^mnimo dominium Regni Scotite^ prima 
magni indujlria confilii^ deinde virtute bellorum viSlorior 
fiffinu eft adeptus* Nilnlominus Comitatibus Cornubia <j 
Northfolke (dijponente eo cujus eft orhis terra if pknltudo 
^ui) ad manus Edwardi mirabiliter devolutis, fuisfuccejfo- 
ribus ampliffimam reliquit materiam gloriandi* Ubicunque 
igitur Chriftus habet nomen, inter pracellentij/imos regesji* 
deHum habeat ^ Edwardus bonorem. 

T t 2 The 

332 Of\ht jfMSqtdty^i^f Epit4fhf,in Englaltd. 

The famous kiug; Edward the third, which had fo great 
viftories over the French, to the greater glory than good 
of England, as fome fay;, is entombed at Wcftminftcr with 
this, when he had raigned fifty years, 

Hie decus Jn^lorum^ fios regum prater itorum, 
Fama futiirorum, rex clemenSy pax populorum^ 
Tertius Sdwardu^, regum complensjubilemm. 

King Richard xh^ fecond his gfandchilde and fucceflbr, 
who was depofcd of his kingdom by Henry the fourth, bad 
for his kingdom a tomb crafted at Wcftminfler by king 
tlenry the fifth, with this rude glofing epitaph, 

Prude?is is mundus Richardus jure fecunduSy 
. Perfatum viHus, jacet hie fub marmore piEiuu 
Verax fermone fuit^ 6" plenus ratione : 
Corpore procerus, animo prudens ut Homer us, 
EccJefia favit, elatos fiippeditavit^ 
^temvis projiravit regalia qtd violavity 
Obruit hareticcSy i; eorum ftravit timicos : 
clemens Chrijie^ tibi devotns fait ifie^ 
Votis Baptijia falves quern protulit ijle. 

In his time R6bert Hawley, a valiant efqulre, was mur^ 
thered in Weftminfter Church in fervice time, where he 
had taken fanftuary, and is there buried in the place where 
he was firft aflfaulted, with thefe verfes, 


Me dolus, iruy furor, multontm militis atque* 

In hoc gladio celebri pietatis afyh, 

Dum Levita Deifermones legit ad aram, 

Proh dolct ! ipfe meo Monachorum /anguine vultus 

^fperfi moridnSf chorus eft mihi tiftis in avum, 

Et me nunc retiMt facer hie locus Hawle R$bertum, 

Hie qida pefliferos male fenfi primitus hofles. 

Famous is L. Siccinius Dentatup, who ferved in an hua- 
. dred aud twenty battaiis. And glorious is Henry the 


Of .the Jntiquify of Epitaphs in Eiigland: 313^ 

fcurih emperaur, who fought fifty^two battailsi and fikc- 
vife hoBOurable ibould the memory be of Sir Matthew 
Qouroey oar countryman, of whofei houfe Sir H. Newton 
is defcended, which commanded in battails, and was bu- 


ried at Stoke Hamden, in Sommcrfetfhire, with this French 
memoriall now defaced. 

Icy gift le noble if valient Chevalir, Maheu de Gurnay, 
jadis Senefchall de Landes & Capitayn du Chajlel 
d^Jques pour noftre Sighior le Roy en Ic^ Duche de Guien^ 
qui en fa Vie fu a la battaile de B^nemazin, iyaJa 
apres a la Jtege de Mgezir fur les Sarazines ^ auxi a 
les battayles de Seleufe^ de Crejfy^ de Ingenejfe^ de 
PoyterSy de Nazar'a^ ijc. Obiit gd atatis^ 26 Sep- 
t£mb. 1406. 

King Henry the fifth, who, as Thomas Walfingham 
teftifieth of him, was godly in heart, (bber in fpeech, 
fparing of words, refolute in deeds, provident in counfell, 
^prudept in judgement, modeft in countenance, magnani- 
moqs in a^loo, conftant in updertaking, a gi^acalmfgiver, 
d^FOUt to Qod-ward, a renowned fqldier, fortunate in the 
licld| froo^ whence he never returned Without viAory, 
was buried at Weftminfler, and his pidhire was covered 
with fiiver plate, which was facrilegioufly ftollen away, 
and his epitaph defaced, which was but ttiefe two filly 
verfes ; ^ 

Dux Normannorutn, verus Conqueftor eorum. 
Hares Francorum decejfit^ ^ Hector eorum* . 

He that made this fiHy one for Sir John Woodcock, 
mercer,, and major of London 1405, buried in St. Alban's 
in Wood-ftreet, thought he obferved both rime and reafon. 

Hie jacet in requie Woodcock John vir generofuSy 
Major Londonia, Mercerus valde morofus. 
Hie jacet Tom Shorthofe 
. Sine tomb, fine (beets, fine riches^ 
^li vixit fine gown. 

Sine cloalfe, fine (liirt, fine breeches. 

Henry . 

Henry <3iicbdy> altbosg^ be vas (bonder of M SonPs 
CoOedge in Okford, and an cTpedan fnrtherer of Icarnii^; 
VIS bat linle hoooored by dua oakvoed epitaph, 1443- 

Jamfum frtfirahu^ & vermikus tfca faratui^ 
Ecu meum tuaadum. 

His next facoefloiir, one J<din Ecaipe, hapfiencd opon a 

better poet, who in one verfe cooiprebended all his dig- 
tiitcs, whidi were great, . 

Johannes Kempe^ 
Bis Prima s, Ur praful €rat, his cardinefwaEitu* 

For he was biihop of Rochefter, Chichefier, and Lon* 
doA» archMfliop of Yoric, and then^Cantefborjr, and car** 
dioall, irft deacon, then prieft. 

This that fioUoweth is engraven about a fiiir tombe in a 
goodly chappdl adjoining to the qnire of ^nt Marie's 
Church in Warwick, being a worthy monnaient of fo 
noble a pcrfon, fince whofe time, althongh but late, yon 
may obfcnre a great change both of the heirs of his hooie 
uA the ttfeof words in this epitaph. 

Pray devoutly f^r tie foul whom Cod affiUe, rfone of the 
moji worfhiffuU knights in bis daies of manhood and 
eunning, Richard Beauchamp, late earl ofWanvick^ lord 
Defpincer^cf Bergevenny, and of many oth& great lord- 
Jhips^ nvhtfe body reflet h here under this tomb in q, ful 
fair vault pfjone, fet in the bare roche. The which 
vifitedwith long ftcknefs in the C4^leof Rohan^ therxin 
deceafedfull Chrijlianly the loft day of jpril, in the 
year of our Lord God 1439, he being at that time lieu^ 
tenant generall of France and the dutchy of Nor- 
mandie^ by fufficient authority of our foveraign lord 
king Henry the fixt. The winch body by great deli- 
beration, and vforfbipfull condua by fea and by land^ 
uas brought to JVarwick the fourth of OOober^ the 


ytur dkovejkid^ atidvios laid wtb fUU filame iXiqides 
i» a fair ck^fi mddf ^ fionut af^n the w^ thnt i>f 
this chppell, ACC9rdmg U Us Iqfi vtill and. t^ament^ 
thiirm to refiy till thii ch^ll by him drmfkiin hii 
J^a w^r0 made, th0 which ch^ettfowukd w the rocha^ 
and all the menAers thereof ^ hh rxecuforSf did fully 
make and apparail by the auihorky ^ his faid Iqfi wi9 
andteftament. And thereafter^ by the faid authority * 
they (Gd tranjlate v}orfbipftJly the faid body into the 
vauh aforefaid : honoured be God thenfore. 

His daughter, the comitelfe of Shrew(bury» was bnrkc! 
ia St. Faith's under St. Paul's at LoadoD> with this. 

Here before the image xf Jhefu lyetb the rvorfhipful and 
right noble lady Margaret^ countefs of Sbrevftury^ 
late ixjife of the true and victorious knight^ and rr- 
doubted warriour John Talboi^ earl of Shrevjfhury^ 
which imrfhipfully died in Gien for the right of this 
land, thefirft dmighter^ and one of the heirs of the 
right famous and renowned knight Richard Beau- 
ehampe, late earl ef Warwick^ which died in Roane^ 
and of dame Elizabeth fas wtfe^ the which Elizabeth 
was daughter and heir to Thomas^ late hrd Berkefyy, 
and on his fide^ and rf her mother's fde, lady Liftc 
and Ties ; winch countefs paffed from this world the" 
XII 1 1 day^f June, the year ef our Lord 1468. Qjt 
^mbofefoul the lord have mercy* 

For that valorous earl her hufoand, the terror of Prance, 
I have clfewhcre noted his epitaph ; and now inftead there- 
of, I will give you to underftand, that not loog fince hi$ 
fw(H'd was found in the river of Dordoo, and fold by ar 
pefant to an armourer of Burdeaux, with this infcription, 
but pardon the Latine, for it was not his, but his camping, 



3^ Pf ^^ J^Hwfy pf Epitaph in Atgland. 

This ioicriptioo foUowiog is in the cathedral! church at 
Roan in Normandyy for John duke of Bedford, and governor 
of Normandy^fon to king Henry the fourth, buried in a fair 
jrfain monnsient ; which when a French gentleman advifed 
Charts the eighth, the French king to deface, as being a 
monument of the Englifli vi6^ories, he faid, let him reft in 
peace now he is dead, whom we feared while he lived. 

^ygiftf^ ^ ^^ fnemoire taut 6 puiffant prince Jean^ 
en fan vivant regent du Royautne de France^ Due de 
Betifort, pour leqvel eft fonde une Mejfe eftre far 
cbacun jmr perpetuelUment celebree en ceft autel par 
le College des Clementins incontinent apres prime : b 
trefpajfa /? 13 Septembre 1435. -^uquel 13 jour /em" 
hlabkment eft fonde pour liiy un obit en cefte eglije, 
Dieu face pardon a fon ame. 

Upon an ancient knight, Sir Jernegan, buried crofs- 
tegged at Somerly in Suffolk^ fome hundred years fince, is 
wrixtcn^ - 

Jefus Chriji both God and man. 
Save thyfervant Jernegan* 

Happy and prudent king Henry, the 7. who ftopped the 
fireams of civiil blond, which fo long overflowed England, 
^id left a moft peaceable (late to bis pofterity, hath bis 
magnificall monan^ent ai WcAnllniler, infcribed thus^ 

Septimus hiefitus eft Henricus^ gloria regum * 
Cunflcrum illius qui tempeftate fue^unt^ 
Ingenio atqiie opibus geftarum nomine rerum : 
Accejfere quibus natura dona benigna, 
Frontis honos, fades augufta, heroica forma :■ 
JunSlaque eifuavis conjxix perpuUhra^ pudica 
Etfcecundafuitf /alices prok parentes, 
Henricum quibus oBaviim terra JngJia debes. 
Hie jacet Henricus, hujusnominis vii. j^nglitf quondam 
FeXf Edmundi Richmundia Comitis Jiliusy qui die 22. 
Jug. Rex creatus, ftatim poft apud IVeftmondfterim 


OftbiAnritiuity tff J^ptiaphs in Enghni. 3i7 

50 0(l6b. cordfiatut dnnd Thm. 1485, moritui^ hlnde 
yixt April. ann6 tttatlt LKi. Rtgndvit anms xxit* 
metifes nil minus vno idii. 

This following I will note out of Hackney Church, that 
you may fee that the clergie were not alvvay«s anticipatipg 
and griping many livings by this worthy man, which re* 
linquiihed great dignrties, hftd refufcd greater, 

Chrijiophcrus Urfwicus R^gis Henrici Septimi yEkm:jfyna* 
rhiSf vir/uaatate ciarus\ fummatibus atque itjflmati'* 

' busjuxtA charus. Jdexteros reges iindecies pro patria 
legattts, Decanutum Ehorac^n/cm., 4^chidiaconatum 
Richmundiay Decanatum W'wforia habit os vivens reli* 
quit, Epi/cppatutn Norwirefj/em oblafuin recntjavit^ 
Magnos honores Utd vitaj}r€vit^ ffugAii vita conten-i 
tuSy hie vivere^ hie tnori voiuit, Pletms annorvm 
obiity ab omnibus dejideraius. Funeris pompom etiam 
teftamento vetuit, . Hie fehultus earnis refurreUionem 
in cdventum Chrijii ex^e^at* 

Obiit anno Chr'^i'intdmati t^atr Di> 23* 

Martii. Anno atatis/ua 74* 

This Teftamemarie epitaph 1 have reatd in in old manii'* 

Terram terra tegit, D^mon peceafa refumat : 
Res habeat MunduSy fpititus Apta petat. 

The name of this defun<a ai it Vft^tt *ttig«atkdly «3t* 
pieflfed in this old epitaph. 

Bis fuit hie natus, fuet 6* bis, bis juvenifque^ 
Bis viry bifque^Ar^x, bis dodor^ bijque faeerdos. 

la the Cftthedrall tfaurch of St* ^atil's ia London, ft Aone 
U tn&rib^ thtts withoilt aaioe, 

Non heminem ajpiciam 



Yov-T. Vw This 

3$B Of ti^ Antiquity pf Epitaphs in England, 

This man yet would not willingly have been for^otteni 
when he adjoyned his arm$ to continue his memory, not 
unlike to philofophers, who prefixed their names before 
their treatifcs of contemning glory. 

Another likewife fuppreffing his name, for his epitaph 
did fet down this goodly adn^onition. 

Look man before thee horjj thy death bqfteth^ 
Look man behinde thee how thy life luajleth ; 
Look on thy right fide how death thee defireth, 
Look on thy left fide bow fin thee bcguileth : 
Look man above thee^ joys that ever will lajl^ 
Look man beneath thee^ the pains without refi. 

The abbot of St. Alban*s, who lyeth buried there la 
fhe high qufre, fuppiefled h^s name is modeftly as any 
other in this, . 

Hie quidem terra tegitur 
Peccato fi)lvens debitum^ 
Cujus nomen non impo/Itum, 
In Libro vita fit infcripfum. 

In the clolfter on -the north fide of St. Paul's now 
ruinated^ one had this infcription upon his grave^ without 


Which ^^^s Chriftian^ as that wa$ profane of the Rqm^DSi 


King Henry the eighth, who fubverted fo many churches, 
monuments, and tombs, lycth inglorious at Windfor, aqd 
pever had the h<^nour either of the tomb which he had 
prepared, or of any epitaph, that I now remember. 

6/ the Antiquiiy of Epiiapbs in Bighni. S39 

But his brother-in-law, king James the fourth of Scot- 
land, flain at Flodden, though the place of his buriaU i^ 
unknown, yet had this honourable epitaph t 

Fama orbem repkty mortem firs bccuUt : at tu 

Define fcrutari quod tcgat bjfafilum : 
Si mihi dent animo tion tmparfata fipuichruni^ 

Augujia eft tumulo terra Britanna rheo. 

Queen Jane, who difed in child-birth of king Edward 
the fixth, and ufed for her device a phoenix^ being het 
paternal creaft, had this thereunto alluding for. her epi- 

Phoenix Jana jacet, nato Phomice^ dolendiim 
Sacula Phoenices nulla tulijfc duoi. 

The noble Henry earl of Surrey, father to Thomas, 
late duke of Norfolke,. and the right honourable and nobly 
learned late carl of Northampton, in the time of king 
Henry the eighth, firft refining our homely Englifh poefie, 
among many other, made this epitaph conoparable with 
the beft, for Thomas Clerc, Efq; his friend and follower, 
buried at Lambeth 15215, 

^OT^oW, f prang thee, Lambeth holds thee dead^ 

Clere of the county of Cleremont though high 
tVlthin the ivomb of Ormonds race thou bred 

Andfav^eft thy cofin crowned in thy fight s 
Sheltonfor love, Surrey for lord thou chafe. 

Aye me, while life didlaft, that league was tender : 
Tracing whofefteps thoufaweft Kclfall blaze, . ' 

Launderfey burnt, and battere dBullen render, 
Att Muttrell gfltes hopekjfe rf all recure, 

Thine earl half dead, gave in thy hand his will i 
Which caufe did thee this pining death procure^ 

Erejummersfeven timu fiven, thou couldft fuyilU 
Ah, Clere/ if love had booted, care<ircofti 

Heaven had not wonn^i wfr. earth fo timely d^. ^ 

^ ' y u :i * The 


$45 Of tbi JiHipdty of Epitaphs hi Efigland. 

The dtike of SofS^lk and bis brother, foos of Claries 
Braudoa, who dkd ^i the fwcdt at Bugdcfi,. wo'e bumd 

together with this, 

Unajidsi vivos conjunxH^ religm una, * 
Jrdor if infiudiu unuSj if imus amor. 
. Jhftii^it basfimul una dies : dug corpora jungit 
Una urna, ac meaicsunus Olympus babeU 

King Edwacd the Cxth, although he had his father's 
fate in having no fcpulchre, yet he had the honour of a 
learned elegie compofed by 5ir John Cheek, too long to 
be here inferted, and this diftich, 

Rcx^ regis natus, regum dccus, unica regnt 
Sp€fque fyhif<fue fui, conditur hoc tumuh^ 

The earl of Devonftiire, Edward Courtney, honourably 
dcfcended from one of the daughters of king Edward the 
fourth, is buried at Saint Anthonjes in Padua with this, 
which I fet down more for hi^ honour, than the elegancy 
of the verfe : 

//i\glia qtim g4imis fuerMqu0 habitura patf^m^V^t 

Corteneum celfa hac continet ar^a JDmmi 
Credita caufa necis^ regnt affeSlata cupido, 

Regina opt at Urn nunc quoque connuhium. 
Cut regni proceres non confenjcre^ Philippo 
^ Reginam, Regi jungere poffe rati. 
Europam unde fuit juveni peregrare neceffe 

Ex qu6 mors mifero contigit ante diem. 
AngHd Ji phrat defundh prinvipe tanto^ 

Nil mirum^ Domino deficit ilia pio. 
Sed^jam Gortvneus cosh fruiturqne beatis^ 

Cum doleaht ^ngli^ eum fine fine gemant : 
Cortetiei' probitas igifilr, prajtantta^ nomen, 

Dumjlahit hoc temphim, yividafemper erunt : 
Angiiaque bine itiam jtabify ftaburit^ue Britanntj 

Conjugii optdti fdmd pefennts erity 
Ifnproba nature Legh LUtfina rejtindens^ 
Ex aquo juvenes pracipi^tque fenes 


C>f ibi Antiquity of Epitaphs In England. 34* 

Walrer Milles, who died for the profedioii of his faitb^ 
as f jme fuy^ made this epiupb for hioifeif 1 

Non prnva imf^ietas^ aut a6la crimlna vita 

Armarunt hojles in mea fata truces^ 
Soiajides Chrijli facris fignata libsUii^ 

^ua vita caufa ejl^ ejl mihicaufa netis. 

This man was not fo godly, a$ he was impious, as it fcem- 
«th» who was buried in the night without aoy cerea^n}', 
under the name of Meoakas, with thi^^ 

Here lyeth Men^kas^ as dettd as a kgge. 
That lived like a divell, and di^ like a doggi : 
Here doth he lye^ /aid J? then fay llyCy 
Tor from this place ^ he parted by and by m 
But here k" made his defcent into hell. 
Without eith^'r hcok, candle, or belL 

This may feem too iharpe, but happily it proceeded from 
fom« cxulcerated ^inde, as that of Doft Pedfo of Toledo, 
viceroy of Na^le?, Mfickedly detorted oiit of the fcrip- 

^i propter nos 6 nqfirAm fahktem^ dcfeendtt ad inferos. 

A merry and wealthy goldfmith of London in his life- 
time prepared this for his graie^ftose, which 19 feen at 
St. Leonard's, neer f otter Lme, 

t9^en the hets be merrily rungf 

Ani th(t nusfs, devoutly fung^ 

And the meat merrify 4aten s 

Then is Robert Trapf, bifi -^i* 4nd jcAOAm quitt 

tVb€r^f£ Jkffy^-^hUt of MaryJ^ng, 
. S4t tJ^ /oH(f^4h4'jS^U asmi^ ^\? -^ ' . 

fy(t>tAim Himn^r^iifi^<mfi^4bidh 

U I 

•^ »* < * « t 


342 Of the Antiguily of Epitaphs in England. 

DoAor Caius»,a learaed phyCtianof Cambridge^ and ^ 
co-founder of Gonwill and Caias Coliedge^ hath onely on 
his monument there, 


Which is as good as that of that great learned man of his 
profcflion, Julias Scaliger, 


But that which cardinal Pool appointed for himfelf, is 
better than both, as favoring of Chriftian antiquity. 

Depojitum Poli Cardinalis. 

This cnfuing for Sir Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper of the 

great feal, is worthy to be read, both for the honour of the 

perfon, who was a wife counfellor, and the rarenefs of 

jambique verfes in epitaphs (albeit this our age doth delight 

BOfA^i^tv) but as he faith, Ma/os Jambus enetat, beat hqnos^ 

Hie Nicolaum nc Baconum conditum 
Exijiima iilum, tarn diu Britannici 
R^gni fecundum columen : cxitium Tnalis, 

Bonis afyluftiy casca quern non exfulit 
Ad hunc honor em Jars i fed aquitas, fdeSp 
Dodfrina, pietas, unica dx 'prudent ia^ 

N§n morte raptum crede^ qui unica 
Vita perennis emerit duos : agit 
Vitam fecundam coelitus inter animos. 

Fama implet orbem^ vita qua ilia tertia ejl^ ' 
Hac pofitum in area eft corpus^ olim animi domus i 
Area dieata fimpiterna menuhria. 

The excellent poet George Bachanao^ \9bo is thought 
to have made this,.beft6wed tfaeib fottr verfes upon Mr. 
Roger Afcham,. fidmedffl'e -readttf to ^ueeD- Elizabeth, and 
her fecretary for t&elia^a tofigHe^'^Qilie of the firft refiners 
of the Latin purity amongft us» 
'U..J0U Afcbamunt 


Of ibt Antiquity of Epitaphs in England. 34J 

^/chamumextin6lum patria, Graiajue Camarue, 

Et Latia vera ctan pietate dolent. 
Principibtts vixit carus^ jucundus amicis. 

Re modicay in mores dicere fama nequit 

He alfo compofed this to the memory of that worthy 
prelate and champion of o^r church John JeweUj bi(hop 
/of Sarifbury: ^ 

Jiielle, mater quern tuHt Devonla, 
Nutrixque fovit erudita Oxonia ; 
^tam Maria ferro b igne patria expuRf, 
Virtus reduxity Prafulem fecit parens 
Elizabetha do6la do5iarum artium, 
Pulvis pujilhs te fepulchri hiccontegit, 
^tcm parva tellus namen ingens occulit ? 

Mr. Lambe, a man which dcferved well of the city of 
London by divers charitable deeds^ framed this for him- 


j^s Iiuasfo be ye^ 
As I am yejbali bee ; 
That I gavey that I have. 
That I/pent^ that I had: 
Thus lend all my cqfl. 
That J left, that Iloji. 

All which Claudius Secundus a Romane contained in thcfc 
four words ; 


Short and yet a fuificient commeodation of M. Sandcg 
was this, ^ 

D/targareta Sandes, 
Digna bac luce diuturniore, • 
iVj/? quod luce meliore digna. 

: An4 anfw^ble thereunto is this, for a gentleman of the 
^e f^ame^ 

344 Q^ '*^ Mtiijmfy of Epitaph in England. 

Who v$mU live in others breath > 

Fame deceives the dead mdifs inrfl .* 
When our names eb change by death ; 

Sands / lifds, and n&uf am duft, 

Sir Fhilip Sidney (to whofc honour I wDl fty no fflorc 
but that whkh Mar o faid of Marcellu$, nephew of Augtrftuii, 
. Oftendunt terris hunc tanium fata^ nee ultra ejfi finuht ; 
which alfo was anfwered by the Oracle to Claudius the 2^. 
emperour, of his brother Quintilius) bath this moft bap* 
pily imitated out of French out of Mons' Doniv^t, made 
by Joach. du Bellay, as it was noted by Sir George Buc 
in bi^ Poetica, 

England^ Netherlands the heavens^ and the arts. 

The fculdiers and the world hath made fix parts 

Of nobk Sidney .• for who vfill fttppofe^ 

Th4t d/tnall heap (ffiones can Sidney enchfe t 

England had his lody^ for Jhe itfedj 

Netherland his bloud in har defence /bed: 

The heavens have his foul, the arts have hisfamcr 

The foMldxers the grief the ivorld hjs good name. 

Upon the golden lyon ramptot itt Gutri of €be houfe of 
Albenye, which the late earl H, Fit2«Alanbafein Hs armes, 
as receiving the earldome d( AnlndtU ftoti^ ih^ houfe of 
, Albenye, one compofed this epitaph^ 

Aureus Hie leo (reliqui trepidate leones) 
Non in/anguineo nuncjiat ut ante J9h. 

Nam leo de luda vicit, viTioque pepercit^ 
Etfecwm pntris dux ft ad v/^e- d^Os- 

Sic hidit ut furgat, ftc viSlus vincit, if illum^ 
^em modo terra tuRt, nvne Pdradifus habet. 

In the cloyfler of New Colledge in Oxford this fbUowiog 
is vritten with a coal for one Woodgate, who Ijequeathed 
106 pound to ont, t^ho wouM ttot htfltoit a pbrtc for bis 

Of^he uimi^ky ^f Epikifbs in England. 345 

Conde tibi 4umulum^ Mecjide h^redis amort 

Epitaphiwn^e comparu : 

Morttius'fftf nee emk 4ibns hac ^uerhaducentis^ 


Thcrrfore the cotittfaffe of T)iego de Vatles is good, who 
madje his own tomb at Rome with this infcription, 

Certa dies nulli efty mtfrs certa, incerta fequentum 
Cura:^locet tutnukcm qm'Japit^ mitefibi. 

A gentleman falling ofFhis horfe, 1)rake his ceck, which 
fuddain hap gave occafion of much fpeech of his former 
Mfe, and fome in this judging world judged the worJfl: ; in 
W'bich 'Tefpeft a good friend "made this good epiraph, rc- 
fiiembriog that of St. Anguftine, MifermrdU Domini inter 
pontem, isfontem^ 

My friend judge not me, 
T'houfeejl I judge not thee : 
Betwixt thejiitrup and the ground^ 
iyiercy lajit, mercy I found. 

\ To the honour of Sir Henry Gcodycr of Polefworth, a 
knight memorable for his virtwes, an afifedioned friend of 
his framtsd tht^ tetri^ick, 

An ill year tf a Goody er us bereft. 
Who gone to God, much lack of him here left : 
Full of good gifits^ of body andofntinde. 
Wife, comely, lekrned^ doquerit, mi kinde. 

Short and fufGcient is this of a moft worthy knight, 
who for his epitaph hath a whole coUedge in Cami3ridge, 
and coJSimandecl ho more to be infcribed than this ; 

Virtute non vi. 
Mors mihi lucrum. 
Hie jacet Gualterus Mildmay Miles, <b uxor ejus. 
Jpfi obiit ultimo die Maiiy 1 589. 

Vol. r. X X Ipfa 

34^ Of the Antiquity df Epitaphs in England. 

Jpfa decimo Sexto Martii^ 1576. 
Reliquerunt duos filios & tres Jilias. 
Fundavit Collegium Emanuelis Cantabrigia^ 
Moritur Canceller ius if fubthefaurarius Scaccarii, if 

Regia Majeftati a eonfiliis. 

Upon a young man of great hope, a ftud^nt in Oxford, 
was made this, 

Shrt was thy life, 

Tet Uveji thou ever ; 
Death hath his due, • 

Xet dleji thou never. 

Hitherto I have pfefented to you amongft others, all the 
epitaphs of the princes of this realme which I have found; 
and juftly b'ame- worthy might I be, if I fliould not do the 
fame honour to the princes of our time. 

Queen Elizabeth, a prince admirable above her fex for 
her princely virtues, happy government, and long conti' 
nuance in the faqje, by which flie yet furviveth, and fo 
ihall, indearcd in the meniory not onely of all that knew 
her, but alfoof fucceeding pofterities, ended this iranfitory 
life at Richmond, the a4th of March 1602, the 45th year 
pf her raign, and feventy of her age. 

Upon the remove of her body to the palace of White- 
hall by water, were written then thcfc paiSonate'dolefuIl 

' The queen 'was brought by water to ff^hitehall, 
Jt every Jtroke the oars tears let fall : 
More clung about the barge, fjb under -water 
}Vept out their eyes ofpsarl, andfivome blinde after^ 
J think the bar^e-men might with eafier thighs^ 
Have rowed her thither in her peoples eyes. 
For how fo ere, thus much my thoughts have fcand^ 
Sh'ad come by water, hadfbe come by land, 

. ^ppther at that time honored b<?r wl^h this : H. Holland. 



Of the Antiquiiy of EpUapbs in England. 347 

Weep greatejl ijfe^ and for thy mijirefs deaths 
Swim in a double fea of brakijb water : 

Weep little world for great Elizabeth^ 
Daughter of Wary for Mars himfelf begat her. 
Mother of peace ^ forfhe brought forth theJater; 
She was and is, what can there more befaid ? 
On earth the chief , in Heaven the fecond maide. 

Another contrived this dlftich of her : 

Spain*s rod, Rome's ruine, Netherlands relief e. 
Earth's joy, England's gem^ World's wonder ^ Nature's 
chief Cu 

Another on queen Elizabeth* 

Kings y queens, mens judgements, eyes. 
See where your mirrour lyesi 
In whom her friends hath feen^ 
A king's ftate, in a queen ; 
In whom her foes furvayd 
A man's heart, in a maids 
Whom, leafi men, for her piety 
Should judge, to have been a Diety, 

Heaven Jince by death didfummon. 

To fhew fbe was a woman, ' 

But upon the ftately monument which king James 
erefted to her memory, thefe infcriptions are affixed. At 
her feet, 


Religione ad primavamfinceritatem rejlaur&ta, pacefun* 
data, Monet a adjujium valorem redu&a, rebellion e 
domejiica vindicata, Gallia malis intejiinis pracipiti 
fublevata, Belgio fuftentato, Hijpanica clajfe profigata, 
Hibernic^ pulfts Hifpanisy i; rebeUibus ad deditionem 
coa6liSy pacata ; Reditibus utriufque Academice lege 
annonaria plurimum adauBis^ tota denique Anglia 
ditata, prudentijfimeque Annos XL v. adminiftrdta 

X X 2 Elizabeths 

34S Of iht AttiiquHyafEfka/^s^imEgiglai^ 

EhZfjobdJki Re^^ vi&riXf trhnnfibatrix^ pUtatis 

JludkofiJJima^ fvlidffima, fda^da- mortt feptuageaaria 

foluta^ mortid^S reUguia^ dmr^ Gbd/hjubmte nfitrgant 

immoridleSy in bap, eficl^fiA cel^keri^im^ atiffa cvufn'' 

vata^ ^, denuafwhiffth depofuit*^ 

At her head this : 


Elizabetha Anglia, Francia, if Hibernia Reginay R. Hen- 
rici Y4i I. Jilke, R. Htnricl ▼«». neptif R, Eihar£ 
liiU proneptii patriit parentii ReBgionls & bcnarvm 
artium altrici : plurimarum linguarum perittay pra^ 
Claris turn animi, turn cstrpfipis.dgtibuf^ R^giifque vir- 
tutibus fupra fexum, 

Principi Incontparalu^ 
Jacobus Magna Britannia* Franciat ^ Hihfma 
Rcxy virtufum, if RegnQnum^bof^t bmc^^rnerval 

Pie pofuif;. 

Her neaieft coufin Mary, queqn oF Scots, dowager of 
France, a princefs alfo imcomparable ^r her priQcely. en- 
dowments, after her fement^bje death, was thus defgcibed j 

Regibus orta, auxi Reges^ S^gitia^e^ZHxi,:. 

Ter nupta, <btribusorbaviriSy tria regno-reliqui. 

Gallus opes^ Scotus curias^ Habet Pix\^2i fipulthrwn. 

But the magnificenc monument which the king erisiftddt 
when he tranflateiher body frojji Peterbpiwigh to Weft- 
miufter, is thus idfcribed, 

D. O; M'. 

Bonflo M^moria^' &- 
Spei sHerflx, 

Maria Stuart a Scoiorum RiginayFtdnci^ Dotaria^ Jts- 
cobi V. Scotorum Regis filic^, i; karcdis unifa, Henrici 
VII. Jng, Regis- ex Margaret a tnajori natujilia fja^ 
cobo I III, Rsgi Scotorum matriinonio copuldta) pr(h 
neptis Fdvj, iv. Jnglia Re^is ex. Elizabetha jiliarvm 

0/ ^ Jhttquity cf E^taphk im England. 

natu maxima abneptis. Firancifci ii. Gallorum Regis 
conjtigis'y Cdrona AngUay dum vixit cert-a <b indubi- 
tata harediSy is Jacobi Magna Britannia Monarchy 
pGtentiJJimi matris. 

Stirpe XJere regia is antiquijjkfia prognata eraty maxi- 
mis totius Eitropa principibus agnatione fcf cognatione 
conjun6lay <b exqvijitijjimis animi if corporis dofibus 
<3 ornamentis aimulatijjtma : verum ut fiint varia re^ 
rum humanarum vices; poflquam arnios plus minus vi^ 
ginti in cvflodia detentafortiierifjirenut (fedfruftra) 
cum malevolorum obtre&atiombus, timidorum fufpicio- 
nikufy if inimiforum capitalium, injidiis. confii^iatOt 
ejfety tandpn inaudita if infefto Regibus exemph fecuri 

Et contempio mundo, devi&a morte^ lajjato carnifice, 
Chrifto fervatori animx^/alutsmy Jacobojilio Jpem Regni 
fcf pqftcritatis if univejffis cadis infaufiafpecfaPoribus 
exemplum patientia commendans pie^ paimiter^ intre^ 
pide cervicem Regiam fecuri makdi^ia fuhjeoit'y &t vita 
caduca fort em cum ccekfiis regni fferennitafe commU' 

VI. Hits FHruariii 

Jnno Chrifli mdi^xxxvii. 
JEtatis xx:;xvi, 

Ob rut a frugifero fenfim fie cefpite furgutit 

Seminay per multos qua iatu^re dies* 
Sanguine fancivit foedus ctmi pieid Jehova^ 

Sanguint: placabanf numina fanifa patres : 
Sanguine confperfi quos praterit ira Penates ; 

Sanguine fignata eft qua mode cedit humus. 
Parce Deus, fatis efty infandos fifte^ dJor^s^ 

Inter funeft OS- pervfJei Ufa di^. 
Sit Reges maHarenefaSy utfunguine-poftbac' 

Purpurea nunquam terra Briiannafluevt* 
Exemplum pereat cafa cum vulnere Chrifla ; 

In^ue^nudtmupT.a£eps.^ author^ itaBot eai^ 



$SO Of the JMii^fnij §f EfiiBpbs im Et^Jgai. 

Si meUore fid ^ofi mortem forte triumfbet, 

Carmficrifileant, tonmna^ dauftra^ cruces^ 
.^uem dederattt curfianfitperi Rtgma ftrept : 

Ttmpora Utta Deus^ tempera dura dedit, 
Edidk exumumfato propcrante Jacobum^ 

^em P alias ^ Mufit^ Delia fata cdunt, 
I^lagna viro, major natu, fed maxima partu 

Conditur bic regumfUia^ Jt^^f^t parens. 
Det Deus ut nati d qui pqfi nafcentur ab Ula, 

£ternoi videant bine fine mibe dies, 

H. N. gemens P. 

For prince Henry, her grandchild, of whofe worth Eng- 
land feemeth unworthy, many excellent epitaphs were conx- 
poled every where extant, but this have 1 felefled ; 

Reader, wonder think it none. 
Though I Jpeak and am aftone^ 
Here is fbrinde ccelejliall du/l^ 
And I keep it but in trufi. 
Should I not my treafure tell. 
Wonder then you might as well. 
How thisjlone could choofe but break, 
J^ I had not learnt to Jpeake. 
Hence amazed and ajle not me^ 
Whofe thefe facred ajbes be. 
Purpofely it is conceatd. 
For if thatfbould be rev eat d. 
All that reade would by and by. 
Melt them/elves to tears ^ and dy. 

JVithin this marble cafket lies 
A matchlefs Jewell of rich prize. 
Whom Nature in the world's difdaine 
Butfbewd, and then put up againe. 

On Queen Anne. 

March with his winde hathfiruck a cedar taU^ 

And weeping Aprilt mourns that cedar's fall. 



Of tbt Antiquity of Epitaphs in England. 35 1 

j4nd May intends no flowers her month fhall brings 

Since fhe muji loofe the flower of all the fpring. 
Thus Marches winde hath caufed Aprillfhowers^ 
And yet fad May muft loofe her flower cf flowers* 

Another on Queen Anne. 

Thee to invite^ the great Godfent ajlar^ 
fVhojjg neareft friend andkinne, good princes are i 
JVhOp tho* they run their racie ofmen^ and dye. 
Death ferves but to refine their majfiftie: 
So did our queen her court from hence remove. 
And left this earthy to b^ enthroned above* 

Then fhe is change d^ not deady no good prince dies. 

But like the fun, doth onely fet to rife* 

On King James. 

He that hath eyes, now wake and weep $ 
He whofe waking was our Jleep, 
Is fallen afleep himfelf and never 
Shall wake tnore^ till wake for ever : 
Death's iron hand hath closed thofe eyes. 
That were at once, three kingdoms f pies. 
Both toforefee, and to prevent 
Dangers, fofoon as they were meant* 
That head whofe working brain alone 
Thought all mens quiet, but his owne, 
Js fallen at refi (oh !) let him have 
The peace he lent us, to his grave, 
Jf no Naboth, all his raigne 
Was for hisfruitfuU vineyard flaine. 
If no Uriah loft his life^ 
Becaufe he had too fayr a wife. 
Then let no Shemie's curfes wound 
His honour^ or prophane this ground : 
Let no black mouthed breathed ranke cur, 
Peacsfui James his afbesjiur. 

Princes are g^ds (O I ) do not then 

Jic^e in their graven to prove them men. 


S 5 ^ ^/^^^ ^ntigtdty of Epitaphs in ^England* 

Anotho- on King James. 

For two and twenty years long care. 
For providing Juch an hehr^ 
Which to 4hej>edce he had htfore^ 
May add twice two and twenty more^ 
For his days travel^ and nights watches, 
For*s crafiejkep ftokn by /notches. 
For two fierce hngdoms wound in one. 
For all he didy andmeent to have done. 

Do this for him^ write t)^re Ms daft, 

James thepeactfuU^ andthefuft. 

On the Kif^ of Swedeo. 

Seek not, revder, here to fmde. 

Entombed, the throne of fuch a minde. 

As did the brave GuRavusjf//, 

Whom neithffr time nor death can hill : 
, Go and read all the G^fefs a5!s^ 

The rage of Scithiaii vataracks. 

What Epire, 'Greece, and Rome hath done. 

What kingdamcs Gothes and Vandals ivm. » 

JReade all the w^lds herthqne ftory , 

And learn but half this heroes glory. 

Thefe conquered livings, but life flying, 

Sevivd the foes, he emquer'd dying. 

And Mars', hath differed at MsfaH 

An hecatomb xf generals .• 

The great com^amr could not tell 

Whence to draw out his parellelle. 

Then do not hope to find him here. 

For whome earth was a narrow fpheer. 
Nor by a fearch m tins fmaH marile ni&mt, 
Tofinde a l&ng fofojr above a tomb^^ 


Upon this place the great Guftavus ^^d^ 
While viSlory lay ^e^pitig by his fide. 

Of the Afttifuiiy of EpitafU in England. 3f$ 

Upon the tomb of the heart of Heorjr the third, lat« 
king of France, flalne hy a Jacobine Frjer 1589. 

IVhether thy choice^ or chancSi thee hither brings ; 
Stay^ paffenger, and waiU thf hap of kings. 
This little Jitmi a great king*s heart doth hold. 
That ruVd the fickle French, and Pglacks bold. 
Whom, ivith a mighty warGck hqfl attended, 
JVith tralterous knife, a cowled monjter ended. 

Sofraylare even the higheft earthly things. 

Co, pajfenger^ and waile the fate of kings. 

Upon the Dukjc of Richmond and Lenox. 

j/re all difea/es dead, or will Death fay 

He might not kill this prince the common way f 

It was eyen thus, and Time with Death corjfpirfid. 

To make his death, as was his life, admired. 

The commons were notfummor^d now, I fee, 

Meerly to make laws, but to mournefor thee. 

No lefs than all the bifbops might fujficf 

To wait uponfo great afacrifice. 

The court the altar was, the wait/trs, peers, 

The mrrhe andfranckincenfe, great Cafafs tears. 

AfuneraU for greater pompe and ft ate. 

Nor finfi nor dioth could ever celebrate, 

Upoa Sir Fraods Vcre. 

fVhen Vere fought death, amCd with bisjwordandfhieli. 
Death was if raid to meet him in the field: 
But when his weapons he had laid afide. 
Death like a coward ftrook Km, and he dy*J. 

Vox,. I. Yy Upon 


Of tie Anttquity of Epit^ht in England, 


Upon Mr. Edmund Speocer the famou$ poet* 

'^ Delf>ho*s Jhrine (me did a doubt propound, 

' Which by the oracle miift be releafed. 
Whether of poets nuere the befl renowned^ 

Thofe that furvive^ or thofe that be deceajed f 
The gqd made anjhver by divine fuggefiion^ 
WHle Spencer iV aUve^ it is no ^e/HQn^ 

t ^ 


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